Tag Archives: Skills

English Teachers’ Skills Using Play in Teaching English to Initial Grades of Primary Education Level Throughout Irbid First Education Directorate, From Teachers’ Viewpoint in Jordan (Published)

: The study aimed to discover to what level English teachers enjoyed using play to teach skills (choice of game skill, classroom control efficiency, game execution skill, evaluation skill) in teaching English to initial grades of the primary education level throughout Irbid First Education Directorate, from teachers’ viewpoint. The study population consisted of 145 teachers in initial grades of primary education schools throughout Irbid First Education Directorate schools for the academic year 2017. The study sample was the whole population for results to be generalized to teachers of other subjects, 145 questionnaires were distributed with 123 returned and 3 disqualified leaving 120 completed questionnaire responses for analysis. The study found that the overall skill of using play in teaching English was of a medium level. However, choice of game skill and evaluation skill were a medium level, classroom control efficiency a low level, game execution skill was of a high level.

Keywords: English Language Teachers, First primary level, Irbid First Directorate., Play, Skills

The Contribution of in-Company Training to Skills Improvement and Human Resources Development (Published)

The following research comes to explore the importance and contribution of in-company training human resources to the business. The literature review shows that education, as a tool for shaping attitudes and attitudes and developing new skills, can play a key role in improving staff skills and thus influencing the overall growth and competitiveness of an enterprise. In the present study, a survey of mixed methods was conducted with quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) data and with sample employees from the Greek construction company “Avax”. Answers confirm that education provides employees with all the skills and support they need in order to be more efficient and thus increase their competitiveness and productivity. This research adds further data to the area of in-company education and training, since this kind of research in Greece is limited. In addition the impact of the economic crisis and the change in the culture of businesses trying to survive through training and investing in human resources is highlighted.

Keywords: Adult Education, Educational Needs, Human Resources, In-Company Training, Skills

A Comparative Study of the Role of Men and Women in Cooperative Development in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)

The actualization of Cooperatives development is one of the most common traits of the emerging economies. Government at all levels in different occasions has adopted one developmental strategy or the other, all aimed to successfully install cooperative development. This study had the objective of assessing the role of men and women in cooperative development in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State in Nigeria. The study employed primary sources of data. The primary data were collected through questionnaires using descriptive statistics. The results of the study indicated that the male cooperators contribute more to cooperative development than their female counterparts. The study concludes that cooperative societies in Udi should be properly and effectively managed. It was also recommended that cooperative societies should endeavour to improve their management skills, balance gender inequality and enhance the personal welfare of members so as to facilitate cooperative development in Udi Local Government Area.

Keywords: Cooperatives, Descriptive, Development, Gender Inequality, Government, Skills

Occupational and Professional Development: OECD Policy Analysis on Skills (Published)

The OECD has a long history of engagement with major United Nations (UN) processes on human development and well-being. Through its policies and important official texts, it has contributed to shaping the framework of international and national policies regarding people’s evolution and development. These policies are of great importance given that the working environment is becoming more and more global, dynamic, multidimensional and complex. Consequently, the effectiveness of human resources is a matter of major importance, leading most organizations and enterprises to pursue employee’s professional development and the comprehensive improvement of their skills. This study, through the qualitative analysis of the OECD’s text “OECD SKILLS OUTLOOK 2017: SKILLS AND GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS” comes to examine the types of skills proposed by the OECD and their characteristics, the benefits of developing and cultivating these skills, the ways they are planned and whether their planning is influenced by the spirit of corresponding international and European policies. The analysis of the text shows that there is a strong demand for mixed skills. In addition it seems that the design and development of the right and appropriate skills is a complex and multidimensional issue, as several agents are called upon to work together and contribute to both international and national levels. Regarding the benefits, one of great importance is that right skills help countries integrate into global markets and specialize in the most technologically advanced industries. Besides they help individuals face the potential of unemployment, job losses and lower job quality. 

