Tag Archives: Tourism

City Branding: Exploring the Brand “Beirut” As a Tourism Destination in the British Market (Published)

In this study, the Beirut brand is evaluated in the context of British consumers. Tourism and Destination Branding Tool was used in determining the questionnaire. Accordingly, questionnaire was designed and distributed to randomly chosen 383 British people. Sample size was achieved through using sample size calculator over the internet.  However, only 100 questionnaires were totally filled by the participants and therefore, only those were included in the analysis. Descriptive statistics were used just as it is used in STCRC study. In this perspective tourists’ general expectations from the short and long term holidays were determined and compared with the results of experience gained in Beirut. Findings showed that British people mostly look for fun and entertaining places which also have a good accommodation. In long holidays they also look for good restaurants and sport facilities. Nevertheless, Beirut is found by them as far below compare to their expectations. In fact, they were not satisfied with their stays in Beirut and not willing to come back to the city in the future. This result also showed itself in the drop of the tourist coming to the city. In this context number of preventive measures should be taken by the government urgently to correct this situation.

Keywords: Beirut, Brand Image, City Branding, Tourism

On The Role of Printed Media on Choice of Tourist Destinations (Published)

This paper examines the role of brochures and allied printed materials for tourists, in terms of determining their chosen destinations and also, deciding upon activities to engage in at these destination sites. Data was collected during 2016; we examined 1,560 responses of hospitality professionals at multiple locations in the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland and Greece. The key finding is that the role of brochures and printed material still play a significant role in tourists’ choices, and has not been adequately replaced by the Internet, kiosks, or other “more modern” marketing/promotional channels.

Keywords: Brochures, Tourism, Travel, Visitor information sources

The Effect of Syrian War on French People’s Decision to Travel to Lebanon: Remedy through Branding (Published)

The aim of this study was to find out the effects of War in Syria on the decision of French people to travel to Lebanon. Based on a survey, the study findings showed that people in France are aware of the Syrian War as well as the subsequent occurring refugee crisis. The war and refugee crisis are highly affecting their decisions to travel not only to Lebanon but also to other Middle East countries such as Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Jordan. Demographic characteristics of the people play as well an imperative role on their decisions to travel to Lebanon. Branding Lebanon as a tourist destination based on the attributes that influence French travellers can be a fundamental part of the remedy

Keywords: Destination Branding, French Tourists, Lebanon, Refugee, Syrian War, Tourism, Tourist decision., crises

Compliance of Basic Standard of Home-Stay in Nepal (Published)

The concept of tourism is explained in Sanskrit literature also which denotes the meaning of tourism as: going out from house for pleasure and knowledge, going out of the country for economic gain and going out to places for religious purposes. Home-stay is the newly emerged concept of tourism which promotes the rural tourism. Home-stay is one source of income for rural people. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the compliance of basic standard of home-stay in Nepal. The study was conducted in Ghale-Gaun of Lamjung district, Amaltari of Nawalparasi district and Pathra of Tanahu district of Nepal. Purposively sampling technique was used to select the households. Total 102 home-stay entities were selected from the three districts. The study found good compliance of basic standards of home-stay in Nepal. Nawalparasi district has adopted all criteria of compliance than other two districts. The study calculated the total value and found the total compliance of standard of home-stay as prescribed by the Nepal government. The data shows that 86%, 100% and 89% home-stay of Lamjung, Nawalparasi and Tanahu districts respectively adopted the standard of home-stay prescribed by the Government of Nepal. There was need of commitment from home-stay operators as well as monitoring from the concerned authority to ensure the quality service of home-stay.

