Imatinib (Gleevec) a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets the so-called Philadelphia to chromosome characteristic of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), was the first yield complete and lasting responses and is now widely used as first-line treatment as the researchers noted. The drug have been widely used in the treatment of several hematological malignancies. It is the frontline therapy of the majority of CML patients. Many patients are treated for long periods, and there is concern about the long-term immune effects of its use. Autoimmune disorders in patients treated with Gleevec drug may be related to the direct immunomodulating properties or may be linked to a possible toxic effect in target organs, triggering autoimmunity. On the other hand, the immune effects of Gleevec may play a role in its therapeutic actions. In this report we describe the development of symptomatic autoimmune thyroid diseases (thyroid peroxidase) in (9.6%) out of 51 patients with age range (16-70) years male and female and with a cure period (8 months to 10 years) in chronic treatment with recombinant a Gleevec drug (400mg) in patients with CML by using Enzyme Linked Immune Assay (ELISA). The patients samples were collected from Iraqi National Center for Research and Treatment of Hematological Diseases/University of Al-Mustansiryiah which were diagnosed for chronic myelogenous leukemia according to physical examination, Real-time PCR technique for detection quantification of mRNA chimerical gene bcr/abl (M-bcr) and mRNA gene/ abl in the clinical material. Epidemiological data such as age, sex and cure period were recorded for all of the patients. The aim of the study was to test the possible association between the generation of autoimmune phenomena on thyroid peroxidase and the effect of gleevec drug.
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