National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)
Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them. Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.
In today’s Architectural practice, there is a struggle to find the ways to balance or harmonize environmental technology, protection of resources and aesthetic content. And the world has witnessed some level of significant industrial and technological revolution. The revolution, despite its acclaimed benefits to humanity has resulted to a worrisome level of interaction with our environment. . One point of a great concern, with regard to the eco-system, is that as the global greenhouse gas level continue to rise, the planet’s temperature with corresponding rise, resulting in the melting of the ice caps and seriously altering global weather conditions. Current estimates calculate that the world built environment account for approximately one third of all global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions whilst consuming 40% of the world’s energy. However, the challenge facing environmental architecture is meting the increasing demand for revolutionary architectural solutions while mitigating its impact on the eco-system. The aim of this paper therefore, is to critically review current ecologic design concept/environmental technology using secondary and primary data. The effect of the built environment on the co-system which has resulted in consistent rise in global temperature in the past three decades was accessed. The paper recommends adopting more eco-friendly design approach, passive design methods and use of renewable energy source amongst others as key for achieving eco-friendly building. Finally we conclude that moving from a sectional prism of viewing environmentalism largely driven by sectional issues involving pollution, resources and biodiversity to a more holistic view point that recognizes the inherent interdependence of all life systems is the right way forward and we therefore call on Architects to embrace it.
There are many challenges affecting how we can better achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Since the factors that affected our poor performance during the MDGs which include unmanageable population, pervasive poverty, ignorance and superstition, religious dogmatism, corruption and economic mismanagement, lack of political will, authenticity of collected data are still largely with us in Nigeria. Apart from those issues pertaining to Nigeria, we need to be able to manage some existing global threats to sustainable development. These threats include the continuous advancement towards finding or making more potent biological, chemical, nuclear, cyber and other weapons of mass destruction. United Nations need to improve on legislation to prevent these proliferations and also improve on how to coordinate scientific efforts towards better achievement of the Sustainable Development goals. Finally the importance of education in its entire ramification was identified as key to achieving the SD goals better.
Human activities represented in industrial and technological revolution led to the increase of emissions of warming gases and their concentrations in the atmosphere. This increase caused the phenomenon of greenhouse gases and the rise of earth temperature over its natural rates as a result of the increase of absorption rate of infra-red rays, which led to the climate change of the earth. These gases are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide (PFcs ,HFcs, and SF6. Many studies dealt with natural and reviving environment and its relation with climate change. These studies have increased much in the last 5 years and they led to more confidence in the relation between warning phenomenon and its impact on the national economies. They confirmed that there is a high degree of certainty for the present regional changes in temperatures. The impact of these changes was quite clear on many physical reviving systems because of warming phenomenon. This research dealt with studying the different impact of climate on sustainable development in the Arab world. It set up a policy for adaptation to or mitigation of climate changes to achieve sustainability in development, through which we can preserve the environment and achieve development. The research is based on the realistic and Descriptive analysis to identify the nature of the relation between climate change and sustainable development in the Arab world. Besides, the research used the adjusted net saving rates which reflect the variability of sustainable development used by the World Bank to show environment deterioration and depletion in addition to the use of sustainability of development in the Arab world. we could find out that some countries achieved recent positive values and others achieved recent negative values. This shows that climate changes have negative impact on sustainable development operation in the Arab countries.
This paper is a contribution to addressing the challenge of underdevelopment in Nigeria using the tool of education. The researcher looked at education for sustainable development in Nigeria as a developing country. In recent times, there has been a paradigm shift in defining development and the way it is practiced. This paradigm shift is what has resulted in the adoption of Sustainable Development (SD) as a concept. Sustainable Development was highlighted in the Brunttand Report, at the Stockholm Conference of 1972 and more recently, in Paris, France where over 169 countries adopted the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a working document. All over Nigeria, there are rumours and evidence of failed leadership characterized by dwindling educational, economic, social and political fortunes. All these problems are as a result of the inability of the leadership to plan successfully for development using appropriate educational tools. It is the opinion here that, Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) can function to educate, train and undertake research to contribute to the sustainable development of the Nigerian Society. For instance, such education can provide the citizens with skills, perspectives, values and knowledge to live sustainably in their communities. It can also produce leaders who manage the affairs of government and private sector industries to constitute the stake holders of sustainable development. To function properly in this regard, Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) should grow from a variety of sources and be delivered through casual, informal, non-formal and formal strategies. In order to achieve these therefore, the paper recommends among other things that there should be a reorientation of existing education at all levels to include principles, skills, perspectives and values of sustainable development. That formal, non-formal informal and casual education for knowledge, attitude and skills for poverty alleviation and human development be promoted.
