Managing Pre-Retirement Anxiety among Teachers in Asunafo South District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana (Published)
Retirement is an inevitable activity in the lives of workers. Unfortunately, the thought of retirement to some workers breeds anxiety, apprehension and disillusionment especially among teachers. The study sought to find out the perception of teachers on retirement, sources of pre-retirement anxiety, and the managerial strategies that would be used to support teachers nearing retirement in Asunafo South. Descriptive survey was employed for this study. The target population of the study was all teachers in Asunafo South District. Purposive sampling technique was used to solicit the views of teachers nearing retirement. 52 respondents were selected for the study, out of the 60 teachers nearing retirement. Questionnaire was used to collate data and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Respondents agreed that they feel nervous when they feel that their retirement is fast approaching. Four major sources of pre-retirement anxiety were identified. Majority of the respondents agreed that seeking retirement counselling from professionals will reduce their level of anxiety. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy and Reality therapy were identified as two approach of managing pre-retirement anxiety. It was recommended that the teacher unions should regularly organise financial counselling on pre-retirement planning for their members.
High School Students’ Attitudes towards the Study of Mathematics and their Perceived Teachers’ Teaching Practices (Published)
The study employed a survey to explore 210 high school students’ attitudes towards the study of mathematics and their perceptions on their teachers’ teaching practices. The sample was made up of 102 males and 108 females who were randomly selected from four high schools in the Cape Coast Metropolis of the Central Region of Ghana. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses. The findings showed high perceived attitudes reported in the students’ interest in doing mathematics, usefulness of mathematics, and confidence in doing mathematics; it was unclear whether students perceived mathematics as a male dominated subject or not. With regards to teachers’ teaching practices, all the 3 subscales: use of student- centered approach, classroom management skills and communication skills studied, were reported to be important in influencing students learning of mathematics. However, communication skills adopted by teachers in teaching the subject was perceived as the strongest predictor of high school students’ attitudes followed by teachers’ classroom management skills. The study concludes that to ensure positive attitudes of students towards the study of mathematics, effective communication and classroom management skills should be integral in mathematics teachers’ instructional practices; they should be important goals of any mathematics teacher preparation programs
Assessing the Assessors from the Student Angle: Implication for Quality Assurance in Public Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria (Published)
Visionary teachers are needed to achieve quality teaching and learning in the school. It is now firmly believed that the effective functioning of an organization depends largely on employees’ efforts that extend beyond formal role requirements. This study therefore investigated the predictive power of some quality assurance indices (school climate, principals’ leadership role, instructional supervision, availability and utilization of instructional resources) on teachers’ job effectiveness in secondary schools. Five hundred and eighty-three (583) Senior Secondary School students comprising of 268 males and 315 females were sampled for this study. Self-developed instrument tagged “Quality Assurance in Education” was employed to obtain responses from the participants. Analyses of data were done using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis fixed at the .05 significant levels. Results revealed 16% of the variance in the teachers’ job effectiveness was accounted for by the combination of instructional supervision, instructional resources, school climate, and principal leadership ((R = .817; R2 = .667; R2 (adj) = .663; F(4,582) = 20.376; p < .05). This revealed that among others that school climate was the most potent predictor (β = .300; t = 7.354; p < .05), followed by principal leadership style; (β = .279; t = 5.897; p <. 05), instructional supervision (β = .151; t = 5.098; p > .05); and lastly by instructional resources (β = .093; t = 3.765; p > .05). The findings showed that students’ assessment based on the quality assurance indices were potent in the prediction of teachers’ job effectiveness. Based on the outcome of this study, it was recommended that Since the work environment is significantly related to job effectiveness of teachers, government should encourage the support of parents, students, philanthropists, and corporate institutions in improving secondary schools’ work environment in terms of physical facilities, information services, authority-staff relationship, and staff development in order to enhance better job performance of the teachers.
