In Kenya, basic education is provided through public and private institutions. . This paper focused on class 4 pupils admitted in class 1 the year 2003 when Free Primary Education (F.P.E.) programme was implemented. The purpose of this study was to compare the academic performance of these pupils in Private and Public Primary Schools. The research made use of ex post facto research design. Simple random sampling was used to select eight public and eight private primary schools in Kitale Municipality. A test was given to class four pupils of the year 2006 in both private and public primary schools and used to assess academic performance. The study used descriptive statistics to compute data for academic performance. The tests of significance showed disparity in academic performance of both boys and girls in private school from those of the public. There is need for education and policy assurance officers to step up inspection to enhance effectiveness among public primary school teachers.
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