Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection is a common cause of infection among the newborn in developing countries. Neonatal mortality is high in Nigeria due to preventable causes which include vertical transmission of Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection. The objective was to determine GBS anogenital infection among pregnant women in rural and urban settings in Cross River State and to compare GBS infection among pregnant HIV positive and negative women. The study was conducted at the antenatal care clinics of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar as the urban study site and Akamkpa General Hospital (AGH), Akamkpa as the rural site. Study populations were HIV negative and positive pregnant women that were in their third trimester between 35 to 37 weeks of pregnancy in both rural and urban areas. A total of 84 pregnant women were recruitment in each study sites and data were collected on socio-demographic and obstetric history, as well as laboratory samples for assessment of GBS colonization. Each subject recruited in the rural study site was matched with pregnant woman in the urban study site on socio-demographic characteristic which includes age, marital status, and parity. The Prevalence of GBS infection was 13.1% among the rural subjects compared to 8.3% in urban subject and the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.32). Among urban subjects, the prevalence of GBS infection among HIV positive subjects compared to HIV negative subjects were 9.5% and 7.1% respectively and the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.69). Among rural subjects, the prevalence of GBS infection among HIV positive subjects compared to HIV negative subjects (21.4 vs. 4.8%) was statistically significant (p=0.02). Anogenital colonization with GBS is slightly high among pregnant women in rural than urban area, although, it was not statistically significant. Preventive approach is a worthy measure through screening especially among high risk pregnancies in rural areas and follow-up treatment to prevent feto-maternal adverse effects.
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