Principals’ Transformational Leadership Practices as Determinants of Organizational Commitment and Value Re-Orientation among Secondary School Teachers (Published)
This paper examined the transformational leadership practices of secondary school principals and the extent to which they predict organizational commitment and value re-orientation of teachers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Survey design was adopted for the study. Seven hundred and ninety-nine respondents were drawn using stratified random sampling technique from a population of 5,339 teachers for the study. One research question and two hypotheses guided the study. An instrument with 48 items titled “Principals’ Transformational Leadership Practices, Organizational Commitment and Value Re-orientation Questionnaire” was utilized for data gathering. Cronbach Alpha reliability index of the instrument was 0.88. Multiple statistical procedures such as means, standard deviation and regression analysis were employed in data analysis. The two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. From the findings it was revealed that principals’ transformational leadership practices were high, while there was a significant effect of principals’ transformational leadership practices on organizational commitment and value re-orientation of teachers. Premised on the findings of the study, it was recommended that managers of secondary education should encourage principals to adopt transformational leadership style since this has been found to positively affect organizational commitment and value re-orientation of teachers.
Correlation between Instructional Leadership and Students’ Academic Achievement in Public Secondary Schools in Baringo County, Kenya (Published)
The significance of instructional leadership as it relates to students academic performance has assumed greater importance in education today as stakeholders demand for greater accountability. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between instructional leadership and student achievement, considering the dismal academic performances of students in public secondary schools in Baringo County. The study adopted the cross sectional survey research design. The target population of the study was 1070 secondary school teachers from 122 public secondary schools. A sample size of 291 teachers was selected using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Data was collected by use of questionnaire and Document analysis. Frequencies and percentages were used to summarize and describe data whereas the Spearman correlation analysis was used to establish relationship of the variables in the study.
An Analysis of English Teaching Material Quality According to the English Teachers’ Response in Aceh Besar, Indonesia (Published)
The implementation of a new paradigm in the form of learning materials adopted from the outside and adapted in schools, requires the students and the teachers to change their teaching and learning behavior. Some teachers in Aceh Besar have several weaknesses in teaching. The weaknesses have not been able to get the target and introduce the wealth of the region in Aceh Besar to the students. The different learning needs are based on geographical, ethnographic, and characteristic factors of local wealth. . The results obtained are the interactive materials based on local wisdom of Aceh through a scientific approach are feasible to apply for class VII SMP in Aceh Besar District. In the next stages TPM and TPP cooperate in doing the research outcomes such as publications in international journals, inter-related proceedings of textbooks with ISSN and other targets.
Motivation and Teachers’ Performance in Selected Public Secondary Schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State (Published)
This study investigated motivation and teachers’ performance in selected secondary schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design of an ex-post facto type. Four research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire tagged “Teachers’ motivation and performance in secondary schools”. The questionnaire was validated and the Cronbach’s alpha was 0.81 while the reliability was confirmed at 0.78 using a split-half correlation coefficient. Research questionnaires were administered to two hundred (200) teachers that were randomly selected from four major (4) administrative zones in LGA but only one hundred and eighty-seven (187) were adequately filled and used in the analysis. Data were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Regression statistical methods. The findings of this study reveal a significant positive relationship between teachers’ job performance and motivation in ensuring quality education in secondary schools (r = .567; p>.05). The study also indicated that reward system, professional training and development, work situational factors accounted for 10.4%, 29.1%, and 13.9% respectively of the variance in the motivation of teachers in public secondary schools. It was therefore concluded that the importance of motivation in the day-to-day performance of teachers cannot be overemphasized, especially when it comes to being rewarded for a job done and being happy on the job. It was recommended that for higher performance as well as for employees to have sense of belonging, Management must introduce Management By Objective (MBO) approach so that all staff will take part and be able to contribute meaningfully to the development of the organization.
Demographic Variable and Job Stress as Predictors of Depression among Primary School Teachers in Lagos State of Nigeria (Published)
Issues of increase rate of sick leave, mood swing, fatigue and decreased energy, Feelings of worthlessness and helplessness which could be responsible for discontent and poor morale, low teaching efficiency, poor relationships with pupils, parents and subordinate, premature retirement, more internal conflicts and dysfunctional workplace climate among primary school teachers which can also be link with their wellbeing attracted the attention of this study. This study adopted cross sectional research design and Questionnaires were used to gather data from the primary school teachers. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two hundred primary school teachers who participated in the study. Data collected was analyzed using version 20.0 of statistical package for social sciences. The findings of this study revealed that that there is no significant difference in the depression of female teachers compare to male teachers among primary school teachers in kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos state, Nigeria (t(198)=-1.249, p>.05). it was also discovered that that out of the socio-demographic variable, only monthly income made significant independent contribution to depression among primary school teachers (b=-0.227; t = -2.780; p<0.05). The result also revealed that primary school teachers with high stress reported higher depression than their counterpart with low stress (t(198)=-12.41, p<.05). Further analysis revealed that job stress and working experience had no significant joint influence on depression (F(5,194)=2.975; p>0.05; R=0.171, R2=0.029), and also showed that job stress made significant independent contribution to depression (b=0.162; t = 2.287; p<0.05) while working experience had no significant independent contribution to depression (b=-0.077; t = -1.091; p>0.05). The study concluded that there is significant influence of job stress and monthly income on depression among primary school teachers in kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos state, Nigeria and recommend that government, stakeholders and investors in the field of education should review the job roles of primary school teacher as this study discovered that many of their roles constituted stress and result to depression.
