Every social action is perceived as a joint undertaking of’ people in their social settings to improve their living conditions in various communities in the society. Social development as an educational process stimulates consciousness among people in order to be aware of their capabilities to address prevailing situations and realities in various participating communities. Social development as a concept is used to stimulate awareness in people for the ultimate purpose of understanding their social realities ant their potentialities to promote development that will improve their living conditions in their various communities. The paper identified conscientisation strategy, communication strategy and group action strategy as strategies of social development in stimulating community development. Based on the issues discussed appropriate recommendations are made which include the urgent need to ensure that adequate information is made available to people through the instrumentality of conscientisation and communication as well as that social development should be driven by common vision and interest of the people of participating communities in Nigeria.
The Strategies Put In Place by Selected Private Universities in Kenya to Address the Issues of Financial Sustainability (Published)
Private universities have a great responsibility of managing financial sustainability and hence the need to explore different strategies that would enhance their financial sustainability. Kenya Vision 2030 requires institutions to develop strategies that will help in achieving its goals. Therefore, this paper explores the strategies administrators in private universities use to manage financial stability. Three major strategies were adopted by selected private universities to enhance their financial sustainability. These strategies include students’ recruitment strategies, internal and external funding strategies and program development, review and diversification. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy’s General System Theory (GST) originally developed in the 1940’s – which later came to be known as System Theory – was the conceptual framework that guided this study. Qualitative grounded theory design was used for collecting, analyzing, interpreting and reporting data. An interview guide was used to collect data for the two research questions that guided the study. Data was collected using self-developed interview schedule, and were digitally recorded and transcribed. The data was then organized manually and analyzed qualitatively through use of codes and formation of categories which eventually developed broader and tentative themes and patterns that brought meaning out of the information collected. Twenty respondents of this study were chosen purposefully from four out of the five universities in Kenya founded as theological colleges and had been chartered as private universities at the time of the study. Triangulation was used for data collection to increase the trustworthiness of the findings. The findings of this study indicate that the strategies that were put in place were not yielding sufficient income because of the many internal and external challenges being faced by these universities. Therefore this study recommends ways of developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams (input activities) that will generate adequate income to overcome the challenges in the system that are major impediments to implementation of activities (output) that would lead to establishment of a financial sustainable university.
The Challenges Encountered by the Selected Private Universities in Kenya in Implementing Strategies that Would Lead to a Financially Sustainable University (Published)
Great expectations of high quality education are held by many people due to a high demand of tertiary education in private Kenyan universities. Higher education in Kenya has experienced a lot of numerical growth of the number of universities chartered. As of November 2015, Kenya had a total of 70 chartered universities. Of these, 17 were private chartered ones which had grown in number from 3 to 17 in just two decades (CUE 2015, Chacha 2004,4). That notwithstanding, private universities face numerous challenges, which if not addressed, their sustainability will be threatened. This paper therefore seeks to explore the challenges encountered by selected private universities in Kenya, in implementing strategies that would lead to a financially sustainable university. These challenges were classified into two categories: the internal and external challenges. The internal challenges, experienced from within the university included: inadequate finances, university leadership and structures while the external ones include: government funding, government regulations and donor support. Qualitative grounded theory design was used in which an interview guide and a self-developed interview schedule were used in data collection. Twenty respondents were involved from four theological private universities. A fifth university was used for a pilot study. Data was organized manually and analyzed qualitatively through the use of codes and formation of categories. The strategies utilized were: students’ recruitment, internal and external funding, program development, review and diversification. The findings show that different universities are engaging in different strategies without much success in terms of income generated. This was attributed to the many internal and external challenges being faced by these universities. Therefore, this study proposed a financial sustainability system that is based on grounded theory which recommends the need to prioritize income generating strategies – developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams (input activities) that will generate adequate income to overcome the challenges in the system that are a major impediment to implementation of activities (output) that would lead to establishment of a financially sustainable university. This paper concludes by suggesting ways of developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams that will enhance the financial sustainability of the sampled universities. Moreover, it recommends that universities should develop more creative strategies that are not yet in place, review their status and also diversify their strategies to achieve financial sustainability.
Strategies for the Engagement of Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations in Landscape Governance (Published)
Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations (ENGOs) are most often considered as key actors in territorial development. However, the strategies applied by these institutions to effectively engage in landscape planning have been less studied. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of how two ENGOs are attempting to influence landscape scale governance in Luxembourg. The results disclose that because ENGOs are not often incorporated at the preliminary stages of policy planning, they retaliate by using two main methods of engagement; self-mobilisation and legal actions. These approaches have been blamed for slowing down regional projects. Nonetheless, they are argued for promoting effective participation in sustainable landscape development.
