Attitudes of Teachers Towards Application of Item Response Theory in Technical Colleges in Rivers State (Published)
This study investigated attitudes of teachers towards the application of item response theory (IRT) in the technical colleges in Rivers State. It is intended to ascertain the influence of these teacher-related factors on testing processes using IRT in these institutions. Five research questions were asked to guide this study and five null hypotheses were formulated and tested. Cross-sectional survey research design was adopted in this study. The population of this study comprised all the 424 technical teachers in the 15 technical colleges in Rivers State. The study used stratified random sampling technique to draw the sample of size of 212 out of the population. The instrument for data collection was a self-designed Likert type (five response level) questionnaire titled,“Survey of Teacher’s Attitudes Towards Application of Item Response Theory (STATA-IRT), with a reliability coefficient of .86. Correlation analysis was used to answer the research questions and multiple regressions, R, was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. It was found from the overall result, that strong linear relationship exists between attitudes of teachers and the application of Item Response Theory in Technical colleges Rivers State. It was also found from the multiple regression results that the attitudes of teachers are predictors of effective application of item response theory in the technical colleges in Rivers state.
Students from Different Cultural Backgrounds, Their Difficulties upon Elementary School Entry in Greece and Teachers’ Intercultural Educational Practices (Published)
The present research aims to explore intercultural practices that are adopted by primary school teachers so as to address the difficulties faced by students from multicultural backgrounds upon their school entry. Moreover, it aims to explore teachers’ perceptions regarding the counselling dimension of their role. For that purpose, a questionnaire was used including open and close type questions. The sample was composed of 106 teachers from Primary Schools of Achaia in South West Greece (86 women and 20 men, 25-55 years old). The results indicate that intercultural activities adopted by teachers as long as their pedagogical suggestions are mainly stereotypical. They also refer to an early conception of intercultural pedagogy based more on acceptance than in coexistence / inclusion. Moreover, teachers do not seek further counselling to address students’ difficulties, although they acknowledge the major problems faced by students coming from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
An Analysis of the Use of Adverbs and Adverbial Clauses in the Sentences of Junior High School Pupils in the Ashanti Region of Ghana (Published)
The research shifts emphasis from the previously predominant area of analyzing the competence of Ghanaian school children in their use of the English Language by adopting the perspective of descriptive grammarians with much emphasis on process analysis. The study adopted qualitative and quantitative paradigm so as to adequately analyze the extent to which pupils in the Junior High School use adverbs and adverbial clauses in their sentences. In all, 100 pupils were selected using proportionate stratified sampling method. Essay texts and structured interview guide was used in gathering data from the sampled school pupils. After analysing using both qualitative and quantitative methods, the findings indicate that teachers and accessibility to language learning facilities play significant roles in second language acquisition.
Attitudes of Pupils and Teachers Towards Life Skills Education in Public Primary Schools in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya (Published)
In the year 2009, the government of Kenya introduced Life Skills Education to help the students in coping with the challenges and demands for everyday life. It is important to understand how performed since then. As such, the study was conducted to find out the preparedness of public primary schools in the implementation of Life Skills Education (LSE) curriculum in Eldoret Municipality. Based on the study, this paper examines the attitudes of pupils and teachers towards Life Skills Education in public primary schools in Eldoret Municipality. The study was based on the 1997 Functionalist theory by Kinsley Davis. The study employed a survey design. Out of the total 42 public primary schools in Eldoret Municipality 13 of them were selected through simple random sampling. A sample size of 13 head teachers was purposively selected, from the 13 schools; 39 teachers, 3 from each school, were purposively selected. These comprised teachers of LSE. Stratified sampling was used to select one teacher from lower primary, mid-upper and upper primary. Pupils in Classes Six and Seven were purposively selected. The study, therefore, sampled was 299 respondents comprising of teachers and pupils. The data collection instruments used were: questionnaires and interview schedules for head teachers. Descriptive methods were employed in data analysis and data were presented in the form of frequency distribution tables, graphs and pie charts. Data from the interview schedules was analysed qualitatively. The study findings revealed that majority (69.1%) of the students in public primary schools in Eldoret Municipality enjoyed learning Life Skills Education. This shows that students had a positive attitude towards learning of life skills education. In addition, it emerged that majority of the teachers believed that Life Skill Education was necessary for primary school children. It was therefore recommended that there is need to make its teaching and learning compulsory to all students as it contributes to personal and social development of a child at an early stage. Similarly, for teachers to develop an interest in teaching of LSE, there is need for them to be trained on LSE.