Training Of Human Resources and Job Satisfaction (Published)
This paper presents the results of a quantitative survey conducted in 278 primary school teachers (teachers and kindergarten teachers) in the prefecture of Ilias with the aim of exploring their views on the impact of training on job satisfaction. In addition, it was investigated whether these views differ according to gender, age, seniority, marital status, specifity (primary school teacher or kindergarten teacher), type of employment relationship (permanent, deputy) and service area (urban area, suburban area, rural area). Τhe research results showed that the majority of participants recognize the contribution of training to job satisfaction mainly indirectly. It is also worth mentioning that a great percentage of the respondents of the survey answer in a neutral way on several items of the questionnaire (neither agree nor disagree). These views appear to be statistically significantly different, on the basis of most predefined variables.
Factors Influencing Teachers’ Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education Programme in Lugari District, Kenya (Published)
This study sought to establish factors influencing teachers’ implementation of Early Childhood Development Education programmes in Lugari district. The study used descriptive survey design. Fredrick Froebel theory was used for the study. Using a sample of 15%, stratified and proportionate sampling techniques, a total of 61 ECDE centers and 89 ECDE teachers, 61 primary school head teachers were selected from the three divisions of Lugari district. The study established that there was low level of training among the ECDE teachers in the district and that some of the crucial educational resources were lacking in ECDE centres. The study recommended that ECDE trained teachers should be absorbed by the Teachers Service Commission and that public advocacy to inform parents about the positive impacts of ECDE pedagogy should be conducted.
Attitudes of Teachers Towards Application of Item Response Theory in Technical Colleges in Rivers State (Published)
This study investigated attitudes of teachers towards the application of item response theory (IRT) in the technical colleges in Rivers State. It is intended to ascertain the influence of these teacher-related factors on testing processes using IRT in these institutions. Five research questions were asked to guide this study and five null hypotheses were formulated and tested. Cross-sectional survey research design was adopted in this study. The population of this study comprised all the 424 technical teachers in the 15 technical colleges in Rivers State. The study used stratified random sampling technique to draw the sample of size of 212 out of the population. The instrument for data collection was a self-designed Likert type (five response level) questionnaire titled,“Survey of Teacher’s Attitudes Towards Application of Item Response Theory (STATA-IRT), with a reliability coefficient of .86. Correlation analysis was used to answer the research questions and multiple regressions, R, was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. It was found from the overall result, that strong linear relationship exists between attitudes of teachers and the application of Item Response Theory in Technical colleges Rivers State. It was also found from the multiple regression results that the attitudes of teachers are predictors of effective application of item response theory in the technical colleges in Rivers state.
Students from Different Cultural Backgrounds, Their Difficulties upon Elementary School Entry in Greece and Teachers’ Intercultural Educational Practices (Published)
The present research aims to explore intercultural practices that are adopted by primary school teachers so as to address the difficulties faced by students from multicultural backgrounds upon their school entry. Moreover, it aims to explore teachers’ perceptions regarding the counselling dimension of their role. For that purpose, a questionnaire was used including open and close type questions. The sample was composed of 106 teachers from Primary Schools of Achaia in South West Greece (86 women and 20 men, 25-55 years old). The results indicate that intercultural activities adopted by teachers as long as their pedagogical suggestions are mainly stereotypical. They also refer to an early conception of intercultural pedagogy based more on acceptance than in coexistence / inclusion. Moreover, teachers do not seek further counselling to address students’ difficulties, although they acknowledge the major problems faced by students coming from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
An Analysis of the Use of Adverbs and Adverbial Clauses in the Sentences of Junior High School Pupils in the Ashanti Region of Ghana (Published)
The research shifts emphasis from the previously predominant area of analyzing the competence of Ghanaian school children in their use of the English Language by adopting the perspective of descriptive grammarians with much emphasis on process analysis. The study adopted qualitative and quantitative paradigm so as to adequately analyze the extent to which pupils in the Junior High School use adverbs and adverbial clauses in their sentences. In all, 100 pupils were selected using proportionate stratified sampling method. Essay texts and structured interview guide was used in gathering data from the sampled school pupils. After analysing using both qualitative and quantitative methods, the findings indicate that teachers and accessibility to language learning facilities play significant roles in second language acquisition.