Research and Innovation Strategies for Economic Competitiveness and Industrial Growth: Lessons for Nigeria (Published)
One of the leading unrealized opportunities in Nigerian industrial organizations is the full influence of research ideas and knowledge to transform business products and processes into long-term innovation. Business research and innovation contribute significantly to improvement in enterprise productivity and quality and in the integral components of business strategy and success. Drawing heavily from published literature, this paper highlights the enormous benefits of continual research and innovation on national economies, and proffers recommendations on how Nigeria could key into this concept to promote its economic competitiveness at the global level.
Every social action is seen as a catalyst to promote joint undertaking of’ people in their social settings to improve their living conditions in various communities in human environment. Social development as a process is employed to stimulates consciousness among people in order to be aware of their capabilities to address prevailing situations and realities in various participating communities. Social development as a catalyst is used to promote awareness creation in people for the ultimate purpose of understanding their prevailing social realities ant potentialities to promote development that will improve their living conditions in their various communities. The paper identified conscientisation strategy, communication strategy and group action strategy as areas of social development intervention in promoting community development. Based on the issues discussed appropriate recommendations are made which include the urgent need to see that adequate information is made available to people through the instrumentality of conscientisation, and communication as well as other areas of intervention of social development which should be driven by common vision and interest of the people of participating communities in Nigeria.
Research on the Strategy-Based Instruction of News Broadcast Listening For English Minors in China (Published)
News broadcast, as a kind of authentic input, are invaluable materials to improve listening proficiency for both ESL and EFL learners. However, the particular characteristics of news broadcast present a number of challenges to achieving comprehension: unfamiliar patterns of discourse, vocabulary, speech rates, syntactic structures, and a high density of factual contents, etc. In this paper, based on the Constructivism views on education, the author chooses 86 English learners in China who take English as their second major as the research subjects, carries out a strategy-based instruction to the experimental group. After the 15-week instruction, the author collects and analyses the data to examine whether the strategy-based instruction would help students improve their news listening performance.
Strategizing For Effective Library Users Retention in a University System in 21st Century. Evidence from Federal University of Technology Owerri (Futo) (Published)
This paper is an attempt to study the strategies that leads to effective library users in Federal University of Technology, Owerri with a view to study the expectations of library users, modern infrastructural needs, retention strategies as well as try to bring to light the challenges that confronts the users and recommend some remedial measures for its improvement. Questionnaire was used for data collection, a reliability co-efficient of 0.75 was obtained. The study confirmed that the library needs to do well on some issues such as power supply, internet connectivity, subscription to open access database, etcetera for a very good user’s retention profile.
Training and Development Strategies: Approaches for Performance Enhancement in Goal Oriented Firms. (A Survey of Commercial Banking Firms in Nigeria) (Published)
This research paper is a critical analysis of Training and Development Strategies; as approaches for performance enhancement in goal oriented firms with emphasis on Twenty-one commercial banking firms in Nigeria. This study adopted simple empirical survey method or quasi-experimental method which places premium on survey of sample. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were utilized in a bid to attain the necessary result. Five point Likert rating scale questionnaire were used in obtaining the opinions and views from respondents (i.e. Strongly Agree, SA (5), Agree, A (4), Undecided, U (3), Disagree, D (2), And Strongly Disagree, SD (1)). For secondary sources of data textbooks, journals, and annual reports of 21 commercial banking firms’ and stock exchange fact book, were used. The sample size for the study is 398 derived from the employee population of 21 commercial banking firms totaled of 64, 846 as at January, 2017. This was determined using Taro-Yamane’s formulae. Bartlett’s test of Sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer Oikin measure of sampling adequacy, construct validity test determination and Cronbach Alpha for reliability test determination was applied in this study. Bowley’s Allocation formula was applied in determining the individual commercial banking firms sample size. Multiple Regression test was used in processing the three (3) formulated hypotheses. The study findings revealed that Training and Development Strategies adopted by commercial banking firms in Nigeria for employees have positive relationship on productivity of the banking firms. Again, Training and Development have enhanced employee’s skills acquisition and knowledge base of employees. The last finding showed that training and development programme/strategies have impacted on organization employees by modifying their behaviors and their work attitudes to conform to set standard and norms of the commercial banks for service delivery and sound operations. The study recommendations are that, executive management of the commercial banking firms in Nigeria should also ensure that operational analysis, organizational analysis, individual analysis is periodically carried out to determine training and development needs in areas of skills inadequacy, knowledge gap, attitude and behavioral aspects to warrant proper Training and Development hence customers of the banks needed to be treated with absolute care in order to attract higher market share and profits by banks. Again, the study recommended emphasis on e-product s training for commercial banking firms in Nigeria to enhance sustainability and competitive advantage hence this will enhance growth in a positive direction especially in this era of globalization.
