Diabetes is an increasing global health problem and this puts high demands on the health care system. Medication non-adherence results in increased morbidity, mortality and financial loss among patients and non-adherence is multifactorial. This study therefore was aimed at determining factors associated with non-adherence to drugs and dietary regimen among Type II Diabetes Mellitus patients attending University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. This study utilized a quantitative design using descriptive survey method to collect data from 330 Type II diabetes out-patients in UCH, Ibadan on factors associated with non-adherence to drug and dietary regimen. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and standard deviation) for research questions and inferential statistics, Chi-square and ANOVA for testing hypotheses at 5% level of significance. Findings revealed that non-adherence to medication mean was 3.4±1.1 and 27.7% of respondents had poor adherence to medication. Mean attitude to medication non-adherence was 12.0±2.2 and 62.0% respondents had negative attitude to medication adherence. Clinical factors like: not being able to access clinic regularly for consultation and not getting medication information had influence on anti-diabetic medication non-adherence (1.37±0.49; F=42.036; P=0.000) and 1.54±0.50; F=29.431; P=0.000) respectively. Individual factors like: not being comfortable with physician diagnoses (1.33±0.47; F=22.190; P=0.000); found it difficult in taking their drugs when they are many (1.46±0.50; F=42.992; P= 0.000); receiving detailed written instruction regarding exercise programs from healthcare provider (1.43±0.50; F=23.485; P=0.000) were all influencing factors to anti- diabetics medication adherence. Lack of patients-physician relationship and inconsistent information about the medicines prescription influences non-adherence to anti-diabetic medication greatly in this study. Improving on these areas by health policy makers to enhance adherence to anti-diabetic medication are therefore suggested.
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