Training and Development Strategies: Approaches for Performance Enhancement in Goal Oriented Firms. (A Survey of Commercial Banking Firms in Nigeria) (Published)
This research paper is a critical analysis of Training and Development Strategies; as approaches for performance enhancement in goal oriented firms with emphasis on Twenty-one commercial banking firms in Nigeria. This study adopted simple empirical survey method or quasi-experimental method which places premium on survey of sample. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were utilized in a bid to attain the necessary result. Five point Likert rating scale questionnaire were used in obtaining the opinions and views from respondents (i.e. Strongly Agree, SA (5), Agree, A (4), Undecided, U (3), Disagree, D (2), And Strongly Disagree, SD (1)). For secondary sources of data textbooks, journals, and annual reports of 21 commercial banking firms’ and stock exchange fact book, were used. The sample size for the study is 398 derived from the employee population of 21 commercial banking firms totaled of 64, 846 as at January, 2017. This was determined using Taro-Yamane’s formulae. Bartlett’s test of Sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer Oikin measure of sampling adequacy, construct validity test determination and Cronbach Alpha for reliability test determination was applied in this study. Bowley’s Allocation formula was applied in determining the individual commercial banking firms sample size. Multiple Regression test was used in processing the three (3) formulated hypotheses. The study findings revealed that Training and Development Strategies adopted by commercial banking firms in Nigeria for employees have positive relationship on productivity of the banking firms. Again, Training and Development have enhanced employee’s skills acquisition and knowledge base of employees. The last finding showed that training and development programme/strategies have impacted on organization employees by modifying their behaviors and their work attitudes to conform to set standard and norms of the commercial banks for service delivery and sound operations. The study recommendations are that, executive management of the commercial banking firms in Nigeria should also ensure that operational analysis, organizational analysis, individual analysis is periodically carried out to determine training and development needs in areas of skills inadequacy, knowledge gap, attitude and behavioral aspects to warrant proper Training and Development hence customers of the banks needed to be treated with absolute care in order to attract higher market share and profits by banks. Again, the study recommended emphasis on e-product s training for commercial banking firms in Nigeria to enhance sustainability and competitive advantage hence this will enhance growth in a positive direction especially in this era of globalization.
Individual Attributes Mechanics in the Effect of Life Skills Training on Behaviour Modification of Juvenile Delinquents in Eldoret and Kakamega Rehabs (Published)
There is a growing concern with the growth and prevalence of Juvenile delinquents (JD) in rehabilitation centres in Kenya. Juvenile delinquency has become an intricate social problem that significantly influences all members and processes of a social structure. In January 2016, Eldoret Juvenile Remand Home alone had 155 juveniles which is its full capacity. It is against this background that this study examined psychotherapeutic interventions in behaviour modification of JD and recommended measures that would increase the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions in rehabilitation centers of JDs in Kenya. The purpose of the study was establish effect of life skills training and behaviour modification of juvenile delinquents in Eldoret and Kakamega rehabs. The area of study was Eldoret and Kakamega rehabs. The study adopted Glaser Psychological Reality Theory on Maladaptive Behaviour and Merton Functional Theory of Juvenile Delinquency as the theoretical framework. Further a conceptual framework was also used in the study. The study used descriptive and explanatory research survey designs. The target population was comprised of delinquents in Kakamega and Eldoret Rehabs, administrators, trainers and counselors in the rehabs and probation officers. A sample size of 149 respondents comprising of 127 JD, 13 trainers, 5 probation officers, 2 counselors and 2 administrators of the Eldoret and Kakamega rehabs participated in the study. Saturated sampling catered for the delinquents, probation officers, rehab administrators and trainers. Research instruments that were used in this study included questionnaires, interview schedule and document analysis. A Pilot study was carried out to ascertain validity and reliability of the instruments and a reliability coefficient of 0.7 was deemed acceptable. Descriptive statistical tools and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Study findings showed that life skills training had a positive and significant effect on behaviour modification. This implies that life skills training is an important tool in bringing discipline among juvenile delinquents and for overall rehabilitation programmes which can enhance behaviour modification. There is therefore need for psychotherapeutic intervention at both individual and group level for delinquents so that they can change their behaviour. There is thus need for life skill training so as to reduce violence, aggression, and destructive behaviour in adolescents. Thus there is need for psychotherapeutic interventions for behaviour modification of delinquents in Kenyan rehabilitation centers.
