This study examines the Impact of Human Capital Accounting(HCA) on financial performance and market valuation using four publicly quoted companies(banks) in Nigeria. It presents a comparative analysis between the current accounting practice of corporate valuation(net worth) and what it should be if investments on human capital are treated as assets, capitalised and amortized over the useful life span of the assets. Data for this study were sourced through questionnaire which were administered to a randomly selected respondents of accountants of management cadre. Secondary data were sourced from the annual financial statements of five selected firms, relevant textbooks and the internet. Data were analysed using percentages and Chi-Square statistical test. The study reveals among others that there is a significant increase in firms’ networth when investments on human capital are treated as assets and capitalized as against the current practice where such expenditures are treated as mere revenue expenses thereby leading to gross undervaluation of firms’ Statement of Financial Position(Balance Sheet) and the Income Statement (Profit and Loss Account). The study recommends that investment in human capital should be treated as asset and so amortised over the expected period of service while the current practice of writing-off the annual investment on human capital from the the year’s income statement should be discouraged as the practice grossly undervalues firms. Relevant regulatory bodies such as Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria, SEC, CBN, NDIC and so on are implored to make laws that will compel quoted firms to compulsorily integrate HCA in their financial reports.
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