Tag Archives: Strategies.

Strategizing For Effective Library Users Retention in a University System in 21st Century. Evidence from Federal University of Technology Owerri (Futo) (Published)

This paper is an attempt to study the strategies that leads to effective library users in Federal University of Technology, Owerri with a view to study the expectations of library users, modern infrastructural needs, retention strategies as well as try to bring to light the challenges that confronts the users and recommend some remedial measures for its improvement. Questionnaire was used for data collection, a reliability co-efficient of 0.75 was obtained. The study confirmed that the library needs to do well on some issues such as power supply, internet connectivity, subscription to open access database, etcetera for a very good user’s retention profile.

Keywords: 21st Century., Library Users, Retention, Strategies.

Training and Development Strategies: Approaches for Performance Enhancement in Goal Oriented Firms. (A Survey of Commercial Banking Firms in Nigeria) (Published)

This research paper is a critical analysis of Training and Development Strategies; as approaches for performance enhancement in goal oriented firms with emphasis on Twenty-one commercial banking firms in Nigeria. This study adopted simple empirical survey method or quasi-experimental method which places premium on survey of sample. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were utilized in a bid to attain the necessary result. Five point Likert rating scale questionnaire were used in obtaining the opinions and views from respondents (i.e. Strongly Agree, SA (5), Agree, A (4), Undecided, U (3), Disagree, D (2), And Strongly Disagree, SD (1)). For secondary sources of data textbooks, journals, and annual reports of 21 commercial banking firms’ and stock exchange fact book, were used. The sample size for the study is 398 derived from the employee population of 21 commercial banking firms totaled of 64, 846 as at January, 2017. This was determined using Taro-Yamane’s formulae. Bartlett’s test of Sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer Oikin measure of sampling adequacy, construct validity test determination and Cronbach Alpha for reliability test determination was applied in this study. Bowley’s Allocation formula was applied in determining the individual commercial banking firms sample size. Multiple Regression test was used in processing the three (3) formulated hypotheses. The study findings revealed that Training and Development Strategies adopted by commercial banking firms in Nigeria for employees have positive relationship on productivity of the banking firms. Again, Training and Development have enhanced employee’s skills acquisition and knowledge base of employees. The last finding showed that training and development programme/strategies have impacted on organization employees by modifying their behaviors and their work attitudes to conform to set standard and norms of the commercial banks for service delivery and sound operations. The study recommendations are that, executive management of the commercial banking firms in Nigeria should also ensure that operational analysis, organizational analysis, individual analysis is periodically carried out to determine training and development needs in areas of skills inadequacy, knowledge gap, attitude and behavioral aspects to warrant proper Training and Development hence customers of the banks needed to be treated with absolute care in order to attract higher market share and profits by banks. Again, the study recommended emphasis on e-product s training for commercial banking firms in Nigeria to enhance sustainability and competitive advantage hence this will enhance growth in a positive direction especially in this era of globalization.

Keywords: Development, Goal Oriented Firms, Performance Enhancement, Strategies., Training

Adjustment Strategies of Widows to Widowhood Stress Based on Their Age: The Case of Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

This study was aimed at investigating influence of age on adjustment strategies employed by widows in coping with widowhood stress in Rivers State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the conduct of the study at 0.05 probability level. A sample of 370 widows in Rivers State was drawn from the population via proportional stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments namely; Stress Level Scale for Widows (SLSW) and Questionnaire for Widows Adjustment Strategies (QWAS), both developed by the researcher were used for data collection. Data were analysed with mean, standard deviation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance and the statistical package known as SPSS for widows was employed for the analyses. Results showed that; all the eight adjustment strategies (problem solving, cognitive restructuring, express emotion, social support, problem avoidance, wishful thinking, self-criticism and social withdrawal) are adopted by widows in ameliorating widowhood stress; there are slight differences among the mean values of the different age groups with regards to all the adjustment strategies of widows to widowhood stress. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were made accordingly.