Adjustment Strategies of Widows to Widowhood Stress Based on Their Age: The Case of Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
This study was aimed at investigating influence of age on adjustment strategies employed by widows in coping with widowhood stress in Rivers State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the conduct of the study at 0.05 probability level. A sample of 370 widows in Rivers State was drawn from the population via proportional stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments namely; Stress Level Scale for Widows (SLSW) and Questionnaire for Widows Adjustment Strategies (QWAS), both developed by the researcher were used for data collection. Data were analysed with mean, standard deviation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance and the statistical package known as SPSS for widows was employed for the analyses. Results showed that; all the eight adjustment strategies (problem solving, cognitive restructuring, express emotion, social support, problem avoidance, wishful thinking, self-criticism and social withdrawal) are adopted by widows in ameliorating widowhood stress; there are slight differences among the mean values of the different age groups with regards to all the adjustment strategies of widows to widowhood stress. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were made accordingly.
This study investigated the various adjustment strategies employed by widows in coping with widowhood stress in Rivers State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the conduct of the study at 0.05 alpha levels. A sample of 370 widows in Rivers State was drawn from the population through proportional stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments namely; Stress Level Scale for Widows (SLSW) and Questionnaire for Widows Adjustment Strategies (QWAS), both developed by the researcher were used for data collection. Data were analysed with mean, standard deviation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance and the statistical package known as SPSS for widows was employed for the analyses. Results showed that; all the eight adjustment strategies (problem solving, cognitive restructuring, express emotion, social support, problem avoidance, wishful thinking, self-criticism and social withdrawal) are adopted by widows in ameliorating widowhood stress; ethnic group of widows’ influences their adjustment strategies to widowhood stress. Based on the findings of this work, three appropriate recommendations were made.
The Teacher and Teaching with Instructional Materials in the Teaching of Science Subjects and the Contribution of Guidance and Counselors Therein (Published)
The aim of this study was to investigate the preferred crises management strategies among lecturers in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. The population of the study was one thousand two hundred and forty two (1,242) lecturers. The total sample used for the study was five hundred respondents who were drawn through stratified random sampling from four institutions of higher learning in Cross River State. The instrument used for the data collection was the researcher’s developed Preferred Crisis Management Strategies Questionnaire (P.C.M.S.Q). It has two sections, A and B. Section A contained the personal data while B contained four point Likert scale type, made up of sixteen (16) items. The data collected from the samples were subjected to statistical analysis using the population and independent t-test. To accomplish the study objective, two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The following findings emerged; the preference for force crisis management strategy by lecturers was significantly low in tertiary institutions in Cross River State. Sex does not influence lecturers’ preference for dialogue as a crisis management strategy. Based on these findings, the following recommendations were made. The government should adequately fund education, and the schools should devise local sources of generating funds while well-meaning individuals and companies should assist, dialogue should be adopted as evidenced in the study.
Does Employee Work Life Policies And Empowerment Strategies Drive Employee Commitment? Kenyan Perspective, Synergy Approach (Published)
Employees with strong organizational commitment are emotionally attached to the organization and have a strong desire to contribute significantly towards organizational success. The importance of individual commitment to the bottom line of the organization is highly essential for improved performance, higher employee loyalty, increased satisfaction and customer satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of employee work life and empowerment strategies on employee commitment. The study employed a case study research design that was conducted at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. The target population was three thousand two hundred (3200) respondents targeted because the group was highly affected by commitment issues in the organisation. A sample size of 340 employees ware extracted from the target population and the sampling techniques used were stratified sampling for the departments working in and simple random sampling for the individual respondents. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (Software).The cronbach’s alpha reliability obtained was 0.623. Multiple regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses. Exploratory factor analysis, specifically principal component analysis was conducted to reduce the variables to a manageable size regression analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships. Based on the observed correlation results, work life/policies was the strongest predictor of employee commitment (β = 0.300, t=5.670, p< 0.01), followed by employee empowerment (β = 0.154, t=2.820, p<0.01), the findings indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between employee work life policies strategy and affective commitment (r=0.317, p<0.01); normative commitment (r=0.329, p<0.01); and continuance commitment (r=0.328, p<0.01) the study also established that there was a significant positive correlation between employee empowerment and affective commitment (r=0.186, p<0.01); normative commitment (r=0.194, p<0.01); and continuance commitment (r=0.188, p<0.01). The study recommends that MTRH lays down proper structures for enhancing employee commitment since as seen from the study employee work life and empowerment drives employee commitment.