Relevance of Experiential Learning in the Training of Extension Agents in Nigeria: A Proposal (Published)
Extension agents have been described as essential backbones for extension services. The efficiency of the activities of extension agents as multi-purpose staff is determined by the quality of the training received. In other words, for extension agents to excel in service delivery opportunities must be given for training and retraining in the current trends and issues experientially in extension work. It is against this background that this paper proposes the kind and the nature of training for Nigerian extension workers. To this end, the paper examines the nature of extension work, role and qualities of extension agents, overview of extension agents training in Nigeria with a view to determining the kind of training that will facilitate their work as multi-purpose change agents. The paper concludes that curriculum of Adult and Non-formal Education in Nigerian higher institution of learning should reflect current trends in extension services and be made relevant to the real life situation to enable extension agents discharge their responsibilities as multi-purpose workers. Also opportunities for retraining through seminars, conferences, workshops, etc should be made available to practising extension workers.
In the rural areas of Pakistan, farmers mostly use their family labor including women for production of crop. Rural women are very active in diverse agricultural activities (i.e. pre-harvest, post-harvest). Women from poor households engage in a variety of income-generating and expenditure-saving activities. They are twice as likely as men to be involved in agriculture related activities. Pakistani rural women lagging behind as compared to other developed country women due to many reasons like lack of training programme about new techniques of crop production, lack of resources, little support by agricultural extension services etc. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess the training needs of the rural women in crop production Karor Lal Eson, District Layyah, which will be helpful for extension organizations to develop their future strategies for rural women. A sample of 120 female respondents was selected randomly from Tehsil Karor Lal Eson, District Layyah through multistage random sampling technique. The results of the study revealed that a large majority (70.8%) of the respondents were illiterate. A simple majority (50.8%) of the respondent spent 2 to 4 hours in land preparation and sowing practices. While about one-fifth (19.2%) of the respondents spent 2 to 4 hours in broad casting of seed/fertilizer. However, in crop production activities including broadcasting of seed/fertilize (mean= 3.35), plant protection (mean= 3.52), thinning (mean= 2.84) and grading of seeds (mean= 2.81) they were less competent and need to educate and train about these tasks.
Motivation and Teachers’ Performance in Selected Public Secondary Schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State (Published)
This study investigated motivation and teachers’ performance in selected secondary schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design of an ex-post facto type. Four research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire tagged “Teachers’ motivation and performance in secondary schools”. The questionnaire was validated and the Cronbach’s alpha was 0.81 while the reliability was confirmed at 0.78 using a split-half correlation coefficient. Research questionnaires were administered to two hundred (200) teachers that were randomly selected from four major (4) administrative zones in LGA but only one hundred and eighty-seven (187) were adequately filled and used in the analysis. Data were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Regression statistical methods. The findings of this study reveal a significant positive relationship between teachers’ job performance and motivation in ensuring quality education in secondary schools (r = .567; p>.05). The study also indicated that reward system, professional training and development, work situational factors accounted for 10.4%, 29.1%, and 13.9% respectively of the variance in the motivation of teachers in public secondary schools. It was therefore concluded that the importance of motivation in the day-to-day performance of teachers cannot be overemphasized, especially when it comes to being rewarded for a job done and being happy on the job. It was recommended that for higher performance as well as for employees to have sense of belonging, Management must introduce Management By Objective (MBO) approach so that all staff will take part and be able to contribute meaningfully to the development of the organization.
Training Of Human Resources and Job Satisfaction (Published)
This paper presents the results of a quantitative survey conducted in 278 primary school teachers (teachers and kindergarten teachers) in the prefecture of Ilias with the aim of exploring their views on the impact of training on job satisfaction. In addition, it was investigated whether these views differ according to gender, age, seniority, marital status, specifity (primary school teacher or kindergarten teacher), type of employment relationship (permanent, deputy) and service area (urban area, suburban area, rural area). Τhe research results showed that the majority of participants recognize the contribution of training to job satisfaction mainly indirectly. It is also worth mentioning that a great percentage of the respondents of the survey answer in a neutral way on several items of the questionnaire (neither agree nor disagree). These views appear to be statistically significantly different, on the basis of most predefined variables.
Investigation of the Views of Administrative Officials on the Necessity of Their Participation in Training Programs (Published)
This paper attempts to investigate the views of the administrative officials of the Municipality of Larissa on their participation in training programs relating to their competencies. In specific, it investigates whether they consider training necessary, the reasons why they choose to be trained and the issues in which they feel they need to be trained. The analysis of the findings highlights, first of all, the great need for training officials. The most important reasons are considered to be the acquisition of new knowledge and skills and the addressing of shortcomings, to allow them to solve problems of their daily working life. As regards the subjects covered by the training, they primarily select programs related to the organisation and administration of local government services and to the interpretation of the legislative framework.
