Tag Archives: Women

The Impact of Gender Discrimination on National Development (Published)

The paper argues that gender discrimination is as old as creation. Over the years women were made to belief that their rightful place was in the home front as housewives producers and minders of children. The paper focuses on cultural, societal and religious practices, in our traditional society that prevent women from contributing their quota to both the community and the nation at large. In this modern world where women have assumed prominent roles in the economic, political, and social developments in different societies, there is a clarion call for both the government and other men of the country to be supportive of their female counterparts as this will enable them to exhibit their potentials for the benefit of the development of our nation. The paper concludes that there should be mass literacy campaign towards women education. Education shapes the life of women by equipping them with knowledge, skills, right attitudes and values to participate effectively and also contribute meaningfully to national development.

Keywords: Culture, Development, Education, Women, Yoruba

Career counselling needs for women in rivers state (Published)

The study examined career counselling needs for women in Rivers State, Nigeria. The survey method was used. A simple random sampling technique was used to select three hundred (300) female undergraduate students from a population of nine hundred. The instrument used for this study was the “Students Self Rating Career Counselling Needs Scale’ SSRCCNS) for data collection. The t-test statistics was used to test the two null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that the two null hypotheses were accepted: There is no significant difference in career counselling needs between part-time female undergraduate students who are having academic problems, and those having clear standing. Also, it was revealed that there was no significant difference in career counselling needs between female part-time undergraduate students who are employed and those unemployed. Based on the findings some recommendations were made: (1) Universities in Rivers State should open service career counselling centre to assist students with their career counselling needs. (2) Career counsellors should pay attention to dual career women. (3) Career counsellors should assist students to express their fears about gender role stereotyping in the given culture.

Keywords: Career, Counselling, Nigeria, Women

Participation of Women in Cooperative Activities in Imo State, Nigeria: The Information Factor (Published)

Women in Imo State, especially the ruralites are generally believed to be unaware of the various opportunities open to them in cooperative activities. To reveal how the women, get involved in cooperative activities, in spite of their notion of alleged information poverty, underscores the imperative of this study. Survey research design was adopted to investigate a sample of 1, 184 women, proportionately derived from the 27 LGAs that make up Imo State. A combination of structured and validated questionnaire and interview schedule were used to collect data from purposively selected women from the sample. Five types of cooperative information were provided to the women namely: cooperative education, sourcing of funds, membership/registration modalities, sale and purchase conditions, financial contribution procedure. They participated in various cooperative activities including marketing of goods and services. Talk shows and group discussions were the must effective ways to disseminate cooperative information to the women. Both government and NGOS should be more involved in providing the women with timely and relevant cooperative information, using the right media and language. The paper concludes that cooperative activity is a sure way to improving the economic and social wellbeing of rural women and therefore should be vigorously encouraged.

Keywords: Cooperative Activities, Cooperative Education Imo State, Financial Contribution, Information Factor, Sourcing of Funds, Women

Economics of Domestic Violence against Women: The Nigerian Evidence (Published)

Domestic violence essentially denies women’s equality before the law and reinforces their subordinate social status. The fight against domestic violence against women has existed for centuries yet persists all over the world. This study therefore investigates domestic violence against women as a form of poverty and uses the principal component analysis and the Foster Greer and Theorberke (FGT) decomposition methods to analyse this. The study further uses bar charts to show the perception of Nigerians towards domestic violence and relates it to different poverty levels. The findings suggest that the Southern regions are more involved in domestic violence than the Northern region of Nigeria. Also when examined across poverty levels, the results shows that the poorer an individual is in Nigeria, the more likely he is to think that it is justified if he beats the wife for one reason or another. The study therefore recommends more sensitization campaigns to target the poor

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Nigeria, Poverty, Women

Nigerian Culture: a Barrier to the Career Progress of Women in Nigeria (Published)

This article explores the effect of culture on women’s career progression in Nigeria and how Nigerian organisations can incorporate some of the issues raised here in addressing their need for talent. It leaves one with the question- How does the Nigerian culture influence women in the society which in turn becomes a barrier that limits women in the workplace? It is necessary to say that though there is awareness of this inequality of women who work in Nigeria, understanding the Nigerian culture can place its human resource management practices in context. It is expected that the viewpoints raised in this article will help highlight some of the Human resource management issues in Africa’s most populous country. Taking these issues in context can play a role in increasing the productivity of women in Nigeria. This is paper is aimed at exploring culture which is a barrier to the career progress of women in Nigeria.