Sources and Effects of Stress on Work Performance, and Coping Strategies among Nurses at University of Cape Coast Hospital, Cape Coast, Ghana (Published)
Stress is part of our everyday life and affects all aspects of our activities. In professions, where encountering hundreds of people is a routine could be very stressful. This is the nature of the nursing profession, with its attendant effects on the physical and psychological wellbeing of the nurse. This study set out to find the sources and effects of stress on work performance among nurses at the University of Cape Coast Hospital, and the coping strategies they adopt. Questionnaire was used to solicit data from the respondents. Using the multi-stage sampling technique, fifty nine nurses were sampled for the study. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated, and answered and tested respectively. Independent t-tests, Analysis of Variance, and means were used in analyzing the data collected. No statistically significant differences were found between the ages of nurses and the type of stress experienced, by gender with respect to how they coping strategies toward stress, and among the various ranks of nurses and the effect of stress on their performance. It was concluded that, nurses in the University of Cape Coast Hospital were aware of the sources of stress among nurses, aware of the effects of stress on their performance, and had devised their strategies for coping with stress.It was therefore recommended that management of the Directorate of University Health Services (UCC) organizes seminars, workshops, forum, among others on incidence of stress and stress management strategies for the nurses. This would help the nurses to be abreast with stress coping strategies thereby alleviating stress on them. It was also recommended that counsellors were brought on to put in techniques that would assist nurses who are going through stressful conditions, which are likely to affect their performance on the work.
This research has been conducted to determine the Growth Strategies of SME in Oman-Issues and challenges. SMEs has its own importance for the economic success and economic performance of any country due to which all countries are focusing on the growth of their SMEs. After getting success in the local market, it is important for SMEs to grow their business towards international market or at large scale businesses but, in the case of SMEs, businesses face a lot of challenges and issues in the form of human resource management constraints, financial management constraints, operations management constraints, and marketing management constraints. The review of literature proved the same thing that SMEs of Oman are facing issues and challenges in developing and implementing their growth strategies. The major aim of this research is to answer the research questions by using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Questionnaires are used for the data collection of quantitative research data. The total 250 respondents are selected to answer the questionnaires. Use of quantitative research methods brings effectiveness, reliability, and validity in the research. SPSS is used for the quantitative data analysis. Descriptive tests and T-test are applied on collected data to check the issues and challenges that SMEs of Oman are facing while developing their growth strategies. Interviews are used for data collection of qualitative research data. The total 12 interviewees are selected to answer the interview questions. Use of qualitative research methods brings elaboration of issues and challenges that SME of Oman face in developing and implementing their growth strategies. This research will motivate different SMEs of Oman to develop their defensive strategies to overcome the risks of growth strategies constraints. Furthermore, research limitation, managerial implications and future indications are also discussed in the study.
New Yoruba Idioms and Idiomatic Expressions: A New Mode of Expression in Political Arena (Published)
New idioms and idiomatic expressions, which are modern stock expressions, constitute communicative clogs in Yorùbá routine discourses because of their semantic complexity and deviant nature. Existing studies have established their scope of usage in Yorùbá music but have hardly addressed their communicative adaptability in politics. This paper investigated issues expressed with these idioms, context and strategies for using them in political arena. This is with a view to establishing their communicative and stylistic relevance in Yorùbá discourses. The paper adopted Mukarovsky’s theory of Standard Language because of its capacity to explain the “differential specifica” between the language of everyday interaction and literary language. Data were collected from different routine communicative discourses of politicians and party members on radio, during political rallies or campaigns and were subjected to pragmatic and stylistic analysis. Political issues were expressed using new idioms and idiomatic expressions in the following sociopolitical contexts: Eté for corruption/stealing; Ojúyọbọ́ for under achiever; Yóó wọlé ẹ̀ẹ̀ken si for deceit; Ó bọ̀jẹ́ tì for collective support; Oyin ni o for a successful tenure; Ajímọ̀bi for collective responsibility; Nàìjá for affection/disappointment and Kárí go/Kárí kọọ̀mù for continuity and discontinuity. Nominalisation, Pidginisation and dialect expressions were the strategies employed for the formation of new idioms in this paper. These strategies were used to express different political happenings contextualized in underachievement, sloganeering for support, deceit, and acceptance/rejection for second term in office respectively. New idioms and idiomatic expressions, used to express sociopolitical issues in Yorùbá routine communication, occurred in mediated and non-mediated contexts and were conveyed through nominalization, pidginisation, and dialect expressions. These idioms reflect dynamism and modernity-constrained stylistic choices in Yorùbá.