Keywords: Adjustment, Age, Rivers State, Strategies., Stress, Widowhood

Adjustment Strategies of Widows to Widowhood Stress In Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated the various adjustment strategies employed by widows in coping with widowhood stress in Rivers State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the conduct of the study at 0.05 alpha levels. A sample of 370 widows in Rivers State was drawn from the population through proportional stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments namely; Stress Level Scale for Widows (SLSW) and Questionnaire for Widows Adjustment Strategies (QWAS), both developed by the researcher were used for data collection. Data were analysed with mean, standard deviation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance and the statistical package known as SPSS for widows was employed for the analyses. Results showed that; all the eight adjustment strategies (problem solving, cognitive restructuring, express emotion, social support, problem avoidance, wishful thinking, self-criticism and social withdrawal) are adopted by widows in ameliorating widowhood stress; ethnic group of widows’ influences their adjustment strategies to widowhood stress. Based on the findings of this work, three appropriate recommendations were made.

Keywords: Adjustment, Rivers State, Strategies., Stress, Widowhood

The Teacher and Teaching with Instructional Materials in the Teaching of Science Subjects and the Contribution of Guidance and Counselors Therein (Published)

The aim of this study was to investigate the preferred crises management strategies among lecturers in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. The population of the study was one thousand two hundred and forty two (1,242) lecturers. The total sample used for the study was five hundred respondents who were drawn through stratified random sampling from four institutions of higher learning in Cross River State. The instrument used for the data collection was the researcher’s developed Preferred Crisis Management Strategies Questionnaire (P.C.M.S.Q). It has two sections, A and B. Section A contained the personal data while B contained four point Likert scale type, made up of sixteen (16) items. The data collected from the samples were subjected to statistical analysis using the population and independent t-test. To accomplish the study objective, two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The following findings emerged; the preference for force crisis management strategy by lecturers was significantly low in tertiary institutions in Cross River State. Sex does not influence lecturers’ preference for dialogue as a crisis management strategy. Based on these findings, the following recommendations were made. The government should adequately fund education, and the schools should devise local sources of generating funds while well-meaning individuals and companies should assist, dialogue should be adopted as evidenced in the study.

Keywords: Lecturer, Management, Preferred, Strategies., Tertiary Institutions, crises

Does Employee Work Life Policies And Empowerment Strategies Drive Employee Commitment? Kenyan Perspective, Synergy Approach (Published)

Employees with strong organizational commitment are emotionally attached to the organization and have a strong desire to contribute significantly towards organizational success. The importance of individual commitment to the bottom line of the organization is highly essential for improved performance, higher employee loyalty, increased satisfaction and customer satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of employee work life and empowerment strategies on employee commitment. The study employed a case study research design that was conducted at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. The target population was three thousand two hundred (3200) respondents targeted because the group was highly affected by commitment issues in the organisation. A sample size of 340 employees ware extracted from the target population and the sampling techniques used were stratified sampling for the departments working in and simple random sampling for the individual respondents. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (Software).The cronbach’s alpha reliability obtained was 0.623. Multiple regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses. Exploratory factor analysis, specifically principal component analysis was conducted to reduce the variables to a manageable size regression analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships. Based on the observed correlation results, work life/policies was the strongest predictor of employee commitment (β = 0.300, t=5.670, p< 0.01), followed by employee empowerment (β = 0.154, t=2.820, p<0.01), the findings indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between employee work life policies strategy and affective commitment (r=0.317, p<0.01); normative commitment (r=0.329, p<0.01); and continuance commitment (r=0.328, p<0.01) the study also established that there was a significant positive correlation between employee empowerment and affective commitment (r=0.186, p<0.01); normative commitment (r=0.194, p<0.01); and continuance commitment (r=0.188, p<0.01).  The study recommends that MTRH lays down proper structures for enhancing employee commitment since as seen from the study employee work life and empowerment drives  employee commitment.

Keywords: Employee Commitment, Strategies., and Commitment

Sources and Effects of Stress on Work Performance, and Coping Strategies among Nurses at University of Cape Coast Hospital, Cape Coast, Ghana (Published)