The Influence of Education and Training on Employee Working Productivity at PT. Nusantara IV Kebun Marjandi (Published)
The Influence of Education and Training on Employee working productivity at PT. Nusantara IV Kebun Marjandi is a study with a sample of 30 people who are determined randomly. The problems in this research are: Do education and training have a significant effect on work productivity? And the research purposes: 1. to find out the effect of education on the work productivity of the employees, 2. to find out how the effect of training on the employees’ work productivity. The research hypothesis: 1. Education affects the work productivity of the employees, 2. The training has a significant effect on the work productivity of the employees, 3. Education and training have significant effect on the work productivity of the employees. Multiple regression technique is used to analyze the data. From the research results, it is found that education and training have a significant effect on the work productivity of the employees. Work productivity is 68% explained by education and training, while the remaining 32% is explained by other factors which are not included in the model.
The current trend in human resource management underlines the main role of a leader in motivating employees and helping them develop in the respective skills and talents. Researches and studies in the field of human resource management and organizational culture have indicated that effective and successful leaders are those who are exceptional motivators and coaches. In this paper the researcher defines coaching, identifies its skills, techniques, tools, objectives in addition to the major differences and similarities with other approaches such as counselling and mentoring.
Some Solutions Developing the High Quality Human Resources of the Education and Training in Dong Nai Province (Published)
Education and training play an essential role in the preservation, development and continuation of human civilization. In the era of scientific and technological revolution nowadays, education and training are becoming the main motive force for the developmental acceleration and considered as a determining factor for the success or failure of a nation in international competitions and for the success of each individual in his life… The purpose of this study is to Systematize theoretical issues related to the development of high quality human resources.; to analyze the current situation of human resources development is the staff of teachers and pupils in Dong Nai province in recent years; to propose some solutions to develop high quality human resources is the contingent of teachers and pupils in Dong Nai province in the coming time. The study results showed that the researcher had survey and research on the quality of human resources in Dong Nai province, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the quality of human resources. Data collected from 2013 to 2014 for the teachers and pupils in Dong Nai province. In addition, the researcher had some groups of solutions mainly aim at developing high quality human resources in the field of education and training in Dong Nai province.
The Effectiveness of Training on Time Management Skill Due To Relaxation Techniques upon Stress and Achievement among Mutah University Students (Published)
The study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of a training program on time management skills due to relaxation techniques upon stress and achievement among a sample of students in Mutah University. The subjects of this study were assigned randomly into two groups: an experimental group which consisted of (38) students who received the training program and a control group which consisted of (37) students who did not receive any kind of training. The stress scale and achievement scores were kept for both groups; before and after exposing to the program. To test the hypotheses of the study; means, standard deviations and Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) were computed. The results revealed significant differences between the means of the two groups on the total scores of stress in favor of experimental group, which indicated the effectiveness of the training program in reducing the level of stress, while there is no effect for the groups upon achievement. Furthermore, the results show no significant differences in the effect of gender or the interaction between gender and treatment. (Keywords: time management, stress, relaxation, achievement and college students).
Management Training and Development: A Leadership Strategy to Performance Management and Job Satisfaction in Kenyan Universities (Published)
Kenya’s university lecturers are generally highly educated. Their capacity to carry out their mandate effectively and their recognition as essential assets to society and world – class institutions depend on their training, experience, commitment and quality of their productivity (Republic of Kenya, 2007). Specific mechanisms ought to be put in place to address the lecturers’ wellbeing, to ensure their motivation, retention and productivity. The author of this paper opines that university management is tasked with the responsibility of facilitating their staff training and development in order to bridge any existing gaps or shortcomings and sharpen their skills. The rationale for training in the work context being to better hone the abilities or skills of the individual and satisfy the short and long term manpower requirements of the organisation. This paper thus focuses on management training and development as a strategic tool to performance management and job satisfaction among Kenyan universities. The study employed convergent parallel mixed methods design with census, random and systematic sampling techniques to select the respondents. Purposive sampling was also used to select information-rich cases. A target population of 2,773 members of university management and lecturers in the chartered public and private universities with their main campuses in Rift Valley Region of Kenya was considered from which a sample of 605 participants was obtained. Questionnaires, interview and document analysis guides were used for data collection. Qualitative data was thematically analysed while quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, independent-samples t-test, One-way ANOVA and regression coefficients, with the use of the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20. The study found that training and development exhibited the strong association with lecturers’ job satisfaction and performance management in the selected Kenyan Universities. For attainment of higher levels of job satisfaction and performance, the study recommended enhancement of training and development programmes in the Universities.