Methods Followed By the Southern Ghor District Teachers to Increase the Motivation among Secondary Stage Student in English Language (Published)
This study aims at identifying the methods followed by the Southern Ghor District teachers to increase the motivation among secondary stage students in English language, as well as identifying the most modern methods that can be followed to provoke the students’ motivation in this sensitive phase of the student’s age. The present study also focused on the importance of learning motivation and the factors that influence this motivation. The researcher has chosen the study sample from the English language teachers in the southern Ghor District, specifically the secondary stage teachers who have long experience in teaching this age group for no less than two successive years. The study produced a number of significant results and recommendations, and most importantly the presence of disparity in the rates of using the methods of provoking motivation by the secondary stage students and that there are no statistically significant difference in using those methods due to the variables of the study sample (gender, experience, academic degree). The researcher also recommends the necessity of activating the role of the governmental entities through the Ministry of Education in supporting teachers to increase the motivation of their students by the provision of the required material and tools, in addition to holding training courses and workshops for teachers to raise their efficiency is increasing the learning motivation of the students through the available material and tools at schools.
The study examined the differences in teachers’ effectiveness based on principals’ instructional supervision in public secondary schools in Uyo Local Education Committee in Akwa Ibom State. Four objectives and their corresponding research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto design was used in carrying out this study. Two hundred and one teachers and 14 principals were drawn from the population of 1,105 teachers and 14 principals respectively to participate in the study. Two researchers-developed instruments, “Principals’ Instructional Supervision Interview (PIS1)” and “Teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness Questionnaire (TTEQ)” were used to gather data. Data collected were analyzed using the mean and independent t-test statistics was used. The findings were that there is a significant difference in teachers’ effectiveness based on classroom observation, analysis/strategy, post-conference analysis and post-analysis conference. Teachers in schools where instructional supervision was adequate were more effective than those that had inadequate instructional supervision. It is, therefore, recommended among others that, the principals should carry out an adequate instructional supervision of teachers so as to enhance their teaching effectiveness.
Teaching of Listening Skills in Kiswahili Language: Instructional Strategies Used By Secondary Schools Teachers in Wareng Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
This study investigated the influence of the instructional process on the teaching and acquisition of listening skills in Kiswahili language. Based on the study, this paper examines the type of instructional strategies used by secondary school teachers in the teaching of listening skills in Kiswahili language. The study was based on two theories, the theory of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) as advanced by Widdowson in 1978 and the Top-down theory propounded by Mendelsohn in 1995. A sample of 13 secondary schools was purposively selected from a total of 41 secondary schools in Wareng’ Sub-County. Thirteen (13) teachers and 130 Form Two learners of Kiswahili formed the study sample. The study was a descriptive survey since it set out to discover, describe and interpret existing conditions focusing on secondary school teachers of Kiswahili and Form Two learners. The research instruments used to collect data were two sets of interview schedules and an observation schedule. The 13 teachers were interviewed whereas the 130 learners participated in Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Moreover, 13 Kiswahili lessons were observed and tape-recorded. Tape-recording was used to record data during observations while note taking was used during the focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews. Analyzed data was presented using frequency tables, percentages, graphs and charts. The study revealed that poor teaching strategies used in the teaching process contribute heavily to poor levels of acquisition of listening skills. In view of the findings, the study recommends that teachers of Kiswahili should build into their classrooms listening activities that have as much of the characteristics of real life listening as possible. In particular, there should be a purpose for listening that should be known before the listening activity commences. This paper is significant in that it seeks to provide impetus for Kiswahili language educators, teacher trainers, curriculum designers and the Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC) to re-examine their policies on teaching listening skills.
Teachers’ Perceptions of the Usage of Calculators in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics at the Junior High School Level in Ghana (Published)
Educational technology is recognized as an essential component of the instructional process and thus, uses of calculators have been recommended to be introduced in Junior High Schools in Ghana. However, teachers’ attitudes towards the use of calculators have not been established. The purpose of the study was to investigate teachers’ perceptions towards the use of calculators in mathematics instruction in JHS in Ghana. Descriptive research design was used and data were collected from mathematics teachers using questionnaires. The results indicated that teachers have positive perceptions towards the use of calculators for mathematics learning. The finding is helpful to curriculum developers and they can integrate the use of calculators in mathematics teaching and learning in JHS in Ghana.