Stress is part of our everyday life and affects all aspects of our activities. In professions, where encountering hundreds of people is a routine could be very stressful. This is the nature of the nursing profession, with its attendant effects on the physical and psychological wellbeing of the nurse. This study set out to find the sources and effects of stress on work performance among nurses at the University of Cape Coast Hospital, and the coping strategies they adopt. Questionnaire was used to solicit data from the respondents. Using the multi-stage sampling technique, fifty nine nurses were sampled for the study. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated, and answered and tested respectively. Independent t-tests, Analysis of Variance, and means were used in analyzing the data collected. No statistically significant differences were found between the ages of nurses and the type of stress experienced, by gender with respect to how they coping strategies toward stress, and among the various ranks of nurses and the effect of stress on their performance. It was concluded that, nurses in the University of Cape Coast Hospital were aware of the sources of stress among nurses, aware of the effects of stress on their performance, and had devised their strategies for coping with stress.It was therefore recommended that management of the Directorate of University Health Services (UCC) organizes seminars, workshops, forum, among others on incidence of stress and stress management strategies for the nurses. This would help the nurses to be abreast with stress coping strategies thereby alleviating stress on them. It was also recommended that counsellors were brought on to put in techniques that would assist nurses who are going through stressful conditions, which are likely to affect their performance on the work.

 

Keywords: Cape Coast, Coast Hospital, Coping, Ghana, Nurses University of Cape, Sources and Effects, Strategies., Stress, Work Performance

Growth Strategies of SME in Oman- Issues and Challenges (Published)

This research has been conducted to determine the Growth Strategies of SME in Oman-Issues and challenges. SMEs has its own importance for the economic success and economic performance of any country due to which all countries are focusing on the growth of their SMEs. After getting success in the local market, it is important for SMEs to grow their business towards international market or at large scale businesses but, in the case of SMEs, businesses face a lot of challenges and issues in the form of human resource management constraints, financial management constraints, operations management constraints, and marketing management constraints. The review of literature proved the same thing that SMEs of Oman are facing issues and challenges in developing and implementing their growth strategies. The major aim of this research is to answer the research questions by using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Questionnaires are used for the data collection of quantitative research data. The total 250 respondents are selected to answer the questionnaires. Use of quantitative research methods brings effectiveness, reliability, and validity in the research. SPSS is used for the quantitative data analysis. Descriptive tests and T-test are applied on collected data to check the issues and challenges that SMEs of Oman are facing while developing their growth strategies. Interviews are used for data collection of qualitative research data. The total 12 interviewees are selected to answer the interview questions. Use of qualitative research methods brings elaboration of issues and challenges that SME of Oman face in developing and implementing their growth strategies. This research will motivate different SMEs of Oman to develop their defensive strategies to overcome the risks of growth strategies constraints. Furthermore, research limitation, managerial implications and future indications are also discussed in the study.

Keywords: Challenges, Issues, Small & Medium Enterprise’s (SMEs), Strategies.

New Yoruba Idioms and Idiomatic Expressions: A New Mode of Expression in Political Arena (Published)

New idioms and idiomatic expressions, which are modern stock expressions, constitute communicative clogs in Yorùbá routine discourses because of their semantic complexity and deviant nature. Existing studies have established their scope of usage in Yorùbá music but have hardly addressed their communicative adaptability in politics. This paper investigated issues expressed with these idioms, context and strategies for using them in political arena. This is with a view to establishing their communicative and stylistic relevance in Yorùbá discourses. The paper adopted Mukarovsky’s theory of Standard Language because of its capacity to explain the “differential specifica” between the language of everyday interaction and literary language.  Data were collected from different routine communicative discourses of  politicians and party members on radio, during political rallies or campaigns and were subjected to pragmatic and stylistic analysis. Political issues were expressed using new idioms and idiomatic expressions in the following sociopolitical contexts: Eté for corruption/stealing; Ojúyọbọ́ for under achiever; Yóó wọlé ẹ̀ẹ̀ken si for deceit; Ó bọ̀jẹ́ tì for collective support; Oyin ni o for a successful tenure; Ajímọ̀bi for collective responsibility; Nàìjá for affection/disappointment and Kárí go/Kárí kọọ̀mù for continuity and discontinuity. Nominalisation, Pidginisation and dialect expressions were the strategies employed for the formation of new idioms in this paper. These strategies were used to express different political happenings contextualized in underachievement, sloganeering for support, deceit,  and acceptance/rejection for second term in office respectively. New idioms and idiomatic expressions, used to express sociopolitical issues in Yorùbá routine communication, occurred in mediated and non-mediated contexts  and were conveyed through nominalization, pidginisation, and dialect expressions.  These idioms reflect dynamism and modernity-constrained stylistic choices in Yorùbá.