Human Resources and Strategic Management for Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Akwa Ibom State Experience (Published)
Human resource and strategic management is one of the most important requirements for the sustenance of an economy, whether at micro or macro levels. It is a must for any society, country or even enterprise that wishes to survive under complex challenges of a dynamic as well as globalized world. The objective of this study was to examine human resources and strategic management for sustainable development in Nigeria drawing specifically from Akwa Ibom State experience. The study adopted a historical and descriptive research drawing data mostly from secondary sources. The study revealed that Akwa Ibom state government is committed to training its workforce in the critical areas of need such as science, technology and engineering as a core area for sustainable development. The study further revealed that where human resources capital are not strategically managed, it would stalled any meaningful development in the state. The study therefore recommended that the training and retraining of workforce in the state should be focus mostly on the critical areas of science, technology and engineering as against the present emphasis on general administration. Also, the workforce so train should be strategically managed to enhance sustainable development in the state.
Global economy is witnessing a steep in recession and the effect permeates all sectors of the society. Libraries and particularly public libraries are vulnerable to these changes in world economy because of greater reliance on public funding which makes them easy targets for information resource budget cuts, layoffs, foreclosures and job freezes. An investigation into the position of public libraries in this credit crunch stirs up a pragmatic mix of tension between decrease funding in the face of overall cut in public expenditure and increase demand for library services forcing staff to develop new strategies with very limited resources to respond to the information needs of people during recession and explore means to buffer the financial storm. In Nigeria, public libraries suffer chronic neglect which impairs them to display the librarian’s axiom characterized by decrease funding and increased usage in times of fiscal crisis. This paper recommends a redirection of government policy towards the sustenance of public libraries even during recession and a retooling of library human resources for better value.
As the traditional role of corporate entities have been challenged by an increased number of demands from society, organizations roles are no longer limited to generate profits by supplying products or services. Instead, they are expected to play the role of responsible co-citizens of the community, taking social and environmental responsibility for the consequences of their actions. Implementing sustainable practices into business strategies is considered beneficial for both organizations and society, as it brings organizations opportunities for growth and development, as well as a more sustainable future for society. More so, the success or failure of any business is said to rests in part on the nature and types of marketing strategy they employ.A cross-sectional survey design was put in place for the study. The unit of analysis was organizations while the owner/managers of SMEs were the respondents. Systematic, simple random and snowbell sampling techniques were employed to collect the needed data for the study. A sample size of 200 SMEs covering all sectors that exist in the study area was drawn from a population of 522 SMEs. Inferential statistics was used to empirically and statistically analyze the data collected for the study with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20. Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The study revealed that a positive relationship exist between Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Sustainability Marketing (SM) and the relationship is statistically significant (p<0.05).Also, it shows that a positive relationship exist between Sustainability Marketing (SM) and Competitive Advantage and the relationship is statistically significant (p<0.05.It was recommended that SMEs operating in the Nigerian market should endeavour to communicate sustainable practices strategies internally in order to form effective sustainability strategies in all business decisions.
Business Education: An Indispensable Tool for Achieving Sustainable Development in the South-East States of Nigeria (Published)
The study was carried out by the researchers in the South East States of Nigeria to determine how business education could be an indispensable tool for achieving sustainable development. A survey research design was used for the study. The population comprised 46 business educators teaching in public universities in the South East States of Nigeria. A self-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers and carefully validated by the experts in the Faculty of Education of Enugu State University of Science and Technology was used for data collection. Mean and Standard deviation were used to answer the two research questions that guided the study while t.test hypothesis was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study showed that business education programme is an indispensable tool for achieving sustainable development in the South East States of Nigeria because it provides the needed manpower required in industries. The study equally revealed that one of the strategies for achieving sustainable development in the South East States of Nigeria through business education programme is to ensure that the school curriculum is relevant to the skills required of industries. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the mean responses of male and female business educators on the relevance of business education in achieving sustainable development and the strategies for achieving sustainable development in the South East States of Nigeria. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers recommended among others that the curriculum planners should ensure that the school curriculum content is relevant to the skills required of industries because of the relevance of the programme in providing the needed manpower in industries.