Keywords: Compliance, Home-stay standard, Nepal, Tourism

Tourism as Factor for the Presence and Continuation of Harm Full Traditional Practices in Hamer Community, Ethiopia (Published)

The main objective of this research is to examine whether tourism is key factor for the presence and continuation of HTP in Hamer. In order to collect necessary data, structural interview survey with local people, informant in-depth interview and focus group discussion were conducted. Data collected from local people through interview was entered into SPSS version 20 and then analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, chi-square test and binomial tests. Data collected through focus group discussion and in depth interview were analyzed using descriptive, explanatory and narrative methods of qualitative data analysis techniques. The finding shows that out of the three most prevalent HTP, Whipping of women (as part of the bull jumping ceremony) was found to be directly influenced by tourism.  Chi-square analysis shows that there was no significance difference between the supporter and opponent of continuation of the practice of whipping among Hamers. Local peoples, local government, local associations, private hospitality and tourism sectors have gained economic benefit from tourism. Majority of local people constituting 90 percent practiced bull jumping and evangadi dance primarily for non-tourism related purpose. 67.5 percent local people believed that tourist could visit their village in the absence of bull jumping and evangadi dance. Informant and deductive analysis shows tourism is factor for the continuation and practice of whipping in Hamer community. Therefore, special attention should be given to whipping besides to teaching females of the community.

Keywords: Hamer, Impact, Tourism, harmful traditional practice

Sustainable Tourism Practice; a Panacea for Reviving Bilikisu-Sugbon Tourist Attraction and Reducing Poverty in Oke-Eri, Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigates the current status of the Bilikisu Sugbon tourist attraction in Oke-Eri, Via Ijebu-Ode-Ibadan Express way, Ogun State, Nigeria. It also assess the standard of living of the residents of the Oke-Eri community. The attraction, haven received lots of attention from scholars in archaeology and other disciplines, and also government of Ogun State in the past with the goal of making it a befitting tourist destination has remained in a poor state.A survey was conducted to gather information on the current status of the tourist site. Random sampling technique was used to select 100 local residents of the community and 50 tourists during the 2015 Christmas celebration and another 50 during the 2016 Eid’L Fitri Festival celebration, and questionnaires were administered to them accordingly. Also, purposive sampling method was used to select specific people and groups in the community for personal interview and focus group discussion respectively. Key informant interview method was also used to gather information from three community chiefs and two management staff of the Ogun State Tourism Board. Data gathered were subjected to analysis and presented using frequency counts, simple percentile, charts, chi square.Findings of the study revealed that, the economic activity in Oke-Eri is very low (P<0.05) and there is a high level of poverty in the community despite the tourism potentials present there. It was found that, reviving the Bilikisu-Sungbo tourist site would help in reducing poverty and enhance the socio-economic status the community (P<0.05). The study also revealed that what led to the dilapidation of the attraction after it was earlier developed by the Ogun State Government in the early 1980s was political instability and lack of sustainable development practice. The study concludes that, there is urgent need for the Ogun State government to be committed to the reconstruction of the Bilikisu-Sugbon tourist site in Oke-Eri either through direct investment or encouraging public-private-partnership (PPP) initiative, in order, to redeem the image of the attraction, foster socio-economic growth of the community and reduce poverty in the community. The study therefore recommends that there must be a sustainable master plan in place, public-private-partnership (PPP) initiative should be considered and the local community should be actively involved in the reconstruction process and management of the attraction when re-opened to the general public as a tourist site as part of requirements for ensuring sustainability.

Keywords: Panacea, Poverty, Revival, Sustainability, Tourism

Marketing Activities and Perceptions towards Domestic Tourism and Domestic Tourists (A Case Of Accommodation Providers In Sāmoa) (Published)

Effective Marketing strategies and techniques have contributed to the competitive survival and development of many tourism operators worldwide. Given Sāmoa’s geographic isolation as a holiday destination, marketing activities should aim to target both international and domestic tourists. However, the Sāmoan Government tends to focus predominantly on the promotion of international tourism. Domestic tourism and travel by local tourists is an area neglected by some tourism operators and domestic marketing and promotional activities are limited. This paper presents the results of a small scale study designed to investigate marketing activities, perceptions towards domestic tourism and the idea of locals as tourists from the view point of operators in the Accommodation Sector. Convenience Sampling identified a sample of 50 Accommodation providers for the study. The percentage method analysis confirms the existence of marketing activities. In spite of this, existing marketing activities are primarily designed to target international tourists. Talanoa Research Method (TRM) was used to conduct in-depth interviews. Thematic Analysis highlighted some interest among operators to invest in marketing activities however financial constraints, high preference for international tourists and personal motives limited interest and investment in marketing activities to target local tourists