Keywords: New Idioms, Politics Stylistics, Strategies., Yoruba

Social Support, Coping Strategies and Academic Adjustment of First Year University Undergraduates in Rivers State, Nigeria. (Published)

This study was designed to determine the extent to which social support, and coping strategies predict academic adjustment of first year university undergraduates in Rivers State, Nigeria. Correlation design was adopted for the study. Three research questions and three corresponding hypotheses guided the conduct of the study at 0.05 alpha levels. A sample of 382 first year university undergraduates of Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, 2015/2016 academic session was drawn from the population through purposive and proportional stratified random sampling techniques. Three instruments namely; Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support, Coping Strategies Inventory and Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire – Academic subscale were used for data collection. Simple and multiple regression analyses were used for data analysis. All data were subjected to analysis using statistical package for social science (SPSS). Results showed that; social support statistically significantly predicted academic adjustment of first year university undergraduates; coping strategies (problem-focused and emotion-focused) taken together statistically significantly predicted academic adjustment of first year university undergraduates; on the basis of individual contribution, problem-focused was a significant contributor to academic adjustment of first year university undergraduates while emotion-focused was not. Based on the findings, conclusion and recommendations were made.

Keywords: Academic, Coping, Social, Strategies., and adjustment, support

Teaching the Literary Skills of Speaking and Writing In Secondary Schools: A Proactive Approach (Published)

This paper discusses the teaching of two aspects of the English language at the Secondary School level. It is a position paper that highlights the Curriculum content of Continuous writing and Oral English; It also attempts a practicable and effective approach to both aspects of English as the author provides perspectives into the teaching of both.

Keywords: Continuous writing, English as a second language, Oral English, Strategies., writing

Training and Development Strategies on Employee Commitment in Kenya: Quantitative Analysis Approach (Published)

Employee training is intended to provide an opportunity for advancement and may be perceived as the organization values their employees and their sense of self-worth, therefore will result to building a stronger affective commitment. Thus also resulting to a function of close psychological attachment to the organization and its goals, (McElroy, 2001). The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of employee training and development strategies on employee commitment. The research hypotheses for the study were; Ho1 training and development opportunities have no significant effect on employee commitment. The study employed a case study research design that was conducted at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. The target population was three thousand two hundred (3200) respondents were targeted because that was the group highly affected by commitment and turnover issues in the organisation. A sample size of 340 was extracted from the target population and the sampling techniques used were stratified sampling. Data was analyzed using Multiple regression analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships. Based on the observed correlation results, training and development (β = 0.134, p<0.05) indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between employee training and development opportunities and employee commitment. This implies that the perceived empowerment of employees by the hospital was likely to impact positively on their commitment to the hospital.

Keywords: Commitment, Development, Strategies., Training, and Public Organizations

Implications on Female Genital Cutting and Promotional Strategies by the Pokot Community in the Context of FGC (Published)

According to FORWARD (2005), data presented in  a Female Genital Fact Sheet indicated that Female Genital Cutting (FGC) is traditionally carried out by elderly women ‘specialized’ in this task and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) – usually without anaesthetics and with crude instruments such as razor blades, knives and broken shards of glass.  This paper looks into the health implications of female genital cutting in west Pokot community and further identifies the promotional health strategies adopted by the community during the process. The study was carried out in Sook location of West Pokot District of West Pokot County. This area was randomly selected out of the four locations in the District. A descriptive cross-sectional, qualitative research design was used for the study. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. The study considered 63 participants for interviews, all above 18 years, 9 key informants and 54 members of 7 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with between 6-10 participants of each group.  The study identified demerits of the FGC practice as predisposition of  girls to infections like HIV/AIDS, bleeding, though most participants said this could result from other reasons like witchcraft. Incompletion of education was also said to be one of the demerits of the FGC. Affirmation of community identity and promotion of positive aspects of culture which boosts self esteem in the community while preventing physical and psychological harm to women and girls should be advocated for through alternative rituals and Cultural day initiatives.

Keywords: Detrimental, Female Genital Cutting (FGC), Health, Implications, Promotion, Strategies.