Training and Development Strategies on Employee Commitment in Kenya: Quantitative Analysis Approach (Published)
Employee training is intended to provide an opportunity for advancement and may be perceived as the organization values their employees and their sense of self-worth, therefore will result to building a stronger affective commitment. Thus also resulting to a function of close psychological attachment to the organization and its goals, (McElroy, 2001). The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of employee training and development strategies on employee commitment. The research hypotheses for the study were; Ho1 training and development opportunities have no significant effect on employee commitment. The study employed a case study research design that was conducted at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. The target population was three thousand two hundred (3200) respondents were targeted because that was the group highly affected by commitment and turnover issues in the organisation. A sample size of 340 was extracted from the target population and the sampling techniques used were stratified sampling. Data was analyzed using Multiple regression analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships. Based on the observed correlation results, training and development (β = 0.134, p<0.05) indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between employee training and development opportunities and employee commitment. This implies that the perceived empowerment of employees by the hospital was likely to impact positively on their commitment to the hospital.
The Effectiveness of the Training Programs on Employees performance: An empirical study at private sector companies in Saudi Arabia (Published)
Human resource is the lynchpin of any organization; either non-profit or profit oriented. Without people, an organization cannot exist. Attention on the people and the meeting of their needs is important to achieve corporate objectives.In this rapidly changing world, the management and achievement of employee’s performance is gradually become more challenging and multi-tasking in an organization. There are continuous efforts and strategies lying down by many organizations to accomplish their objectives and also achievements of excellence by gaining competitive advantage. On the other hand employees are required to be creative, competent, innovative, flexible, and trained enough to handle the information effectively. Performance of employees is affected by different factors at work place. Job performance assesses whether a person performs a job well. Employee performance indicates the effectiveness of employee’s specific actions that contribute to attain organizational goals.This study aim to investigate the effectiveness of the training programs on employee’s performance at Saudi Arabia’s private sector. The study is an analytical study in order to find out the effectiveness of the training programs on employee performance. The researcher designed and distributed 250 questionnaire forms where he retrieved 230 forms and excluded 30 forms due to the lack of information which means overall sample is 200. The result indicated that all the variables are positively correlated to each other also the total average value for domain reality of training was 3.47 which fall in the range of Likert scale between (3.41- 4.20), which also reflect the respondents agree with private sector companies provide effective training programs matching up with their expectations however there are some respondents disagreed about the comprehensiveness of training material and trainer motivate their trainees.The total average value for domain role of training programs for improving the employee’s performance
Examination of ICT Compliance and Utilization for Curriculum Delivery among Social Studies Teachers In Nigeria (Published)
Information and communication technology (ICT) has brought profound changes to almost all aspects of life, including educational practices. The role of ICT in the development of knowledge is widely recognized. This study investigated how teachers’ Compliance and Utilization of ICT impact on their curriculum delivery in Nigeria. Four research questions were raised and answered in this study. The study adopted survey design. The population of this study is 681 social studies teachers in 2015/2016 academic year, from where a total of 204 respondents were sampled. A 16-item instrument titled “ICT Compliance and Utilization Assessment Questionnaire” (ICUAQ) developed by the researcher and validated by experts in the Faculty of Education, University of Uyo was used for data collection with a reliability coefficient of 0.81, established through a correlation analysis. Data generated based on the research questions were analyzed with descriptive statistics using percentage. Findings revealed that social studies teachers show noncompliance attitudes towards ICT, measured in terms of acceptance of ICT training, and accessing ICT resources. The study revealed that teachers make less use of ICT in terms of frequency in the use of ICT in lesson preparations, teaching and learning. Based on the findings, the study concluded that objective of ICT in education in Nigeria has not been met, and that social studies teachers are yet to derive the benefits of ICT in curriculum delivery. Consequently, the study recommended that government and other stakeholders such as Parents Teachers Association (PTA) and Old Students should liaise with schools to determine the training needs of staff members and help them to organize appropriate training programmes.
Organizations invest in improving skills, competences, and knowledge of employees to enable them do better on their jobs. Investing in people development is crucial for bolstering organizational performance. Training assumes great significance in the healthcare industry as personnel need to update their skills, understanding of health needs of patients and to offer quality healthcare services to patients. The researchers set out to explore healthcare staffs’ perception of the influences of training on performance.