Keywords: Accommodation Providers., Domestic tourism, Marketing, Sāmoa., Tourism

Post-Ebola Financial Analysis of the Economic Fortunes of the Tourism/Hospitality Sub-Sector in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study was a post-Ebola analysis of the impact of the dreaded disease (Ebola) on the tourism and hospitality industry, with particular reference to Eateries, Hotels, Guest Houses and allied businesses in Cross River State, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to determine the extent of the scare on consumption of the tourism/hospitality industry’s goods and services resulting from the outbreak of the Ebola virus crisis. The goods and services in focus include forest products which were vulnerable to contamination by primary carriers of Ebola disease, while the services include bed spaces, which constitute essential demands of tourists. The trades most affected were hunting, eateries, forest products (including bush meat), etc. Survey design was adopted in the study. The data gathered were statistically analysed using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Results indicate that: the financial viability of forest products (including local bush meat) and other allied businesses are still significant; and the profitability of tourism/hospitality businesses in Cross River State, Nigeria, still significant, especially after the World Health Organization (WHO) had issued a “No-Ebola” certification on Nigeria. The study is concluded by recommending proper education for operators in the tourism/hospitality sub-sector whose products and services were the most vulnerable during the Ebola crisis, on the need to switch to alternative businesses that will preserve the eco-system in compliance with the pursuit of the global Green-House Gas emission minimization.

Keywords: Businesses., Financial Analysis, Hospitality, Post-Ebola, Tourism

Domestic Tourism: Untapped Opportunities for Sāmoa (With Special Reference to Accommodation Providers) (Published)

Tourism is both a key contributor to the economy of Sāmoa  and the leading source of foreign exchange. The seasonal nature of tourism is particularly detrimental to the accommodation sector. In many countries, the development of domestic tourism is actively promoted as it plays a vital part in tourism sustainability. Sāmoa however, like many other countries appear to be overlooking the potentials of domestic tourism in their development and tourism strategies. The present study uses secondary data and case studies to examine the advantages and opportunities created by domestic tourism. Secondary data found that the key areas of focus highlighted in the Strategy for the Development of Sāmoa SDS) 2005-2007, 2008-2012, Sāmoa Tourism Development Plan (STDP) 2009-2013, Sāmoa Tourism Sector Plan (STSP) 2014-2019, and Sāmoa Tourism Strategic Marketing Plan (STSMP) 2014-2019, indicate that domestic tourism development is not a key focus of tourism development. Using Talanoa research method (TRM), primary data was collected from 20 stakeholders in the tourism industry. Using Thematic Analysis, it was found that there were a mixture of views for and against the development of domestic tourism in Sāmoa.

Keywords: Development, Domestic tourism, Sāmoa., Tourism

Economic Impact of Tourism in Jammuand Kashmir (Published)

Jammu and Kashmir State has a tremendous potential to become a major global tourist destination. Importance of tourism in J&K economy is known for decades now and its role in economic development has been an area of great interest from policy perspective. To understand the economic impact of tourism in the J&K state, present paper uses secondary sources of data and tries to examine various parameters of economic development such as tourist inflow, employment generation, State Gross Domestic Product, development of infrastructure and regional development. We found apart from agriculture sector, tourism sector is the most popular source of income and employment generation for the state economy.