Factors Contributing To the Performance of Music Students in Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya (Published)
In teaching music, the teachers ought to strive to transform the students in terms of the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. Therefore, the teacher’s task is to create or influence desirable changes in behavior or tendencies towards behavior in his or her student. This paper is an exploration into the factors that contribute to the performance of music students in secondary schools. Focus is on Nairobi County which was the study area. The study used a descriptive approach. The target population constituted teachers and students teaching and learning music respectively. Purposive sampling was used to select 23 schools that offer music and 23 music teachers who teach music in Nairobi County. Music students were selected using simple random sampling. A total number of 180 out of 360 form three music students and 23 teachers participated in the study. Data was collected using questionnaires, classroom observation schedule and focus group discussions. For validity in data analysis, triangulation was used in data collection and presentation. Data was coded considering the interrelatedness of responses. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented in tabular form containing the number of responses per item (frequency) and the percentage of each response via graphs
Assessing Financial Motivation and Its Influence on Performance of Teachers in Government Senior High Schools in Ghana (Published)
The study looked at financial motivation and its influence on performance of teachers in Government Senior High Schools in Ghana. The sample of the study consisted of 207 public senior high schools drawn from a population of 535. A total of 621 questionnaires were distributed to teachers working in various public senior high schools out of which 520 representing 83.74% were retrieved. The respondents that constituted the sample were drawn using convenience sampling. The researchers used Chi Square to assess the independence between financial motivation and performance of teachers which was measured using the pass rate of students at the West Africa Examination Council. From the Chi Square test statistic and analyzes of questionnaires retrieved from respondents, it was realized that there is association between financial motivation (Single Spine) and performance of teachers at public senior high schools. The study concluded by advising that for financial motivation to continue to serve as motivators in the long run, it is crucial to manage other variables that are associated with it.
An Assessment of Basic School Teachers’ Perception of the Impact of Motivation on Their Productivity in Ghana (Published)
This study aimed at examining basic school teachers’ perception of the impact of motivation on JHS teacher productivity in the Asante Akim South district of Ghana. The descriptive survey design was used in conducting the study and the population was all the JHS teachers in the district with a sample size of 217, made up of 179 males and 38 females. A questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.74 was used for data collection. Key findings indicated that majority (97.2%) of teachers admitted that government’s study leave with pay policy was necessary for teacher productivity, eighty five percent (85%) of teachers were of the opinion that promotion was a necessary condition for teacher productivity, and there was a strong positive correlation between teachers’ salaries and teacher productivity. It was recommended that the quota system introduced into the study leave with pay policy should be removed to enable many teachers benefit from the facility. The district best teacher award scheme should cover at least 50% of teachers in the district, and promotion in the Ghana Education Service (GES) should be based on hard work rather than long service and further education.
English Language Teachers Attitudes about Their Contribution in Curriculum Process in the Saudi Education System (Published)
In Saudi Arabia curriculum designing and development is always performed by the educational authority the Ministry of Education. Unfortunately, teachers’ voices are completely ignored, although they are the principle role-players in the educational process. Teachers, on their part, have practical knowledge based on their daily work with the students. This knowledge is useful because teachers can assess whither the new ideas will work in the classroom. In the current study the researcher investigated the teachers’ viewpoints on their participation in the curriculum design process. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect data from the samples. The results showed that teachers have positive attitudes about their participation in the curriculum designing process
An Evaluation of Classroom Experiences of Basic Science Teachers in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria (Published)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the Classroom Experiences of Basic Science Teachers in Context of Competencies and Opinions. Two instruments were developed and used for the study, the instructional skills performance level (ISPL) based on five-point performance scale and questionnaire. The two instruments were developed by the researcher and validated by 3 specialists in Science Education, one from measurement and evaluation and two from biology and Chemistry. The questionnaire was administered on 200 Basic Science Teachers randomly selected from Ebonyi State Junior Secondary schools. The questionnaire was divided into 2 sections. Section I contains all the variables. Section II contains a 10-point item scale constructed by the researcher seeking the opinions of basic Science Teachers. It also contains a list of 76 instructional materials used in teaching Basic Science. The Results showed that Basic Science teachers seem to have a title performance level in classroom management and students participations and in evaluation/summary. They performed averagely in the remaining 3 instructional skills; it was also found that most teachers who teach Basic Science used lecture and demonstration method in teaching. Based on the findings, recommendations were made.