Keywords: Culture, Gender diversity, Nigeria, Women

Women Participation in Higher Secondary Education in Bangladesh (Published)

Formal education is a fulcrum of sustainable development. Education allows individuals to develop within their community and country, and allows nations to compete and survive in the global economy. Education plays a critical role in fostering basic intellectual abilities, expanding further educational opportunities that are vital to success in a world where power is closely linked with knowledge. Education is the nourishment of the mind with knowledge and as such it helps in the formation of an integrated personality of an individual. Education has a special significance in the context of a quasi-traditional or transitional society like Bangladesh. In this paper I shall try to delineate the picture of women participation in higher secondary education in Bangladesh. I shall also mention the necessity and factors responsible for women participation in higher education. From the analysis it is observed that there is a skyward trend for the female passed students that lead to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Keywords: Higher Education, Higher Secondary Education, Knowledge, Millennium Development Goals (MDGS), Women, Women Education

Women as a Symbol of Israel in Nathan Shaham’s “Hand of Fate” (“Yad ha-Goral”) (Published)

Nathan Shaham (נתן שחם) – a biographical sketch[1].Shaham is an Israeli writer who was born in Tel-Aviv in 1925. He was a member of the youth movements Mahanot Ha-Olim and Ha-Shomer Ha-Tsa’ir and in 1945 joined the kibbutz of Beit Alpha.In the years 1942-1945 he served with the Palmach and rejoined it in 1947. Subsequently he worked in the Israel Broadcasting Service and wrote for the press. Shaham comes from a family with literary connections. Both his father and his brother were writers, although neither attained his fame. Initially he tried his hand at writing poetry, but his most prominent and important works are in prose, among them the story collections Grain and Lead (Dagan Ve-Oferet), The Gods Are Lazy (Ha-Elim Atzelim) and Veterans’ Housing (Shikun Vatikim), the latter containing the story “Hand of Fate” that is the subject of the present study. In addition, Shaham wrote novels and plays, for example the novel Always Us (Tamid Anahnu) and the plays A Field beyond the Border (Sade Me-Ever La-Gvul) and They’ll Arrive Tomorrow (Hem Yagi’u Mahar), originally written as a story entitled “Seven of Them” F(Shiv’a Mehem”) and later turned into a play.

[1] For more information on the writer see The Hebrew Encyclopedia, Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem, 1965, vol. 13,  p. 701.

Keywords: Hand of Fate, Israel, Nathan Shaman, Women, Yad ha-Goral, symbol

Women as a Symbol of Israel in Nathan Shaham’s “Hand of Fate” (“Yad ha-Goral”) (Published)

Nathan Shaham (נתן שחם) – a biographical sketch[1].Shaham is an Israeli writer who was born in Tel-Aviv in 1925. He was a member of the youth movements Mahanot Ha-Olim and Ha-Shomer Ha-Tsa’ir and in 1945 joined the kibbutz of Beit Alpha.In the years 1942-1945 he served with the Palmach and rejoined it in 1947. Subsequently he worked in the Israel Broadcasting Service and wrote for the press. Shaham comes from a family with literary connections. Both his father and his brother were writers, although neither attained his fame. Initially he tried his hand at writing poetry, but his most prominent and important works are in prose, among them the story collections Grain and Lead (Dagan Ve-Oferet), The Gods Are Lazy (Ha-Elim Atzelim) and Veterans’ Housing (Shikun Vatikim), the latter containing the story “Hand of Fate” that is the subject of the present study. In addition, Shaham wrote novels and plays, for example the novel Always Us (Tamid Anahnu) and the plays A Field beyond the Border (Sade Me-Ever La-Gvul) and They’ll Arrive Tomorrow (Hem Yagi’u Mahar), originally written as a story entitled “Seven of Them” F(Shiv’a Mehem”) and later turned into a play.

[1] For more information on the writer see The Hebrew Encyclopedia, Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem, 1965, vol. 13,  p. 701.

