Recent research into task-based language teaching and learning claims that manipulation of task characteristics and processing conditions can focus a learner’s attention on the competing goals of accuracy, complexity, and fluency. The objective of this study is to understand whether reciprocal and non-reciprocal listening tasks have different effects on Iranian EFL learners’ speaking ability in terms of fluency. For this purpose, forty students of intermediate level were chosen and then randomly were assigned into two groups of experimental and control groups. Data analysis showed that performing reciprocal listening tasks had different effects on students’ fluency, compared to those that didn’t receive these types of activities. Based on the results of this study, it is imperative that teachers consider the types of listening activities that can have influence over language learners’ speaking ability.
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