Keywords: Education Policies, OECD, Professional Development, Skills

4th Industrial Revolution: The Challenge of Changing Human Resources Skills (Published)

This paper comes to examine the intense reflection that arises around the issue of the fourth industrial revolution and the subsequent rapid changes. Changes that affect all areas of human existence, especially labour, drastically. Already from the beginning of the 21st century, international organizations (UN, UNESCO, OECD) are also keen to increase employability and develop relevant skills that can protect it.

Keywords: 4rth Industrial Revolution, Changes, Employability, Skills

Contemporary Working Dilemmas and European Policies for Transformation (Published)

The contemporary societal characteristics, the rapid development of technology, the intense demographic changes, the high and persistent unemployment rates have led to major changes in the workplace. More and more professional groups are becoming vulnerable and they need to redefine their work profile and strengthen it with skills that will let them respond to the mental, physical and emotional demands of the new labor market. In such a context, the training and education of potential professionals becomes a matter of major importance and a reference point for the policies of international organizations. The European Commission has drafted texts which aim to increase the employability of individuals. One recent text is that of “A New Skills Agenda for Europe”, which was adopted by the Commission on 10 June 2016. Following the quantitative methodology and in particular the content analysis of the text we examine the way it can be achieved. The categories used for the analysis of the text come from the transformative learning theory of Mezirow and in particular the ten stages of stochastic processing. The results of this study show that the aim of this text seems to be the learning transformation of employees in order to become more employable.

Keywords: Dilemma, Employability, European Policies, Skills, Transformative Learning

Competency-Based Curriculum: A Framework for Bridging the Gap in Teaching, Assessment and the World of Work (Published)

In this era of creative and flexible learning, most vocational education and training (VET) in developing countries still adopt a passive approach to learning where students’ success in examination is based on their ability to reproduce a credible portion of their notes from memory. Although the curricula and teaching methods have remained largely unchanged in developing countries over the years, employers are increasingly demanding technical competencies, analytical thinking, communication and entrepreneurial skills. Essentially, the study seeks to find out how curriculum development processes of CBT provides framework for aligning teaching and learning processes to equip trainees with requisite skills and competencies to perform in the world of work. The study examines relevant literature and policy papers from several databases together with key stakeholder consultations to obtain insights into CBT curriculum development processes, underlying assumptions, philosophies, linkages with Bloom taxonomy of educational objectives, assessment practices and outcomes and their eventual effects on the achievement of relevant skills and competencies required to perform professional tasks. The study shows that although mastery of a job-specific task is important, it does not ensure a competent employee particularly in the context of rapid pace of technological change and high labour mobility. Moreover, when outcomes of learning are tied to descriptions of work, or specific workplace activity, it emphasises tradition and limits transfer of skills and labour mobility, leaving graduates largely for routine and restricted tasks which may not guarantee employability (Nuffield Review, 2008). Prospective employees need to acquire a broader range of soft skills, professional competencies and attitudes to continually adapt and transfer skills and knowledge in different contexts.  It is imperative for industry to engage in innovative forms of collaboration to achieve industry–demand driven form of training and smooth transition of students from school to work. Feedback from assessment must focus on task-oriented information and corrective advice to build students’ self-esteem to self-regulate their learning towards the achievement of learning goals.

Keywords: Assessment, Competency-Based, Curriculum, Skills, Workplace

Emotional Empowerment of Human Capital through Adult Learning Pathways (Published)

The Sustainable Development Goals Program was adopted by the United Nations in September 2015 and is an evolution of the Millennium Development Goals Program (2000-2015). Its main axes are economy, society and the environment, with an emphasis on education and training for professionals, which are considered to be fundamental foundations of economic and social development. UNESCO is called upon to play an important role in implementing the Agenda, as it has both the right experience and extensive diplomatic networks. To this end, it has drafted official texts on the achievement of the Agenda 2030 objectives. Its recent text, “Third World Report on Adult Learning and Adult Education” (GRALE III), presents the results of an international research involving 139 UNESCO member countries on the impact of Learning and Adult Education on Health, Prosperity, Employment and the Labour Market, Social, Political and Community Life. Adults need to redefine their work profile and strengthen it with the right skills that will let them respond to the mental, physical and emotional demands of the new labour market. Which are though the right skills? Since specialized skills seem not to be adequate, emphasis has been lately put on emotional competence, which may contribute to the creation of a healthy working environment (Goleman, 1998). This study, through the qualitative analysis of the above-mentioned text, tries to capture and investigate whether there are references to skills related to the field of emotional intelligence in its content. The analysis of the text shows that references are made to the categories of interpersonal relations management, self-management, self –awareness and self-confidence. In particular, there is a strong need for policy makers of adult education to help learners develop communication, cooperation and tolerance, face difficulties, improve this lives, connect emotionally with others, join in community, sustain social connections.