Teachers Perception on Ways of Improving the Teaching of Social Studies in Onueke Education Zone (Published)
This study investigated Teachers perception on ways of improving the teaching of Social Studies in Onueke Education Zone. The purpose of the study was to specifically ascertain teaching techniques that could improve the teaching of Social Studies in Onueke Education Zone, find out if some evaluation techniques could improve the teaching of Social Studies. The design of the study was a descriptive survey research. The population of the study comprised 100 Social Studies teachers in Onueke Education Zone. Two research questions and two hypotheses were designed and tested to guide the study. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled “teachers perception on ways of improving the teaching of Social Studies (TPWITSS) in Onueke Education Zone. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and chi-square (X2). Findings from the investigation revealed that respondents accepted all items on the questionnaire significantly improve the teaching of Social Studies, evaluation techniques significantly improve the teaching of Social Studies.
Methods Used By Teachers to Teach Christian Religious Education in Secondary Schools in Kimilili in Bungoma County, Kenya (Published)
Christian Religious Education in secondary schools in Kenya occupies a key position in the 8-4-4 curriculum. This is so because it enables the learner to integrate all subjects of the curriculum into a more mature view of self, their relationship with the environment, both physical and cultural, other people and God. The purpose of the study was to establish factors that face the use of audiovisual resources for teaching Christian Religious Education (CRE) in Kimilili Division, Bungoma County in Western Kenya. Based on the study, this paper surveys the methods used by teachers in teaching CRE in the study area. The study adopted a survey research design. Random sampling was used to select both CRE teachers and students to participate in the study while stratified sampling was used to select the schools. The sample was drawn from secondary schools in Kimilili Division of Bungoma County in Kenya. The sample size was made up of 266 respondents, comprising 242 CRE students and 24 CRE teachers. Data was collected using questionnaires and observation schedules. The study used two sets of questionnaires; one for CRE teachers and another for students. The collected data was quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented using tables and graphs. The findings showed that the CRE subject is mainly taught using verbal communication and the use of textbooks is common. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that curriculum planners and other educational stakeholders in Kenya should establish CRE resource centres in every County so that resources for teaching CRE can easily be availed to teachers for teaching the subject. This paper will help teachers and other educational stakeholders to understand the importance of combining various methods in teaching with the sole purpose of ensuring that learners are able to master, retain and live out the content that is taught in CRE in Kenya.
The study investigated the relationship between teachers’ personality traits and their desired leadership styles in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana. The descriptive survey design was used for the study with a total of 417 employees randomly selected from five secondary schools in the metropolis. Results indicate that all the five personality traits had significant positive relationship with transformational leadership style, with conscientiousness having the strongest relationship and neuroticism the weakest. Thus conscientious teachers have higher preference for transformational leadership than employees of the other personality traits. Neuroticism had the strongest positive relationship with transactional leadership style among the other traits. Agreeableness and openness also had significant (weak) positive relationship with transactional leadership style. Conscientiousness however did not have significant relationship, with extraversion relating negatively with transactional leadership style. It was recommended that school managers should endeavour to know the traits of their subordinates and apply the appropriate leadership styles when dealing with them to bring about good interpersonal relationship and satisfaction at the workplace.
Challenges Encountered By Students with Visual Impairments and Teachers In An Integrated School Environment: A Case Of Integrated Secondary Schools In Kericho District, Ainamoi Division, Kenya (Published)
The government’s effort in dealing with access and equity in the provision of education and training to children with special needs has encountered numerous challenges some of which include; lack of clear guidelines on the policy implementation of integrated education, inadequate tools and skills in identification and assessment and lack of data of children with special needs among others. This paper sought to establish the challenges encountered by students and teachers in the integrated education program for students with visual impairments. The study was carried out in Kericho District adopting a case study design. Data collection was done by use of questionnaires, focus group discussion and document analysis. A total of 200 respondents participated in the study and data was analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The study cited a number of challenges that are experienced by the visually impaired students such as; the administration view them as a burden to school and many times they do not meet their needs like providing the necessary learning materials even though they pay fees and academic performance significantly indicated the nature of evaluation among the students in these secondary schools was clear that they are conscious about the needs of others. The government, through the Ministry of Education should provide teaching / learning resources for the visually impaired and blind students. Training for all teachers on special education should be performed. Informative campaigns at the community level with emphasis on the fact that disability is not inability are also advocated for.