New Yoruba Idioms and Idiomatic Expressions: A New Mode of Expression in Political Arena (Published)

New idioms and idiomatic expressions, which are modern stock expressions, constitute communicative clogs in Yorùbá routine discourses because of their semantic complexity and deviant nature. Existing studies have established their scope of usage in Yorùbá music but have hardly addressed their communicative adaptability in politics. This paper investigated issues expressed with these idioms, context and strategies for using them in political arena. This is with a view to establishing their communicative and stylistic relevance in Yorùbá discourses. The paper adopted Mukarovsky’s theory of Standard Language because of its capacity to explain the “differential specifica” between the language of everyday interaction and literary language.  Data were collected from different routine communicative discourses of  politicians and party members on radio, during political rallies or campaigns and were subjected to pragmatic and stylistic analysis. Political issues were expressed using new idioms and idiomatic expressions in the following sociopolitical contexts: Eté for corruption/stealing; Ojúyọbọ́ for under achiever; Yóó wọlé ẹ̀ẹ̀ken si for deceit; Ó bọ̀jẹ́ tì for collective support; Oyin ni o for a successful tenure; Ajímọ̀bi for collective responsibility; Nàìjá for affection/disappointment and Kárí go/Kárí kọọ̀mù for continuity and discontinuity. Nominalisation, Pidginisation and dialect expressions were the strategies employed for the formation of new idioms in this paper. These strategies were used to express different political happenings contextualized in underachievement, sloganeering for support, deceit,  and acceptance/rejection for second term in office respectively. New idioms and idiomatic expressions, used to express sociopolitical issues in Yorùbá routine communication, occurred in mediated and non-mediated contexts  and were conveyed through nominalization, pidginisation, and dialect expressions.  These idioms reflect dynamism and modernity-constrained stylistic choices in Yorùbá.

Keywords: New Idioms, Politics Stylistics, Strategies., Yoruba

Establishing Strategies Influencing UPE Policy Sustainability in Rwenzori Region Western Uganda (Published)

Universal Primary Education (UPE) policy in the form of fee abolition has become popular in Uganda and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa.  The current UPE policy is devoid of analytical studies on its impact and challenges beyond school enrollment. This paper is an attempt to make an establishment on the strategies that are thought to influence UPE policy sustainability in the Rwenzori region of Western Uganda. , to identify common and unique strategies of UPE sustainability and to examine them responding to the capacity and needs of the Rwenzori Region. The results show that effective policy implementation would require considerable consultation with key stakeholders and a baseline survey that will enable systematic implementation and consideration of equity. Mutual accountability and a responsibility mechanism between the government and parents/communities is also a key to the sustainability of the UPE policy.

Keywords: Strategies., Sustainability, Universal Primary Education

Communication and Advocacy Strategies on Adolecents’ Reproductive Heath: Case Study of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the relationship between communication and advocacy strategies on adolescents’ reproductive health in Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

The study was a descriptive survey research.  The sample for the study was 200 respondents which were randomly selected among regular undergraduate students from all faculties using cluster random sampling technique.  The instrument used was questionnaire which was constructed by the researcher and corrected and approved by research expert.  The instrument was tagged “Communication and Advocacy Strategies on Adolescents Reproductive Health” (CASARH).   The data collected was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation.  All the hypotheses generated were tested at 0.05 level of significant. It revealed that communication and advocacy strategies affect adolescent’s reproductive health, that is, there is perfect relationship between the two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance.  This study further recommended that proper and adequate enlightenment programmes and campaigns should be made available by the government, non-governmental organizations and private individuals to empower the adolescents with required skills, knowledge and capabilities to function efficiently and effectively in all sectors of the society,  and this is by organizing seminars, workshops, conferences and other public talks.

Keywords: Advocacy, Reproductive Health, Sexual Health, Strategies., communication

New Yoruba Idioms and Idiomatic Expressions: A New Mode of Expression in Political Arena (Published)