Keywords: Hand of Fate, Israel, Nathan Shaman, Women, Yad ha-Goral, symbol

Socio-Economic and Political Context of Domestic Violence in Ghana (Published)

This study examined the prevalence of domestic violence in the socio-economic and political context in Ghana. The study conveniently sampled 200 women within Kumasi metropolis as participants. Data for the study came from both primary and secondary sources. Structured questionnaires were face-to-face administered to the respondents. The data were analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows. The study revealed that the prevalence of Cultural factors had been agreed by respondents as scourge of domestic violence. Acceptability of violence as means to resolve conflict (M=4.7), bride price and dowry (M=4.2), Cultural definitions of appropriate sex roles (M=4.25), Belief in the inherent superiority of males (M=4.3). Prevalence of economic factors were agreed by respondents as follows: Women’s economic dependence on men (M=5.0) limited access to employment in formal and informal sectors (4.26) discriminatory laws regarding inheritance, property rights, use of communal lands (4.2). Prevalence of Political factors were agreed by respondents as follows: Under-representation of women in power, politics, media and in the legal and medical profession (M=4.17), Risk of challenge to status-quo/religious laws (M=4.35). Legal factors included: laws regarding divorce, child custody, maintenance and inheritance (M=4.31) insensitive treatment of women and girls by police and judiciary (M=4.91). More than halve of the respondents indicated that they have even been assaulted by men. The study revealed a significant association between ever been assaulted and employment status (X2=76.9, p-value<0.05, df =6). Again there is a significant relationship between ever been assaulted and education attainment (X2=35.25, p-value<0.05, df =8). There are relationship between females ever been assaulted and age X2=21.13, p-value<0.05, df =8). Policy intervention and reinforcement of the existing legislation is imperative in the civility of these findings.

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Ghana, Political, Prevalence, Socio-Economic, Women

Appraisal of Cultural Vices Affecting Women and Children Human Rights in Nigeria (Published)

The crux of this paper aimed at defining the concept culture and Human Rights, and to large extend analysis the various cultural factors under mining the smooth thriving of women and children rights currently, the cultural factors are, widowhood rites, female genital mutilation, early/forceful marriage, bride price, son preference/female infanticide, levirate marriage, ritual killing, wife beating, inheritance of wife, woman in purdah, on the part of the children are twins killing, child  witchcraft ,child labour, street begging, child trafficking and finally possible solutions to ameliorate such cultural barriers by way of recommendation and conclusion

Keywords: Child Labour, Culture, Human Right, Nigeria, Women, children

Beyond The Kitchen: Towards a Biographical Encyclopedia of Excellent Women of The Ijaw Ethnic Nationality (Published)

This paper is predicated on the need to regenerate the debate on how much and how well or otherwise, women have been celebrated in Nigeria in general and in the Ijaw Ethnic Nation in particular. In the prefatory statement of the book “Women in Nigerian History: The Rivers and Bayelsa Experience,” Ejituwu and Gabriel (2003), posited that the book is a theme in feminism and derives from the fact that, although women contribute immensely to the development of the Nigerian society, their contributions are hardly ever reflected in historical literature

Keywords: Biographical Encyclopedia, Ijaw Ethnic Nationality, Women

The Sins and the Punishments: Towards the Incidence of Domestic Violence and Its Extenuating Circumstances in Ghana (Published)

This paper was carried out to examine the prevalence of domestic violence and possible extenuating circumstance in the Kintampo South District of Ghana. The target population of the study was predominately women. 200 of these women were selected purposively to participate in the study. Structured questionnaires were used to gather primary data. Secondary data were obtained from academic research data bases including EBSCO, Google Scholar and Cross-Ref. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the field data. Respondent’s participations were purely voluntary. The study revealed forms of domestic violence as follows: Rape, Torture, Molestation, Battering, Forced Labor, and feticide. Extenuating Circumstances were discovered as follows: Medical response, Counseling Law enforcement, Public education, Media blitz, Role of Gender Activists and psychologist. Also it was found that there is a significant (X2 = 98.19, df = 8, p-value < 0.05) association between women educational level and rape experience. Moreover, the study revealed a significant association between women age and rape experience. Again, there is a significant (df = 16, X2 = 248.14, p-value<0.05) association between women educational level and force marriage experience. There is a significant association between women age and forced marriage experience. It is concluded that nobody should ever think that the blight of domestic violence is over neither in Ghana nor many other developing countries. The domestic violence scourger still lives. The proposed extenuating measures should be taken serious by policy maker to avert the situation. Development psychologists are also needed to aid behavioural studies.