Sustainability Filters and Enhancers towards Improving Intervention Functionality and Sustainable Advancement as a More Holistic Concept (Published)
In a continuously increasing population situation in the world, non-renewable resources cannot be used sustainably forever, no matter how much frugality is applied since the resources involved are finite and would be exhausted one day. This article proposed that at the micro level, interventions should be reviewed from two perspectives: conditional requirements, I have called sustainability filters and others that will enhance sustainability and functionality, which I have called sustainability enhancers and these issues be considered before intervention decisions are made. It also explained other interrelated factors to be considered at the macro level. The article tried to bring out the interrelationships between peace, development, violence and pollution and graphically showed that no sustainable development can take place without peace. Finally, the article proposed a shift from the constraining mentality, mainly based on population pressure and frugal utilization of resources/attitudes to greater focus on science and technology towards continual reduction of input requirements to achieving greater outputs and utilizing greener alternatives or renewable resources (sustainable advancement), so that the impending world population crisis can be better managed for posterity.
Skills in Basic Science and Technology for Local Technology and Entrepreneurship in Nigeria (Published)
With the broad search for skills to drive the home grown local technology in developing countries like Nigeria, Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) in the new Curriculum for Basic Science and Technology, encourages teachers to lead their students to identify entrepreneurial skills in Basic Sciences. This study is one of the efforts to determine such skills in Basic Sciences and Technology for Local technology and entrepreneurship. The research took place in one of the biggest cities in a flourishing State in Nigeria with 120 students (30 each), randomly selected from four secondary schools. The validated prime instrument for the descriptive survey design was questionnaire. The data was analyzed using inferential statistics. The researcher made recommendations that could answer the usual local and global question of “Where next is technology driving the local entrepreneurial?”
Regulating access to common resources and organizing their exploitation is, usually, the responsibility of local authorities and the object of local governance. However, in ski resorts, participating the private sector in territorial management could have a better impact on resource preservation due to the seasonality of ski dynamism and its impact on network efficacy. This article aims to study the concept of local network governance and to examine its influence on sustainable development. The effectiveness of this governance is illustrated by the case of Mzaar ski-resort in Lebanon.
The Role of the Private Sector In Promoting Sustainable Development In Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Najran As An “Example (Published)
The present study aims to identify the avant-garde role of the private sector, and its significance in achieving the sustainable and comprehensive development in Najran Area, as an example for the local development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It also aimed at identifying the challenges that impede the complete fulfillment of the role in realizing the comprehensive development. The researcher utilized the historical, descriptive, and analytical method in this study. The questionnaire was relied upon as a main data collection instrument. The study population consisted of the private sector organizations in the area. The author distributed the questionnaire to (96) owners of these organizations, who were taken as the study sample, which was selected through a simple random manner. The results of the study indicated that the private sector in the area produces products that realize self-sufficiency of the area population. This sector further has an effective role in reducing unemployment, finding job opportunities for the Saudi citizen, increasing his income, and contributing to the realization of the social security in the area. Most importantly, the projects of this sector are mainly environment friendly. The study showed that the state contributes with large amounts to support the private sector in the area, but the finance provided by the financing institutions to the private sector is still low. The study concluded that the private sector in Najran area plays an important role in achieving the comprehensive, sustainable development, both economically and socially; and that it is an example that could be followed for the local development in the area.
A Proposal for the Role of the Family in Promoting Community Awareness of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Published)
The present study is an attempt to identify the role of the family in promoting community awareness of Sustainable Development goals. The study sample covered several books and websites as well as UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The descriptive method was utilized to achieve the study objectives. The study concluded that the Sustainable Development goals are considered a developmental project that seeks to improve the life of peoples, but the entire goals include unfamiliar terms and issues that in turn break down the family and community; therefore, the community awareness of these issues should be raised through the educational institutions, and the family role played through the three balanced dimensions of the development: social, economic and environmental dimensions. The study recommended that the developmental plans should not be unified without identifying the real needs of the countries, whose requirements must be taken into account. The study confirmed the significant role played by Neighborhood Centers in promoting the community awareness of Sustainable Development goals.