Attitudes of Pupils and Teachers Towards Life Skills Education in Public Primary Schools in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya (Published)
In the year 2009, the government of Kenya introduced Life Skills Education to help the students in coping with the challenges and demands for everyday life. It is important to understand how performed since then. As such, the study was conducted to find out the preparedness of public primary schools in the implementation of Life Skills Education (LSE) curriculum in Eldoret Municipality. Based on the study, this paper examines the attitudes of pupils and teachers towards Life Skills Education in public primary schools in Eldoret Municipality. The study was based on the 1997 Functionalist theory by Kinsley Davis. The study employed a survey design. Out of the total 42 public primary schools in Eldoret Municipality 13 of them were selected through simple random sampling. A sample size of 13 head teachers was purposively selected, from the 13 schools; 39 teachers, 3 from each school, were purposively selected. These comprised teachers of LSE. Stratified sampling was used to select one teacher from lower primary, mid-upper and upper primary. Pupils in Classes Six and Seven were purposively selected. The study, therefore, sampled was 299 respondents comprising of teachers and pupils. The data collection instruments used were: questionnaires and interview schedules for head teachers. Descriptive methods were employed in data analysis and data were presented in the form of frequency distribution tables, graphs and pie charts. Data from the interview schedules was analysed qualitatively. The study findings revealed that majority (69.1%) of the students in public primary schools in Eldoret Municipality enjoyed learning Life Skills Education. This shows that students had a positive attitude towards learning of life skills education. In addition, it emerged that majority of the teachers believed that Life Skill Education was necessary for primary school children. It was therefore recommended that there is need to make its teaching and learning compulsory to all students as it contributes to personal and social development of a child at an early stage. Similarly, for teachers to develop an interest in teaching of LSE, there is need for them to be trained on LSE.
Methods Followed By the Southern Ghor District Teachers to Increase the Motivation among Secondary Stage Student in English Language (Published)
This study aims at identifying the methods followed by the Southern Ghor District teachers to increase the motivation among secondary stage students in English language, as well as identifying the most modern methods that can be followed to provoke the students’ motivation in this sensitive phase of the student’s age. The present study also focused on the importance of learning motivation and the factors that influence this motivation. The researcher has chosen the study sample from the English language teachers in the southern Ghor District, specifically the secondary stage teachers who have long experience in teaching this age group for no less than two successive years. The study produced a number of significant results and recommendations, and most importantly the presence of disparity in the rates of using the methods of provoking motivation by the secondary stage students and that there are no statistically significant difference in using those methods due to the variables of the study sample (gender, experience, academic degree). The researcher also recommends the necessity of activating the role of the governmental entities through the Ministry of Education in supporting teachers to increase the motivation of their students by the provision of the required material and tools, in addition to holding training courses and workshops for teachers to raise their efficiency is increasing the learning motivation of the students through the available material and tools at schools.
The study examined the differences in teachers’ effectiveness based on principals’ instructional supervision in public secondary schools in Uyo Local Education Committee in Akwa Ibom State. Four objectives and their corresponding research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto design was used in carrying out this study. Two hundred and one teachers and 14 principals were drawn from the population of 1,105 teachers and 14 principals respectively to participate in the study. Two researchers-developed instruments, “Principals’ Instructional Supervision Interview (PIS1)” and “Teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness Questionnaire (TTEQ)” were used to gather data. Data collected were analyzed using the mean and independent t-test statistics was used. The findings were that there is a significant difference in teachers’ effectiveness based on classroom observation, analysis/strategy, post-conference analysis and post-analysis conference. Teachers in schools where instructional supervision was adequate were more effective than those that had inadequate instructional supervision. It is, therefore, recommended among others that, the principals should carry out an adequate instructional supervision of teachers so as to enhance their teaching effectiveness.