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Extenuating Circumstances, Ghana, Incidence, Women

Students’ Academic Achievements in English Language: Does Gender Matter? (Published)

The work used the ex-post-facto design to deepen our understanding of the relationship between gender and students’ academic achievements in English Language. The sample comprised 220 Junior Secondary Three (JSS III) students (110 male and 110 female) drawn from three randomly selected Secondary Schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Two instruments were used: Students gender and their end-of-semester examination results in English Language. These items were obtained from English Language Class teachers. The data were correlated and analyzed using independent t-test to derive the research measure. The result showed a no significant relationship between gender and students’ achievements in English Language. The paper therefore recommended that teachers go to the classes with unbiased notions of gender among learners in their various disciplines.

Keywords: Examination Scores, Marginalization Primary Socialization, Stereotype, Women

The Influence of Counselling, Training and Consultancy on Venture Start-Ups by Women and Youth in Baringo County, Kenya (Published)

Enterprise development interventions are critical to the development of an entrepreneurship society. The support interventions are critical to new venture starts-ups among the vulnerable members of society. This paper examines the influence of counselling, training and consultancy enterprise development interventions facilitate new venture start-ups among women and youth. The paper is based on a study of new venture start-ups among women and youth in Baringo County. The study adopted a survey design. The target population of the study was 1049 respondents from which a sample of 281 was randomly selected. Questionnaire and data sheet were used as the data collection instruments. The collected data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study showed that most of the entrepreneurs in Baringo County are influenced by group members to engage in new business ventures. Other motivators include personal imitative, family members and access to entrepreneurship training. Unfortunately, most of the youth and women entrepreneurs have never received any business management training in basic accounting, book keeping and entrepreneurship skills. This can be attributed to the fact that, as attested to by most of the respondents, most of the training available is not for free or subsidized. Therefore, most of these budding entrepreneurs may not afford to take part in training. Nevertheless, the entrepreneurs admitted that there they needed training to enhance their capacity to successfully run their enterprises. The regression model indicated that there is a significant relationship between consultancy, training and counselling and new venture start-ups (p=0.022). The study concluded that support is generally available and relatively easy for farmer-owned commodity processing businesses to obtain. The study recommended that the county government of Baringo should support entrepreneurs by creating a favourable business environment for their operations.

Keywords: Baringo County, Consultancy, Counselling, Training, Venture Start-ups, Women, Youth

Brand Equity for Tablet Chocolate and Convenience Product Purchases by Women (Published)

This research aims to demonstrate direct influences of marketing mix variations on the customer-based brand equity process for tablet chocolate and convenience products. The proposed model examines product quality, price perception, reaction to stock-outs, the perceived effect of advertising as antecedents of the customer-based brand equity process, along with the moderation of brand consciousness. Methodology includes simple random sampling and the partial least squares. Sample involves 172 female tablet chocolate consumers out of Generation X and Millennials in Istanbul, Turkey. Results indicate that product quality generates brand knowledge and loyalty, but price perception generates only loyalty. Besides, brand consciousness moderates the effect of product quality on brand knowledge. Implications include the effects of neglecting brand experience, the link between operations and marketing, and transition of marketing mix. The final model is proposed as a minimum requirement to substitute tablet chocolate branding due to concerns about public health and sugar consumption.

Keywords: Brand Equity, Brand Experience, Chocolate, Convenience Products, Marketing Mix, Women

Women’s Perception of Males’ Involvement in Maternal Healthcare in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

Men play a significant role in the reproductive life of women, from the pre-pregnancy stages of family planning to pregnancy, birth and post-natal periods. This study was a survey of the perceptions of women on males’ involvement in maternal healthcare in Rivers State. This involved some selected health centres in Rivers State, using a pre-tested and validated questionnaire. Aspects of men’s involvement that were taken into consideration included decision-making, economic and geographic accessibility as well as utilization of maternal health-care services. Responses from a total of 300 pregnant and post–natal mothers who were purposively selected from randomly drawn health centres in the three Senatorial Districts in Rivers State were analyzed. The results showed no significant difference in the perceptions of women with primary or post-primary education, unemployed or employed women as well as those residing in rural or urban areas. In addition, there was a unanimous agreement that joint decision-making was better than a decision solely taken by the man or woman alone. They all agreed that financial empowerment and autonomy were crucial for enabling women to access and utilize maternal healthcare facilities. It was concluded that despite the pivotal role of men in family affairs, their involvement in maternal health process was abysmal and this could be due to some extraneous factors. The study therefore recommended that women empowerment, in terms of education and finances would go a long way towards improving maternal health which, over the years, has been on the decline, despite men’s good intentions.