Keywords: Adult Learning, Education, Emotional Intelligence, Empowerment, Skills, UNESCO

Skills and Sentimental Intelligence: A New Dimension in Employability (Published)

In a dynamic, multidimensional and more operational environment, the effectiveness of human resources is a matter of major importance, leading most organizations and enterprises to pursue total quality in all their activities (Hofstede, 1990). The quality can be ensured through the comprehensive improvement of employee skills, international alliances, the introduction and support of innovations, the lifelong education and training of human resources. International organizations, in a context of global co-operation and synergy, are called upon to play an important role in this direction, as they have both the appropriate experience and extensive diplomatic networks. To that end, important official texts have been drawn up, of which a constant point of reference is the need to acquire proper and appropriate skills. Which are though the right skills? Since specialized skills seem not to be adequate, emphasis has been lately put on emotional competence, which may contribute to the creation of a healthy working environment (Goleman, 1998). This study, through the qualitative analysis of the European Commission’s text “Communication: A new skills agenda for Europe”, tries to capture and investigate whether there are references to skills related to the field of emotional intelligence in its content. The analysis of the text shows that references are made mainly to the categories of interpersonal relations management and self-management. In particular, there is a strong need for policy makers to develop communication, facilitate change, enhance the development of others, teamwork, co-operation and adaptation to continuously changing environments.

Keywords: Employability, European Union., Sentimental Intelligence, Skills

Skills: A Pathway to Employability and Prosperity. European Commission Policies (Published)

The contemporary societal characteristics, the rapid technological developments, the increase in age limits, the strong demographic changes, the high rates of unemployment have led to major changes in the workplace. There is a strong demand for national and international policies, which aim at the development of employability and prosperity of citizens. In a context of global co-operation and coalition, international organizations, such as the United Nations Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU) Institutions, are called upon to play an important role in the development of prosperity, social cohesion and the economy of the countries, given that they have both the appropriate experience and the extensive diplomatic networks. In such a context, a great number of significant official texts have been drafted. Texts which provide policy guidance to member states in order to achieve growth and prosperity. This study, through the qualitative analysis of the European Commission’s text “Communication: A new skills agenda for Europe”, tries to capture and investigate the way employability can be protected and maintained. The analysis shows that a basic dimension of employability concerns the improvement and development of a skillset which people need to obtain in order to get and keep employed. These skills are planned and supported by corresponding policies and they are also differentiated according to target populations.

Keywords: Employability, Prosperity, Skills, policies

Skills in Basic Science and Technology for Local Technology and Entrepreneurship in Nigeria (Published)

With the broad search for skills to drive the home grown local technology in developing countries like Nigeria, Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) in the new Curriculum for Basic Science and Technology, encourages teachers to lead their students to identify entrepreneurial skills in Basic Sciences. This study is one of the efforts to determine such skills in Basic Sciences and Technology for Local technology and entrepreneurship. The research took place in one of the biggest cities in a flourishing State in Nigeria with 120 students (30 each), randomly selected from four secondary schools. The validated prime instrument for the descriptive survey design was questionnaire. The data was analyzed using inferential statistics. The researcher made recommendations that could answer the usual local and global question of “Where next is technology driving the local entrepreneurial?”

