Hydrochemistry and Environmental Status of River Owan Water, Edo State Nigeria

Abstract

Hydrochemistry of River Owan water and groundwater in its vicinity were examined to decipher their quality status and evaluate the impact of man on the coastal area of the river. Twelve River Owan water and three groundwater samples were subjected to hydrochemical and bacteriological investigations using standard methods. Temperature, pH and electrical conductivity were measured insitu employing pH Testr Meter. The waters were alkaline (average pH of 9.27) signifying a slight trend of alkaline chemical reaction within the system. Electrical resistivity (EC) was virtually less than 1000µS/cm in all water samples indicating fresh water. The dominance of the major ions was as Na+ > Ca2+ >Mg2+ > K+ and HCO3 > Cl > SO42− > NO3. The average values of major ions (mg/L) in the order of dominance were 23.15, 11.56, 9.25, 9.07 and 79.63, 48.92, 29.18, 5.49 respectively. Total hardness of the water revealed that 12 out of 15 water samples were under soft water category ( TH ). All water samples tested positive to bacterial infection (1.60*102 e-coli  8.10*103 Cfu/ml). Anthropogenic activities dominated ionic sources in River Owan while that of the groundwater was mainly geogenic. Much of the natural character of the coastal environment of River Owan has been modified by human activities. Hygiene education of the public must be encouraged in order to ameliorate the unhygienic status of River Owan.

Keywords: Pollution, alkaline, geogenic, major ions, waste dumps


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