The right to the development and to the improvement of the setting of life of each one as well as the duty to protect natural heritage are nowadays two (02) parameters, of a difficult problem to approach (AMHARREF and BERNOUSSI 2007). So, the water that constitutes a primordial factor for the human life and for all economic development is contaminated often by anthropic activities. The situation is more critical for the under-developed countries with limited water resources; it is the case of Benin. The major question that puts itself is then how to manage, to decontaminate and to protect our water resources without breaking down the anthropic activities affecting economic growth? This situation calls for protective and preventative measures that cannot be optional. The nature and the size of the measures to be taken according to the zones require a very advanced knowledge of features of these waters and the sources of their pollution. A prospective survey of three months spread from the month of January in the month of March 2013 and having for objective the assessment and the cartography of the hygienic quality of the waters of wells used like drinking water and also for the domestic activities, by the population of some districts of the township of Abomey-Calavi, has been achieved. To the total, twenty (20) withdrawals of water have been done from some twenty (20) wells presenting risks for the health of their users. The bacteriological analysis showed that all waters of well reveal a pollution due to the bacteria as the coliforms thermotolerants, the intestinal enterococcus, the total coliforms with the most elevated concentrations in the wells situated very close to the Lake Nokoué. It reveals that these waters can be responsible for the dissemination of water related diseases. The report between the coliforms’ thermolerants and the intestinal enterococcus indicated that the origin of the fecal contamination is of human type in 50% of the wells. The fecal contamination of human type concerns all wells close to the lake and the one of animal type concerns wells moved away of this lake.
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