Social Support, Coping Strategies and Academic Adjustment of First Year University Undergraduates in Rivers State, Nigeria. (Published)
This study was designed to determine the extent to which social support, and coping strategies predict academic adjustment of first year university undergraduates in Rivers State, Nigeria. Correlation design was adopted for the study. Three research questions and three corresponding hypotheses guided the conduct of the study at 0.05 alpha levels. A sample of 382 first year university undergraduates of Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, 2015/2016 academic session was drawn from the population through purposive and proportional stratified random sampling techniques. Three instruments namely; Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support, Coping Strategies Inventory and Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire – Academic subscale were used for data collection. Simple and multiple regression analyses were used for data analysis. All data were subjected to analysis using statistical package for social science (SPSS). Results showed that; social support statistically significantly predicted academic adjustment of first year university undergraduates; coping strategies (problem-focused and emotion-focused) taken together statistically significantly predicted academic adjustment of first year university undergraduates; on the basis of individual contribution, problem-focused was a significant contributor to academic adjustment of first year university undergraduates while emotion-focused was not. Based on the findings, conclusion and recommendations were made.
Teaching the Literary Skills of Speaking and Writing In Secondary Schools: A Proactive Approach (Published)
This paper discusses the teaching of two aspects of the English language at the Secondary School level. It is a position paper that highlights the Curriculum content of Continuous writing and Oral English; It also attempts a practicable and effective approach to both aspects of English as the author provides perspectives into the teaching of both.
Training and Development Strategies on Employee Commitment in Kenya: Quantitative Analysis Approach (Published)
Employee training is intended to provide an opportunity for advancement and may be perceived as the organization values their employees and their sense of self-worth, therefore will result to building a stronger affective commitment. Thus also resulting to a function of close psychological attachment to the organization and its goals, (McElroy, 2001). The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of employee training and development strategies on employee commitment. The research hypotheses for the study were; Ho1 training and development opportunities have no significant effect on employee commitment. The study employed a case study research design that was conducted at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. The target population was three thousand two hundred (3200) respondents were targeted because that was the group highly affected by commitment and turnover issues in the organisation. A sample size of 340 was extracted from the target population and the sampling techniques used were stratified sampling. Data was analyzed using Multiple regression analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships. Based on the observed correlation results, training and development (β = 0.134, p<0.05) indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between employee training and development opportunities and employee commitment. This implies that the perceived empowerment of employees by the hospital was likely to impact positively on their commitment to the hospital.
Implications on Female Genital Cutting and Promotional Strategies by the Pokot Community in the Context of FGC (Published)
According to FORWARD (2005), data presented in a Female Genital Fact Sheet indicated that Female Genital Cutting (FGC) is traditionally carried out by elderly women ‘specialized’ in this task and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) – usually without anaesthetics and with crude instruments such as razor blades, knives and broken shards of glass. This paper looks into the health implications of female genital cutting in west Pokot community and further identifies the promotional health strategies adopted by the community during the process. The study was carried out in Sook location of West Pokot District of West Pokot County. This area was randomly selected out of the four locations in the District. A descriptive cross-sectional, qualitative research design was used for the study. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. The study considered 63 participants for interviews, all above 18 years, 9 key informants and 54 members of 7 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with between 6-10 participants of each group. The study identified demerits of the FGC practice as predisposition of girls to infections like HIV/AIDS, bleeding, though most participants said this could result from other reasons like witchcraft. Incompletion of education was also said to be one of the demerits of the FGC. Affirmation of community identity and promotion of positive aspects of culture which boosts self esteem in the community while preventing physical and psychological harm to women and girls should be advocated for through alternative rituals and Cultural day initiatives.