The Influence of Counselling, Training and Consultancy on Venture Start-Ups by Women and Youth in Baringo County, Kenya (Published)
Enterprise development interventions are critical to the development of an entrepreneurship society. The support interventions are critical to new venture starts-ups among the vulnerable members of society. This paper examines the influence of counselling, training and consultancy enterprise development interventions facilitate new venture start-ups among women and youth. The paper is based on a study of new venture start-ups among women and youth in Baringo County. The study adopted a survey design. The target population of the study was 1049 respondents from which a sample of 281 was randomly selected. Questionnaire and data sheet were used as the data collection instruments. The collected data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study showed that most of the entrepreneurs in Baringo County are influenced by group members to engage in new business ventures. Other motivators include personal imitative, family members and access to entrepreneurship training. Unfortunately, most of the youth and women entrepreneurs have never received any business management training in basic accounting, book keeping and entrepreneurship skills. This can be attributed to the fact that, as attested to by most of the respondents, most of the training available is not for free or subsidized. Therefore, most of these budding entrepreneurs may not afford to take part in training. Nevertheless, the entrepreneurs admitted that there they needed training to enhance their capacity to successfully run their enterprises. The regression model indicated that there is a significant relationship between consultancy, training and counselling and new venture start-ups (p=0.022). The study concluded that support is generally available and relatively easy for farmer-owned commodity processing businesses to obtain. The study recommended that the county government of Baringo should support entrepreneurs by creating a favourable business environment for their operations.
The Moderating Effect of Level of Education on Capital Resource for Increased Employee Performance: A Case of Courier Companies in Kenya (Published)
The concept and perspective of level of education from human capital theory stems from the fact that there is no substitute for knowledge and learning, and that, they need to be relentlessly pursued and focused on by employees. This is according to Rastogi, (2000). Sustaining enterprise competitiveness –is human capital the Answer? He emphasizes on the need for a desire of individuals to invest their skills and expertise in the organization and their position. Many organizations however fail to embrace importance of knowledge, skill and learning as portrayed by high employee turnover as a result of incompetence. This paper analyses the moderating impact of the level of education given dynamic capital resource capabilities on employee performance. Its focus is on Courier companies in Kenya. It is rooted to the Resource based theory, which encourages a shift toward the employee skills and their relative contribution to value creation. A target population of 2800 was considered and a sample size of 339 respondents arrived at using Cochran’s formula. The study was explanatory and used simple random sampling. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Correlation and moderated regression analysis were used to test the hypothesis. Level of education was found to moderate the relationship between capital resource capabilities, and employee performance. The study provides new insights into factors influencing employee performance through the moderation of level of education. The paper recommends that courier companies should identify their critical capital resource capabilities putting emphasis on those that enhance employee performance and train employees on computer usage and internet.
Utilization of Human Capital Resource Capabilities as a Competitive Tool in Organizations for Improved Employee Performance in Courier Companies in Kenya (Published)
Employees are the backbone of the organization and ensures that company policies and programs are implemented effectively. Employee performance is linked with capital resource capabilities. This paper sought to examine utilization of human capital resource capabilities as a competitive tool in organizations for improved employee performance in courier companies in Kenya. For comparison in analysis, other resource capabilities tested included; physical resource, financial resource and social resource. The study involves human capital theory. From a target population of 2800 a sample of 339 respondents was obtained using Cochran’s formula. Simple random sampling was used and employed explanatory research design. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Correlation and moderated regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that physical capital resource capabilities had the greatest influence on employee performance, financial capital resource capabilities which also had a positive and statistically significant influence and finally the human capital resource capabilities which this paper aimed to examine had a positive relationship but statistically insignificant influence. Social capital resource capabilities were found not to be significantly associated with employee performance. The study recommends that courier companies should identify their critical capital resource capabilities putting emphasis on those that can enhance employee performance and train employees on computer usage and internet. The policy makers such as ministry of communications and information technology should also put emphasis on technological advancements in the provision of courier services.
The Integration of Information & Communication Technology in Secondary Education Institutions in Morocco (Published)
This theoretical and applied study aims to study the situation of the information and communication technology (ICT) in the education system in Morocco, especially analysis of the remarkable evolution of the use of the ICT in the public secondary educational institutions in the area of Educational Delegation of Fez in the Regional Academy for Education and Training Fez-Boulemane in Morocco, through the selection of ten institutions for secondary education representing 50% of the total of secondary institutions in Educational Delegation of Fez, as well as evaluating the acquisition of knowledge in schools on the basis of the ICT and working on the diagnosis of the role of “MASSAR” Program within the framework of the process of the school measure. Among the results that have been reached at present is the quantitative weakness of the computer network used in high school, and in the limited value of the information technology used by the students, which will enable them to get to school knowledge. As that the recruitment of “MASSAR” Program in administrative and educational process, remains very limited.