Keywords: Basic Science, Entrepreneurship, Skills, Sustainable Development, Technology, local technology

Labor Market and Development: UNESCO Research Data on Human Resource Training (Published)

The Sustainable Development Goals Program was adopted by the United Nations in September 2015 and is an evolution of the Millennium Development Goals Program (2000-2015). Its main axes are economy, society and the environment, with an emphasis on education and training for professionals, which are considered to be fundamental foundations of economic and social development. UNESCO is called upon to play an important role in implementing the Agenda, as it has both the right experience and extensive diplomatic networks. To this end, it has drafted official texts on the achievement of the Agenda 2030 objectives. Its recent text, “Third World Report on Adult Learning and Adult Education” (GRALE III), presents the results of an international research involving 139 UNESCO member countries on the impact of Learning and Adult Education on Health, Prosperity, Employment and the Labor Market, Social, Political and Community Life. This study, through the qualitative analysis of the above-mentioned text, reflects and investigates the impact of education on the labor market and the development of human resources. The thematic analysis shows that the development of the labor market and human resources is linked to the type of education and skills provided by population group, financing, strategies and policy-making.

Keywords: Education, Labor market, Policy, Skills, UNESCO

Skills, Teaching in ESL, Classroom, Discrete, Integrated (Published)

This paper reviews skills teaching in ESL classroom which can be discrete or integrated. It includes a brief history of discrete skills teaching according to different methods of English language teaching, and the shift towards integrated approach in more recent years. The researcher also analyses the classroom implications of discrete and integrated skills teaching in order to find out which one is more successful in ESL classroom. Therefore, the purpose of this article is firstly, to evaluate the methodological approaches towards skills teaching; secondly,to explore discrete skills approach in class; thirdly, to analyse integration of skills to make a learner a competent user of language; and finally, to propose the various ways of integration and recommend the teachers for the successful development of the integration of language skills

Keywords: Classroom, Discrete, Integrated, Skills, Teaching in ESL

Skills Improvement Needs of Lecturers in the Utilization of selected Weather Instruments for Instructional Delivery in Tertiary Institutions in North-East Nigeria (Published)

The purpose of the study was to determine the skill improvement needs of lecturers in the utilization of weather instruments for effective teaching of students of agriculture in tertiary institutions in North-East, Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Four research questions guided the study. The study was carried out in North-East, Nigeria. The population of the study was 219 respondents comprising of 17 Lecturers of Agricultural Education, 9 Lecturers of Soil Science, 8 Lecturers of Geography in Universities and 185 Lecturers of Agricultural Education in Colleges of Education. The entire population constituted the sample for the study. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire named “Utilization of Weather Instruments Questionnaire” (UWIQ). Five experts validated the instrument and was trial-tested. A Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.83 was obtained indicating that instrument was reliable to elicit information for the work. Two hundred and nineteen copies of the questionnaire were administered to the respondents by six trained research assistants in the six States of North-East, Nigeria. The entire questionnaire was retrieved. The data collected were analyzed using weighted mean and improvement need index (INI) to answer the 4 research questions. It was found that all the 64 skill improvement needs identified in the utilization of weather instruments were needed by Lecturers of Agricultural Education in Colleges of Education. The result revealed that Lecturers of Agricultural Education need skill improvement on the following items: 19 skills on utilizing Stevenson Screen, 16 skills on utilizing Thermo-hygrograph, 20 skills on utilizing Maximum and Minimum Thermometers and 10 skills on utilizing Sunshine Recorder. Based on these findings, it was recommended that: Lecturers of Agricultural Education should seek for ways of improving their skills in utilizing weather instruments; Administrators of Colleges of Education should support and approve study leave for Lecturers of Agricultural Education to attend workshops, seminars and conferences on utilization of weather instruments; Skill acquisition organizations should package the finding of the study into capacity building programmes for re-training both Lecturers of Agricultural Education in Colleges of Education and teachers of Agriculture Science in Secondary Schools in North-East, Nigeria.