Teaching of Listening Skills in Kiswahili Language: Instructional Strategies Used By Secondary Schools Teachers in Wareng Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
This study investigated the influence of the instructional process on the teaching and acquisition of listening skills in Kiswahili language. Based on the study, this paper examines the type of instructional strategies used by secondary school teachers in the teaching of listening skills in Kiswahili language. The study was based on two theories, the theory of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) as advanced by Widdowson in 1978 and the Top-down theory propounded by Mendelsohn in 1995. A sample of 13 secondary schools was purposively selected from a total of 41 secondary schools in Wareng’ Sub-County. Thirteen (13) teachers and 130 Form Two learners of Kiswahili formed the study sample. The study was a descriptive survey since it set out to discover, describe and interpret existing conditions focusing on secondary school teachers of Kiswahili and Form Two learners. The research instruments used to collect data were two sets of interview schedules and an observation schedule. The 13 teachers were interviewed whereas the 130 learners participated in Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Moreover, 13 Kiswahili lessons were observed and tape-recorded. Tape-recording was used to record data during observations while note taking was used during the focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews. Analyzed data was presented using frequency tables, percentages, graphs and charts. The study revealed that poor teaching strategies used in the teaching process contribute heavily to poor levels of acquisition of listening skills. In view of the findings, the study recommends that teachers of Kiswahili should build into their classrooms listening activities that have as much of the characteristics of real life listening as possible. In particular, there should be a purpose for listening that should be known before the listening activity commences. This paper is significant in that it seeks to provide impetus for Kiswahili language educators, teacher trainers, curriculum designers and the Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC) to re-examine their policies on teaching listening skills.
Teachers’ Perceptions of the Usage of Calculators in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics at the Junior High School Level in Ghana (Published)
Educational technology is recognized as an essential component of the instructional process and thus, uses of calculators have been recommended to be introduced in Junior High Schools in Ghana. However, teachers’ attitudes towards the use of calculators have not been established. The purpose of the study was to investigate teachers’ perceptions towards the use of calculators in mathematics instruction in JHS in Ghana. Descriptive research design was used and data were collected from mathematics teachers using questionnaires. The results indicated that teachers have positive perceptions towards the use of calculators for mathematics learning. The finding is helpful to curriculum developers and they can integrate the use of calculators in mathematics teaching and learning in JHS in Ghana.
Factors Contributing To the Performance of Music Students in Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya (Published)
In teaching music, the teachers ought to strive to transform the students in terms of the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. Therefore, the teacher’s task is to create or influence desirable changes in behavior or tendencies towards behavior in his or her student. This paper is an exploration into the factors that contribute to the performance of music students in secondary schools. Focus is on Nairobi County which was the study area. The study used a descriptive approach. The target population constituted teachers and students teaching and learning music respectively. Purposive sampling was used to select 23 schools that offer music and 23 music teachers who teach music in Nairobi County. Music students were selected using simple random sampling. A total number of 180 out of 360 form three music students and 23 teachers participated in the study. Data was collected using questionnaires, classroom observation schedule and focus group discussions. For validity in data analysis, triangulation was used in data collection and presentation. Data was coded considering the interrelatedness of responses. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented in tabular form containing the number of responses per item (frequency) and the percentage of each response via graphs
Assessing Financial Motivation and Its Influence on Performance of Teachers in Government Senior High Schools in Ghana (Published)
The study looked at financial motivation and its influence on performance of teachers in Government Senior High Schools in Ghana. The sample of the study consisted of 207 public senior high schools drawn from a population of 535. A total of 621 questionnaires were distributed to teachers working in various public senior high schools out of which 520 representing 83.74% were retrieved. The respondents that constituted the sample were drawn using convenience sampling. The researchers used Chi Square to assess the independence between financial motivation and performance of teachers which was measured using the pass rate of students at the West Africa Examination Council. From the Chi Square test statistic and analyzes of questionnaires retrieved from respondents, it was realized that there is association between financial motivation (Single Spine) and performance of teachers at public senior high schools. The study concluded by advising that for financial motivation to continue to serve as motivators in the long run, it is crucial to manage other variables that are associated with it.