Keywords: Employment, Infrastructure, Regional Development., Revenue, Tourism, Tourist Inflow

Cross River Tourism, History and Environment: A Marriage Contracted In the Womb of Time (Published)

Today, it can be safely argued that Cross River State is noted more for its tourism enterprise than for anything else. Since 1999 to date, there have been sustained efforts by successive administrations to re-engineer and rebrand the State as a tourism spectacle and hub not just in the Cross River Region but in Nigeria and indeed, the West Africa Sub-region at large. This paper seeks to show that there is an organic and inescapable relationship between Cross River’s current tourism efforts and its history and environment. Put differently, we would attempt to demonstrate that the foundation of Cross River tourism is embedded in its history and environment and it is from these pristine bowels that the current initiatives can truly find rhythm, momentum and relevance.

Keywords: Cross River, Environment, Nigeria, Tourism, history

Is Tourism a Gene Sector to Jordan’s Gdp? (Published)

Tourism in Jordan is a service industry with multiple outcomes. However, at present, it has not been fully utilized and developed to generate the expected income for Jordan’s GDP. Researchers have examined Jordan’s tourism and identified its economical outcomes and methods of enhancement. This study is intended to investigate the contribution of tourism on Jordan’s GDP. To approach the aim of the study, data used in the empirical analysis was collected from the Ministry of Tourism for the period 2006 -2014.Statistical techniques used were: means, variances, covariance, and standard deviations. Research results indicated positive and significant contribution of Jordanian Tourism Sectors on GDP.

Keywords: GDP, Income, Outcome, Service Industry, Tourism

Analysis of the Impact of Commercial Tourism on the Physical-Spatial Development of Urban Areas (The Case Study: City Of Zahedan) (Published)

Today, tourism is one of the major issues affecting the economy and one of the leading causes of communication, social and cultural consideration is globally Tourist flows can be different ways of economic and social aspects of the country’s foreign exchange technology, regional economic development, economic development, job creation and cultural contacts affected. In countries that have tried to develop this industry with rational and right planning they have been able to gain a high share of national income in this way. Tourism can have different effects on different places and cities are one of these places. This study is to evaluate the impact of commercial tourism on the physical-spatial development in Zahedan. The method of collecting data is through questionnaires and they have been analyzed by statistical methods of T-test and Pearson correlation. The results show that commercial tourism will effect on all dimensions of the physical-spatial development of Zahedan city.

Keywords: Commercial Tourism, Physical-Spatial Development, Tourism, Urban Land Use.

CONTRIBUTION OF BRANDING IN ENHANCING PERFORMANCE OF TOURISM SECTOR IN RWANDA (Published)

Strong branding has become a very important factor that influences consumer’s perceptions of a brand. Success in branding can enhance the performance of Tourism. This arises from understanding and managing the brand correctly to produce strong attributes that influence consumers when making their choices. Considering the increasing competition in the tourism industry, more governments have realized that branding can enhance Tourism and become a powerful tool to differentiate their countries and obtain competitive advantages by improving their image in tourism. The results have shown that the branding campaign in tourism is generally well developed and the image promoted corresponds in great measure with the one perceived by consumers. The value of this research concentrates on the fact that branding can enhance the performance of tourism in any Country. As a relatively new concept, branding still lacks empirical academic research. This study offers an original insight into branding as a tool in enhancing Tourism performance through image analysis. This research focuses on the importance of these dimensions (brand awareness, Tourism brand loyalty, Tourism brand image and perceived quality in enhancing the performance of the tourism sector in Rwanda ) of customer-based brand equity on consumer’s perceptions of a Tourism brand. This is based on the assumption that all these dimensions of customer based-Tourism brand equity have had influence on consumer’s perceptions of the Tourism brand. However, this project aimed to find out which among these three dimensions (brand image, brand loyalty and perceived quality) appears to have the least brand equity in Tourism with respect to Tourism brand awareness, Tourism brand image, and perceived quality and Tourism brand loyalty. A structured questionnaire was constructed to provide answers to research questions. In this study, over fifty questionnaires were distributed, and all of the questionnaires were realized. Despite the academic attention to branding in Tourism, there seems to be no clear path for authorities to follow in establishing their destinations as distinctive and strategic brands, A comprehensive research framework with both qualitative and quantitative methods was used to suggest and assess these brand elements, meanings, and assets for both supply and demand sides of the market.