Partnerships for Knowledge Production: A Panacea for Skills Acquisition for Sustainable Development through Vocational Education in Nigeria (Published)
This paper focused on partnerships for knowledge production as a panacea for skills acquisition for sustainable development through Vocational Education in Nigeria. Although the government of Nigeria is emphasizing Entrepreneurial Education to promote skills acquisition for economic growth, the government has failed to match it plans with concrete actions by way of financial support and provision of facilities to enhance proper preparation of the learners for skills acquisition at graduation. Skill acquisition is the sole aim of Vocational Education. A survey of some programmes in the Universities has shown that this programme (Vocational Education) is organized without practicals due to lack of facilities such as workshops and laboratories with modern equipments. Students who offer computer education in most cases are not exposed to practical experience. This is applicable to other areas of Vocational Education as well. This paper highlighted other challenges such as lack of implementation of research results in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET), lack of students exchange and linkage programmes in some Universities. Finally, among other recommendations, the paper raised the need for Federal and State governments to allocate a substantial amount of funds in their yearly budgets for proper implementation of Vocational Education programme in Nigeria.
The Purpose of this research is to encourage preparing an auditing program for sustainable development. The program includes procedures/strategies that are classified in accordance to the dimensions of sustainable development (economic, environmental, social and Institutional). This program will be used by both of internal and external auditors to achieve current and future generations’ needs in addition to achieving development goals
Role of Society-Based Forest Management for Improving Rural Livelihoods: A Study of Bogra District, Bangladesh (Published)
Social forestry (SF) is a government adopted forest management practice introduced with the help of ADB since 1982. In Bangladesh, the challenge of natural catastrophes and the high density of population, social forestry is a potential sector for sustainable development of rural livelihoods. The overall objectives of this study are to determine how to improve the utilization of forest products and the livelihoods of the participants through social forestry. The analysis is carried out through a household survey, using a random sampling, along with formal and informal discussion with the participants and the data which is collected from district forest office (DFO).The results show that SF is effective for improving sustainable development of rural livelihoods through various activities that create positive attitude among people to foster social development.
Environmental degradation can have negative consequences, both expressly and impliedly, for the actual attainment of human rights. For instance, the rights to life and human dignity are only achievable where people can have access to an ecologically balanced environment devoid of degradation. Similarly, the enjoyment of other fundamental rights like food, freedom of worship, good working environment, education and health can also be affected by an unhealthy or unwholesome environment. In recognition of the vital connection between human rights and the environment, many global instruments and national Constitutions have recognised the right to a healthy environment. The 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is one of such national Constitutions that acknowledge the need to safeguard the environment. The article argues however that the non-justiciable provision of the Nigerian Constitution constitutes a serious threat to citizen’s enjoyment of the right to a clean and healthy environment.
Evolutionary-Genetic Regularities of Origins of an Economic and Legal Systems Imbalance at a Regional Level (Published)
Issues of economic security enforcement are important for both citizens, agents of economic activity, and bodies of government at all levels of the power vertical. World economy spottiness, acceleration of globalisation processes, sufficiently strengthening world markets competition complicate achieving such goal as economic security guarantee. To accomplish this task successfully it is necessary to combine scholarly based, systematic and coordinated activities of all institutional structures – state power, bodies of local self-government, business community, and social organisations. Despite the measures of economic and legal character taken by the government in the transition period development of a mixed economy in the regions is at the formation stage. Deficiency of effective economic policy and balanced legislative control of these processes resulted in setback in production and, as a consequence, demographic situation decline, as well as intensive interregional migration of population. Moreover, market competition mechanism divided regions depending on the existing economic resources. That is why nowadays there appeared an objective necessity to work out methods of regulating imbalance of economic and legal system to accomplish the task of economic security enforcement and sustainable development of socio-economic processes at a regional level.In the article a number of regularities of the origins of economic and legal systems imbalance at a regional level is determined on the basis of evolutionary-genetic approach. The notion of this phenomenon essence allows anticipating a model of region sustainable development and its economic security guarantee.
As a consequence of the changing conditions of doing business, the number of industrial and company-specific codes of conduct, as well as social and environmental standards is increasing rapidly. The decision to adopt such standards and to develop effective implementation strategies has engrossed managers at all levels and in all types of organisations in recent years. Some organisations have claimed that compliance issues have been determining their bottom-line and business performance in the market place. This conceptual paper addresses the challenge of how sustainable development can be achieved, suggesting that social and environmental standards has a part to play within the paradigm of sustainable development. Three specific internationally established standards are discussed: Environmental Management system (EMS), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and Fair Trade. These institutionalized approaches are described and then contrasted in relation to a number of different factors. The paper concludes that the implementation of social standards principles in UK can contribute to the development of long-term sustainable development goals.