Impact of Seasonal Variations and Oil Activities on the Total Concentrations, Geochemical Fractions, And Human Health Problems of Trace Metals in Soils Within the Oil-Bearing Communities of South-South Region of Nigeria

Abstract

The impacts of oil activities and seasonal variations on the total concentrations, geochemical fractions, and human health problems of trace metals in soils within oil-bearing communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were examined. Top soils were obtained from Eket, Onna, Esit Eket, and Ibeno local government areas between January and December, 2017. Samples were also collected from Etinan local government area of the State and used as the Control. The samples and Control were subjected to standard analytical procedures and analysed for their physicochemical properties and total metal concentrations. The modified BCR methods were employed for the speciation of metals. The findings revealed that the pH levels were higher during the dry season while, the electrical conductivity, organic matter, and cation exchange capacity of the studied soils were higher in the rainy season. The total mean concentrations of Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, and V were higher in the dry season whereas, Ni was higher in the wet season. Though, their concentrations were within the acceptable limits. Generally, the concentrations of all the parameters in the studied soils were higher than at the control site. Pb, As, Ni, and V existed predominantly in the reducible fraction, Cd and Cr in acid extractable while, Fe existed mostly in the residual fraction in the studied soils. However, at the control site all the metals except Cd existed mainly in the residual fraction. The study showed that all the studied locations were highly contaminated with these metals and substantial seasonal variations were also recorded for the pollution indices. It was also noted that, seasonal changes and oil activities were the key factors affecting the quality of the studied soils. Daily intake rates for the metals through exposure to soil for both the young and old populations were within their required oral reference doses. The non-carcinogenic risks recorded for both populations were less than one. However, both populations were exposed to high Pb and the younger ones were more susceptible. The study revealed the influence of seasonal change and oil activities on the mobility and toxicity of metals in the studied soils.

Citation: Ebong G.A., Moses E. A., Akpabio O. A., and Inam I (2022) Impact of Seasonal Variations and Oil Activities on the Total Concentrations, Geochemical Fractions, And Human Health Problems of Trace Metals in Soils Within the Oil-Bearing Communities of South-South Region of Nigeria, British Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol.10, No.6, pp.,29-65

Keywords: Multivariate Analysis, Nigeria, Trace Metals, human health risks, metal speciation, oil-bearing communities, soil pollution

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37745/bjes.2013/vol10n62965

Article Review Status: Published

Pages: 29-65 (Download PDF)

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