Keywords: Branding, Development, Marketing, Performance, Tourism

CONTRIBUTION OF BRANDING IN ENHANCING PERFORMANCE OF TOURISM SECTOR IN RWANDA (Published)

Strong branding has become a very important factor that influences consumer’s perceptions of a brand. Success in branding can enhance the performance of Tourism. This arises from understanding and managing the brand correctly to produce strong attributes that influence consumers when making their choices. Considering the increasing competition in the tourism industry, more governments have realized that branding can enhance Tourism and become a powerful tool to differentiate their countries and obtain competitive advantages by improving their image in tourism. The results have shown that the branding campaign in tourism is generally well developed and the image promoted corresponds in great measure with the one perceived by consumers. The value of this research concentrates on the fact that branding can enhance the performance of tourism in any Country. As a relatively new concept, branding still lacks empirical academic research. This study offers an original insight into branding as a tool in enhancing Tourism performance through image analysis. This research focuses on the importance of these dimensions (brand awareness, Tourism brand loyalty, Tourism brand image and perceived quality in enhancing the performance of the tourism sector in Rwanda ) of customer-based brand equity on consumer’s perceptions of a Tourism brand. This is based on the assumption that all these dimensions of customer based-Tourism brand equity have had influence on consumer’s perceptions of the Tourism brand. However, this project aimed to find out which among these three dimensions (brand image, brand loyalty and perceived quality) appears to have the least brand equity in Tourism with respect to Tourism brand awareness, Tourism brand image, and perceived quality and Tourism brand loyalty. A structured questionnaire was constructed to provide answers to research questions. In this study, over fifty questionnaires were distributed, and all of the questionnaires were realized. Despite the academic attention to branding in Tourism, there seems to be no clear path for authorities to follow in establishing their destinations as distinctive and strategic brands, A comprehensive research framework with both qualitative and quantitative methods was used to suggest and assess these brand elements, meanings, and assets for both supply and demand sides of the market.

Keywords: Branding, Development, Marketing, Performance, Tourism

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RWANDA DEVELOPMENT BOARD TOURISM REVENUE SHARING PROGRAM TOWARDS LOCAL COMMUNITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF NYUNGWE NATIONAL PARK (Published)

Development agencies and policymakers are increasingly advocating tourism revenue sharing as an effective way to increasing local development around protected areas. In Rwanda, through its outreach programme, the Tourism Revenue-Sharing (TRS) programs, Rwanda Development Board (RDB) usually remits 5 per cent of the park entry fees every year to fund various community projects where given tourist attraction is found. The study was guided by the following key objectives; to examine the social economic impact of tourism revenue sharing program towards the development on local communities, and analyse the challenges faced by local administration and beneficiaries in management of these revenue sharing. To archive the set objectives, a cross sectional research design was used, combined with qualitative and quantitative approach. Primary data was collected from community members living adjacent to Nyungwe national park, community leaders and RDB staff through questionnaires and interviews. The study adopted descriptive and statistical approaches in processing data and Special Program for Social Scientist (SPSS) computer program was employed in data analysis. The survey findings indicated that the revenue sharing program had contributed to social-economic development as it had facilitated the construction of 6 health centers and 10 schools, ensured communities access to safe water supplies and improved housing condition. Several agricultural projects were supported directly through the revenue sharing scheme; it had created employment, promoted local enterprises and sustainable use of natural resources in Nyungwe national park. However, the study revealed some challenges in management of revenue sharing and among those were; inadequate funds, corruption, inadequate skilled manpower, poor communication and elite capture

Keywords: Local Community, Revenue Sharing, Tourism

NIGERIA SCULPTURAL TRADITION AS VIABLE OPTION FOR TOURISM PROMOTION: AN ASSESSMENT OF ESIE MYSTERIOUS STONE SCULPTURES (Published)