New idioms and idiomatic expressions, which are modern stock expressions, constitute communicative clogs in Yorùbá routine discourses because of their semantic complexity and deviant nature. Existing studies have established their scope of usage in Yorùbá music but have hardly addressed their communicative adaptability in politics. This paper investigated issues expressed with these idioms, context and strategies for using them in political arena. This is with a view to establishing their communicative and stylistic relevance in Yorùbá discourses. The paper adopted Mukarovsky’s theory of Standard Language because of its capacity to explain the “differential specifica” between the language of everyday interaction and literary language.  Data were collected from different routine communicative discourses of  politicians and party members on radio, during political rallies or campaigns and were subjected to pragmatic and stylistic analysis. Political issues were expressed using new idioms and idiomatic expressions in the following sociopolitical contexts: Eté for corruption/stealing; Ojúyọbọ́ for under achiever; Yóó wọlé ẹ̀ẹ̀ken si for deceit; Ó bọ̀jẹ́ tì for collective support; Oyin ni o for a successful tenure; Ajímọ̀bi for collective responsibility; Nàìjá for affection/disappointment and Kárí go/Kárí kọọ̀mù for continuity and discontinuity. Nominalisation, Pidginisation and dialect expressions were the strategies employed for the formation of new idioms in this paper. These strategies were used to express different political happenings contextualized in underachievement, sloganeering for support, deceit, and acceptance/rejection for second term in office respectively. New idioms and idiomatic expressions, used to express sociopolitical issues in Yorùbá routine communication, occurred in mediated and non-mediated contexts and were conveyed through nominalization, pidginisation, and dialect expressions.  These idioms reflect dynamism and modernity-constrained stylistic choices in Yorùbá.

Keywords: New Idioms, Politics Stylistics, Strategies., Yoruba

Techniques for Re-Positioning Small and Medium Scale Business Enterprises in Nigeria for Economy Revitalization (Published)

This paper highlighted techniques for re-positioning small and medium scale business enterprises in Nigeria for economy revitalization. Small and medium business enterprises are the engine of growth and development of a nation. SMEs contribute to industrial development; promote growth, technological acquisition and reduction of unemployment. The paper also highlights techniques for re-positioning Small and Medium Scale business enterprises in Nigeria for economy revitalization. Financial problems, inadequate basic infrastructure, socio-cultural problems, planning problems, location/economic problems, poor accounting system:  multiple taxation and unstable policy environment are the major problems militating against the success of SMEs. It was recommended among others that there should be a practical effort in encouraging SMEs to access long-term, low rate funds from the capital market. Incentives should be given in the form of tax holidays and awards to SMEs that excel in using the capital market as an avenue of external funding and the government should continue to make SMEs a central focus of industrial policy in order to achieve economic growth and development. The monetary and fiscal policies should be made to incorporate good framework that would enhance the activities of SMEs towards development and sustenance.

Keywords: Challenges, Economy, Enterprise, Re-positioning, Small and Medium, Strategies.

An Analysis of Speech Communication Skills Strategies of Effective Public Relations Management for Organizational Growth in Nigeria (Published)

The papers stands to advocates that effective knowledge of speech communication is necessary in discharge of public relations functions or duties, and is very vital for a public relations practitioner to be conversant with the principles of effective speech communication skills and strategies, as its job is based on establishing mutual line of communication between the organization and its publics for organizational growth and national development. The paper also poses that the key to successful employer and employees relation `is based on adequate information which can only be achieved through public relations effective two-way communication for harmonious existence and mutual understanding. Furthermore, it employs purposive sampling technique, and structured interview guide as a research instrument to elicit information from 65 final students of Public Relations and Advertising in Babcock University. The finding authenticates that effective communication is an anchor for any organizational harmony and development.  And recommended that all sphere of life require effective communication to exist, survive and to grow.

Keywords: Effective, Management, Public Relations, Strategies., communication

Strategies Undertaken By Music Teachers in Implementing Music in the Classroom: A Case of Selected Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya (Published)

In 1995, the University of Zimbabwe explained that implementation takes place when the teacher constructed syllabus, personality, the teaching materials and the teaching environment interact with the learner. However, without subsequent progress, monitoring goals will be difficult to achieve. The objective of this study was to identify the music instructional strategies in implementing the music curriculum. The study was performed in Nairobi County, Kenya with form three music teachers and students in the County being the target population. The study took a descriptive survey approach on both groups (students and teachers). Purposive sampling was used to select 23 schools that offer music and 23 music teachers in Nairobi County’s selected schools. Music students were selected using simple random sampling. A total of 180 out of 360 form three music students and 23 teachers participated in the study. Data was collected using questionnaire guides, classroom observation schedule and focus group discussions guide. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented in tabular form containing the number of responses per item (frequency) and the percentage of each response in graphs and tables. Statistical package for social scientists (SPSS) was used to compute the empirical data for data processing and analysis.

Keywords: Curriculum implementation, Music Teachers, Strategies.

  • Our Journal Publishing Partners