Keywords: Improvement, Skills, Tertiary Institutions, Utilization, Weather Instruments

Frequency of On-Job Training (Ojt) Of Administrative Staff Atmmust: A Human Resource Practice and Promotional Tool for Organizational Performance (Published)

Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST) is one of the institutions that sponsors its administrative staff to a variety of trainings, including on-job training programs. The university’s Human Resource Development (HRD) policy of On-Job Training (OJT) aims at ensuring that staff can cope with the dynamics of a competitive higher education environment. Like most public universities, once trained, an employee would require to be placed in a job that requires the newly acquired knowledge and skills. However, in most organizations, non-placement of trained employees persists.  This phenomenon leads to high turnover as they leave to look for positions that suit their training elsewhere. Those employees that do not leave may under-perform due to a feeling of under-utilization or non-recognition.  This paper is an investigation into the frequency of OJT in the institution and how this relates to individuals’ current jobs as well as transformation to their future appointments and promotions. The study employed a case study design and targeted 149 administrative staff. Since the target population was small, census sampling approach was used thus it formed the sample size. Data was collected using structured questionnaire and an interview schedule. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically while quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using percentages and frequency distribution techniques. The results revealed that most staff often attend OJT and indicated quite a number having received training while on their current job.

Keywords: Behaviour change., Knowledge, Non-placement, On Job Training, Performance, Skills

Chemistry Entrepreneurship: A Panacea for Chemistry Graduates Unemployment-The Nigerian Experience (Published)

This study sought to examine chemistry entrepreneurship as a panacea for chemistry graduates unemployment in Nigeria. The recent economy recession world-wide and particularly in Nigeria has necessitated the need to make a paradigm shift from consuming economy to producing economy. For any nation to attain the status of producing economy, its citizens must have acquired entrepreneurial skills in all sectors of the economy. Entrepreneurship is the capacity and willingness to develop, organize and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit. The notion to become an entrepreneur in Nigeria is fast gaining ground in the face of little or no government jobs. The labour market is gradually becoming more attractive to graduating students as they want to be self-employed and independent.In view of all these, there is the need to entrench entrepreneurship education into our school curricula at all levels of education, most especially the higher institutions. This being as it is, there is need for inclusion of chemistry entrepreneurship in the chemistry curriculum most especially for our higher education students.Chemistry entrepreneurship being offered as a course will equip the students with the knowledge and skills to convert innovations from researches in chemistry into marketable products for commercial gain. Many of the household materials being used on daily basis are the products of innovations from chemistry researches. Such household materials as soap, candle, cream, toothpaste, slippers, shoe polish, insecticides, herbicides among others are enough, if invested in, to make a chemistry graduate a wealth creator instead of a job seeker.In view of the above, the paper recommends that the Nigerian government should prioritise, generally the academic entrepreneurship and particularly chemistry entrepreneurship in all our higher institutions, as this will go a long way in arresting the spate of chemistry graduates unemployment and also strengthen the nose-diving economy in the country.

Keywords: Chemistry entrepreneurship, Innovations, Knowledge, Skills, Wealth Creation

Job Dissatisfaction: An Analysis of Skill and Knowledge Mismatch Of On-Job Trained Employees In Institutions Of Higher Learning (Published)

It is acknowledged that Human Resource Development (HRD) practices such as On Job Training (OJT) and Job Placement (JP) are linked to employee performance. However, research is yet to focus on how performance is affected by mismatch of new knowledge and skills acquired from OJT and those required to perform their allocated responsibilities, especially in public universities in Kenya. Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST) devotes some of its budgetary allocation on OJT of administrative staff and any mismatch between knowledge and skills acquired and those demanded by administrative jobs can be counterproductive.  Thus a need exists to establish the relationship between OJT as HRD practice and JP of trained administrative staff. The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between on-job training and job placement of administrative staff at MMUST. This is aimed at finding out if the OJT programmes match the staff’s skills and knowledge. The study employed a case study design with target population of 149 administrative staff. Since the target population was small, it formed the sample therefore census sampling.  Data was collected using structured questionnaire and an interview schedule. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically and was presented verbatim according to the themes while quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using percentages and frequency distribution techniques. The results indicated that majority of the respondents acquired most of their knowledge and skills while in their current positions, with a few others had the knowledge and skills that matched with the positions they held. The study concludes that properly placed employees perform optimally while misplaced employees feel demotivated and tend to have a high turn-over rate. The study recommends that organizations should ensure that they hire competent and qualified administrative staff and also, enact policies on proper placement to ensure that employees who are misplaced have a chance to be properly placed to the right positions.