Esie stone sculptures are the largest collection of carved stone structures in Africa, and precisely in the world at large. Since its discovery in Esie community of Igbomina town, the stone sculptures pose a lot of complex questions defying answers. In view of this, the soapstone sculptures have continued to amass academic research and studies towards unravelling its makers. Howbeit, that art works especially sculptures known to be functional objects in African worldview either used for religious or court activities are found in a bush. Objects depicting varied cultural traits (tribal marks, hair style,) involved in human activities (playing musical instruments, dancers, farming, etc) and showing status quo (necklace, bracelet). Intriguing of all is the kingship setting of the sculptures explicitly displaying a community life which of a truth augurs well with the local myth surrounding the sculptures. Upon the ingenuity and authenticity of these stone sculptures rest the premise of this paper which is to bring to limelight the tourism potentials of the stone sculptures

Keywords: Esie Museum, Soapstone Images, Stone Sculpture, Tourism

HARNESSING AWKA TRADITIONAL FESTIVAL FOR TOURISM PROMOTION (Published)

Awka traditional festivals embrace diverse cultural activities which together portrays the glamour of the community indigenous way of life. These festivals are the anvil on which cultural unity is forged as its celebrations acts as a unifying force which binds the people together. Festivals are momentary occasions for merriment seasoned with a purpose attached to different aspects of a community life. It is a period of rest from strenuous daily activities affording the people quality leisure time to consume all the entertaining cultural aesthetics of the event. Of a truth, Awka traditional festival with its associated cultural display has been a platform that sustained cultural uniformity amongst Awka people and its neighbour through ages. This paper in its descriptive nature endeavours to investigate the potential of harnessing the cultural aesthetics of Awka traditional festival (Imoka) for promote tourism.

Keywords: Cultural Aesthetics, Culture, Tourism, Traditional Festival

VISUAL COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN PROMOTING TOURISM DESTINATIONS (Published)

The scope of this paper is to investigate the role of visual communication as one of the main factors in order to promote destinations of Greek Tourism Industry and to influence perspective tourists. The paper aims at recording tourism demand trends and the profile the modern tourist, analyzing the use of print and electronic media, with particular emphasis on the Internet, as well as, to focus on the tourism offer, attempting to outline the specific actions used by the tourism businesses in order to communicate with potential tourists/customers. The results and conclusions of both the primary and secondary survey demonstrate the contribution of Visual Communication in tourism and the need to redefine the relationships and the ways of communication between tourism businesses and tourists, according to new requirements in the evolutionary process of the Greek tourism industry

Keywords: Consumer Behaviour, Information and Communications Technologies, Internet, Tourism, Virtual Reality, Visual Communication, e-Tourism

ECOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF THE TOURISM RESORT OF WENGEN (SWITZERLAND) AND OBUDU (NIGERIA) (Published)

Both Wengen and Obudu Resorts are blossoming areas in tourism, and also share similar characteristics of togogeaphy and climate. A comparism of the ecological interactions between the two resorts will bring out the potentials and problems of each resort; which is useful in recommending sustainable practices to strengthen the resorts. Fields studies were carried out in both resorts on the Soils, Flora, Fauna and Human activities of land use, population and recreation. While the results of Wengen resort indicated a cautious use of the natural resources of soil, vegetation and wildlife, the Obudu Resort on the other’ hand records a negative trend in the exploitation of some resources. However, the study parameters of human population and land use were more favourable in Obudu with a population negative rate of 3.1 per annum against the growth rate of -2.6 in wengen resort. Similarly the land use in Obudu fall within the ratio of 3:1:2 for recreational, residential and agricultural respectively, as against 5:0:2 in Wengen resort. The study came out with recommendations for sustainable development of the two resorts

Keywords: Ecological, Obudu, Recreation, Resort, Tourism, Wengen, land use

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