Teachers’ Perception on the Challenges of 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum Implementation in Edo State. (Published)
This study is carried out to find out the challenges faced in the implementation of the revised 9-year BEC in Edo state. The population for the study comprises all the school teachers from Lower, Middle and Upper Basic teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A total population of two thousand eight hundred and eighty-four (2884) was focused for the study in Akoko Edo Local Government area. The sample of this study was six hundred (600) respondents selected across the state from public Lower, Middle and Upper Basic schools. Purposive sampling technique was used to group the state in terms of Senatorial District in the state.Random sampling techniques was used to select two (2) Local Government each from each senatorial district. Proportional sampling techniques was used to select five (5) schools in each Local Government making thirty schools (30). Strategfied sampling technique was used to select twenty (20) respondents from each schools selected in all the Local Government respectively. A total number of 600 respondents was selected from the 30 schools in the six (6) Local Government for the study. The research hypothesis there is no significance difference on the perceived challenges by teachers’ on the implementation of the revised 9-year BEC on the basis of year of experience was accepted and adequate recommendations were made.
MOTIVATING AND DEMOTIVATING FACTORS AMONG KISWAHILI TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ELGEYO MARAKWET COUNTY-KEIYO SUB COUNTY, KENYA: A THEORETICAL APPROACH (Published)
This paper sought to investigate the administrative motivation factors affecting Secondary School Kiswahili teachers in Keiyo Sub County. The study was based on Expectancy theory by Victor Vroom who explained that motivation is a combination of three factors Valence, Expectancy and Instrumentality. The theory stresses that students and teachers expect to get a reward from the effort they put in their work. The paper adopted a survey research design and stratified random sampling to select teachers teaching Kiswahili from a selection of 14 schools out of the 29 schools in Keiyo Sub-County. The sample included teachers and students. Questionnaires and document analysis were used to gather data for the study which was then analyzed using descriptive statistics by frequencies, percentages, variances and standard deviations; t-test was applied in testing the hypothesis. The paper established that motivation plays a major role in contributing to good performance of students, however, most teachers felt demotivated in the school. Some of the factors contributing to demotivation include animosity from the surrounding community, poor infrastructure, lack of teaching resources, poor housing facilities, denial of study leaves or transfers as well as unwarranted blame for poor performance of students. It is recommended that Head teachers should encourage team work, provide the necessary facilities such as good housing, equipped labs, and avail necessary teaching resources as a way of motivating teachers. High quality teaching staffs are the cornerstone of a successful education system. It is thus important that teachers are motivated and any demotivation factor eliminated to ensure improved performance in schools.
Principals’ Supervisory Techniques and Teachers’ Job Performance in Secondary Schools in Ikom Education Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
The study investigated the relationship between principals’ supervisory techniques and teachers’ job performance in Ikom Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The sample was 86 principals, 344 teachers and 1,376 students drawn from a population of 86 principals, 1829 teachers and 35,359 students in public secondary schools in the study area. To achieve the purpose of the study, two null hypotheses were formulated. Data collection was carried out with the use of two research instruments titled “Principals’ Supervisory Technique Questionnaire (PSTQ)” and “Teachers’ Job Performance Questionnaire (TJPQ)”. The instruments were subjected to face validity and Cronbach Alpha reliability estimate. The reliability value obtained ranged between 0.73 and 0.78. These figures confirmed that the instruments were reliable in achieving the objective of the study. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis (r) was used for data analysis at .05 level of significance. Results obtained revealed that a significant relationship exist between principals’ supervisory techniques in terms of classroom visitation, workshop techniques and teachers’ job performance. Based on the findings, it was concluded that job performances of teachers would be enhanced when they are properly supervised by principals using the various supervisory techniques.