Keywords: Administrative staff, Job Dissatisfaction, Job Placement, Knowledge, Skills

Frequency of On-Job Training (OJT) Of Administrative Staff At MMUST: A Human Resource Practice and Promotional Tool for Organizational Performance (Published)

Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST) is one of the institutions that sponsors its administrative staff to a variety of trainings, including on-job training programs. The university’s Human Resource Development (HRD) policy of On-Job Training (OJT) aims at ensuring that staff can cope with the dynamics of a competitive higher education environment. Like most public universities, once trained, an employee would require to be placed in a job that requires the newly acquired knowledge and skills. However, in most organizations, non-placement of trained employees persists.  This phenomenon leads to high turnover as they leave to look for positions that suit their training elsewhere. Those employees that do not leave may under-perform due to a feeling of under-utilization or non-recognition.  This paper is an investigation into the frequency of OJT in the institution and how this relates to individuals’ current jobs as well as transformation to their future appointments and promotions. The study employed a case study design and targeted 149 administrative staff. Since the target population was small, census sampling approach was used thus it formed the sample size. Data was collected using structured questionnaire and an interview schedule. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically while quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using percentages and frequency distribution techniques. The results revealed that most staff often attend OJT and indicated quite a number having received training while on their current job.

Keywords: Behaviour change., Knowledge, Non-placement, On Job Training, Performance, Skills

Human Capital Development: A Way Forward for Entrepreneurial Growth in Ebonyi State (Published)

Human capital development is a process of increasing knowledge, skills, talents and competencies in vocational and technical education for increase in productivity and stimulating resourcefulness of trainees. Home economics and Social Studies must necessarily contribute to developing of human capital in the 21st century to enable families and individuals cope with the ever emerging problems and challenges. The study focused on human capital development: a panacea for entrepreneurial growth in Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study sought to ascertain the managerial skills required for entrepreneurial growth in Ebonyi State, entrepreneurial qualities required for entrepreneurial growth, ascertain how entrepreneurial growth can enhance socio-economic development of Ebonyi State. Three research questions and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The area of the study is Ebonyi State. Population of the study was 220 registered entrepreneurs in Ebonyi State. There was no sampling because the population was manageable. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using mean and frequency. Chi-square was used to test the hypothesis. Findings of the study showed that managers need communication, conceptual, technical skills for entrepreneurial growth. Also, discipline, creativity, and ability to motivate employees, were the entrepreneurial qualities required for entrepreneurial growth. Movement of capital goods; increase in education; creating of new jobs can enhance socio-economic development of Ebonyi State. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made; there should be increased collaboration and cooperation between public and private sectors, among others.

Keywords: : Human Capital, Development, Growth, Skills, entrepreneurial

Developing Entrepreneurial Skills in Secondary School Students through Effective Mathematics Education in Aba, Nigeria (Published)

Unemployment is a global issue which increases every day. Developing entrepreneurial skills could be a way of reducing, if not eliminating it. There is the need to make students self-reliant. These skills cannot be developed without efficient and effective knowledge of mathematics. That is why this study considers how entrepreneurial skills can be developed through mathematics education. This study was conducted in Aba metropolis of Abia State, Nigeria. Aba being one of the major centers of commerce in Nigeria was selected as to identify some of the skills and discuss how the knowledge of mathematics can assist develop them. A survey research design was used for this study with 200 senior secondary school (sss 1) students and 80 teachers selected randomly from 40 secondary schools. The instrument of study was structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed and research questions answered using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation, and co-relational statistics of Pearson moment correlation. Among others, it was found that both students and teachers need knowledge of mathematics to be good entrepreneurs. There is strong positive relationship between mathematics and entrepreneurial skills. It was recommended that there is need to enhance the mathematical background of students, and teachers with strong mathematical background should be used in teaching entrepreneurship education.

Keywords: Education, Mathematics, Skills, entrepreneurial

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