Keywords: Education, Gender, Healthcare, Men, Nigeria, Women

HIV/Aids Knowledge and Accessibility to HIV Information among Women in Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was to determine HIV/AIDS knowledge and accessibility to HIV information among women in Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. A total of 402 women were recruited using multi-stage random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was designed to generate data from the respondents. Data collected were entered and analysed using SPSS (version 20.0) and results were presented in tables and charts. Chi-square was used to test for association between variables at 5% level of significance. Findings from this study revealed most study participants (25.6%) were within the age bracket of 35-39 years, (91.8%) Christians, (71.9%) married and (43.3%) had undergone secondary education. Most respondents were civil servants (32.6%), traders/business women (15.7%), farmers (9.7%) and 20.3% were low income earners. Respondents exhibited high knowledge level of HIV/AIDS as the media (39.1%), health workers (18.7%) and HIV/AIDS campaigns (15.0%) were their major sources of information. About 54.5% respondents reported that they currently have access to HIV/AIDS information and other reproductive health services with primary health centers (21.4%) and hospitals as their top source of information centers. Intensifying HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns and improving access to reproductive health services are core strategies in averting HIV morbidity and mortality among women domiciling in semi-urban and remote settings.

Keywords: Accessibility, HIV/AIDS, Knowledge, Obudu LGA, Women

Productivity of Enterprises Owned By Women Loan- Beneficiaries and Non-Loan Beneficiaries in Imo State, Nigeria (Published)

This study was conducted to investigate the comparative analysis of the productivity of enterprises owned by women loan-beneficiaries and non-loan beneficiaries in Imo State, Nigeria. A representative sample was selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were collected through the use of two sets of structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics and total factor productivity. A total of 151 (comprising of 80 loan beneficiaries and 71 non-beneficiaries) respondents were selected for the study. The results showed that the enterprise with the highest total factor productivity is the most productive and that access to credit enables loan beneficiaries in the procurement and purchase of inputs, tools and equipment needed to improve their businesses. Increment in funds invested in the business enterprises of these women entrepreneurs alongside reduced cost of expenses could boost the possible expansion of their enterprises

Keywords: Comparative Analysis, Imo State, Women, total factor productivity

Analysis of Poverty Status of Women Microfinance Loan Beneficiaries and Non- Loan Beneficiaries in Owerri, Imo State. (Published)

This study investigated the poverty status of women microfinance loan beneficiaries and non-loan beneficiaries in Owerri, Imo State. A representative sample was selected through a random sampling technique. The sample size was 151 (80 loan beneficiaries and 71 non- loan beneficiaries). Data for this study were collected with the aid of two sets of structured and pre-tested questionnaire administered to the loan beneficiaries and non-loan beneficiaries of the formal credit institutions in the State respectively. The results indicated that incidence of poverty was 22.68 for loan beneficiaries and 28.78 for non-loan beneficiaries; poverty gap was 6.31 for loan beneficiaries and 8.52 non-loan beneficiaries. The result of the t-test showed that poverty status of loan beneficiaries differed significantly from poverty status of non-loan beneficiaries as a result of the positive effect of microfinance lending policies. Microfinance banks should increase the funds disbursed to women as it will go a long way in poverty reduction.

Keywords: Microfinance, Poverty Status, Women

The Extent to Which the Lives of Women in Conflict Prone Areas Have Been Affected: A Case of West and North Pokot Sub Counties, Kenya (Published)

War affects women and men differently. Whenever there is a conflict, women and children are the most that are hard hit. This paper focuses on the extent to which women in West and North Pokot have been affected by conflicts. The study was carried out in Kanyarkwat location, Katikatmor sub-location and Kopulio location, Nakuyen sub location of West and North Pokot respectively. A survey research design was used, where questionnaires and interviews were the major data collection tools. Observation was used, to provide information and observe actual behavior of the respondents. The findings reveal that women are largely affected by conflicts reporting displacement, sicknesses due to lack of hygiene, losses of family members and property, poverty, lack of schools and lack of medical facilities as being prevalent. Women end up living in a state of hopelessness and helplessness because of conflict related issues. Peace building capacities should be advocated for, with women being fully involved. The government and other stake holders should look for ways of alleviating the illiteracy rate in such areas and create awareness on the importance of peace building campaigns

Keywords: Affected, Conflict, Effects, North Pokot., West Pokot, Women

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