Tag Archives: Saudi Arabia

The Buying Pattern of Energy Drink and its Use among the Young Generation of Saudi Arabia (Published)

Energy drink intake has to turn into a favorite exercise around the world, in particular among the younger generation. In Saudi Arabia, there are significant limitations in energy drinks – in abstract, tastes, advertising, the attention of sponsorship, are not permitted,” however, it is not limited to the use of social media. The core purpose of this study is to investigate the consumption patterns of energy drinks among young people in Saudi Arabia even after partial restrictions on the promotion of energy drinks. This method of the research was used an exploratory approach in nature with the data collection through survey method (Maxim, 1999) were gathered from the respondents. A self-administered structured questionnaire was developed using survey monkey online services.  After getting the responses, the data were edited, tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics (Frequency distribution) through the excel sheet and the result was explained accordingly. The result reveals that there is a trend of widespread use of energy drinks among young people, especially students in the age group 23-27 (72.10%). It also indicates that there is a high level of social acceptance of energy drink consumption in the region. The respondents showed a tendency towards buying decisions of it, but between the choice of brands, a certain degree of loyalty was shown. There is a call of some awareness program to increase the knowledge among the youth about the consumption of energy drinks and their effects on health.

Keywords: : Energy Drinks, Buying Pattern, Consumer Behavior, Power Drink, Saudi Arabia, Youth

Determination of Injury under the GCC Common-law on Antidumping, Countervailing Measures and Safeguard Measures and its Rules of Implementation (Published)

Anti-dumping investigations consist of two major stages. The first stage involves identification of whether the product under the investigations is being dumped. Once the investigative authority finds that the product is being dumped, it moves the second phase, injury determination. While significant experience has been gained in the first stage, the second stage came to the scrutiny relatively recently. Indeed, in earlier times the majority of anti-dumping investigations were terminated at the first stage. Only few anti-dumping complaints reached the second stage. However, with the proliferation of anti-dumping investigations in the United States and the EU, many anti-dumping complaints now reach the injury determination stage. Due to this developed many of the concepts of injury determination has been clarified. However, some of them remain vague and ambiguous. The current paper looks at these concepts and attempts to explain them.The vast majority of the existing research on anti-dumping understandably focuses on the US and the EU anti-dumping laws. Recently, scholars began paying more attention to the development of anti-dumping laws in China and India. There is also the research covering anti-dumping legislation in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and Brazil and so on. However, very little research is available on anti-dumping laws of the States belonging to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). There are few works that mention the GCC Common Law on Law on Antidumping, Countervailing Measures and Safeguard Measures and its Rules of Implementation (GCC Common Law). These works, however, do not provide any in-depth analysis of the GCC Common Law provisions. The current paper aims to address the research gap by focusing on injury determination provisions contained in the GCC Common Law.

 

Keywords: Anti-Dumping, Gulf States, Saudi Arabia, WTO

The Adequacy of the Common Law of the GCC to Protect the Saudi Domestic Manufacturing Industry from International Trade Dumping Practices: A Critical Evaluation of the Protection System (Published)

The Practice of dumping in the global market is clearly of concern to all trading States, whether importers or exporters. It is a form of price discrimination and unfair competition, affecting a broad range of competing interests, both national and foreign, and products in the captive market. What protects the Gulf market in general, and the Saudi market in specific, from these injurious practices are the legal provisions of the GCC ‘Common Law on Antidumping, Countervailing Measures and Safeguard Measures and its Rules of Implementation’. Since the adoption of the GCC Common Law in 2003, almost all dumping complaints did not proceed further than the investigation stage. One possible explanation that might be provided is that there might be no real dumping problems in Saudi market. However, this explanation is difficult to accept, especially because Saudi Arabia had experienced the existence of the problem even before adopting the free market system by becoming a WTO member. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify the gap between the theory and the application. This requires an investigation of the adequacy of the Common Law so that it can provide a sufficiently protective framework to the Saudi market against the dumping problem. It also requires exploring how the law is applied.

Keywords: Dumping, Gulf States, Saudi Arabia, WTO

The Influence of Reading Comprehension on Reading Fluency (Published)

This paper presents an argument regarding whether Arabic language is useful in supporting the learning process of English language in Saudi Arabian classes. The paper address the literature review in the area regarding languages as supportive tools in learning English. Finally, the paper conclude that Arabic language is of extreme importance and act as a supportive tool for learning English language. Arabic language is very important for the process of learning English especially for English beginners.

Keywords: Arabic, Education, English Language, Saudi Arabia

How Can In-Service Development Take a Part in Saudi English Teacher Development? (Published)

This paper presents a solution to how in-service development in Saudi Arabia can enhance the lack of English language proficiency of Saudi Arabian EFL teachers. The paper examines the problem and mentioned that a lack of English language proficiency and development was an issue that needed to be addressed. In the literature review particular theories were reviewed, which helped to explain the issues that the KSA is currently facing with a solution suggested.

Keywords: Education, English as Foreign Language, Saudi Arabia

Does Arabic Language Act As a Supportive Tool for Learning English in Saudi Arabian Classes (Published)

This paper presents an argument regarding whether Arabic language is useful in supporting the learning process of English language in Saudi Arabian classes. The paper address the literature review in the area regarding languages as supportive tools in learning English. Finally, the paper conclude that Arabic language is of extreme importance and act as a supportive tool for learning English language. Arabic language is very important for the process of learning English especially for English beginners.

 

Keywords: Arabic, Education, English Language, Saudi Arabia

Overview of Zakat Application, Taxes, Sharia Law and Undeveloped Lands in Saudi Arabia (Published)

This paper seeks to give a clear understanding of Zakat application, taxes, and highlights their explanation according to Sharia law. Moreover, this paper gives a comprehensive example of undeveloped lands in Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia. 

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Sharia, Taxes, Undeveloped land, Zakat

Investigating the possibility of applying Zakat or Fees to reduce undeveloped lands in Riyadh – Saudi Arabia (Published)

This study aims to identify and analyze the causes of the wide spread of undeveloped lands in Riyadh, evaluate current obstacles to reduce their size, analyze current government policies, critically evaluate current proposals, and suggesting recommendations to adjust regulations concerning undeveloped lands in Riyadh. The study opted to a mixed method approach through a questionnaire as a tool to collecting data. The sample was composed of 60 participants containing investors, brokers, real estate developers, religious scholars, law experts, government officials, and consumers. After analyzing the data, the results appeared as follows: Monopoly is on the top the obstructive factors, then comes the unwillingness of real estate investors to accelerate the development of their undeveloped lands, as well as the lack of basic rules concerning the donation of lands to citizens and the lack of procedures in monitoring the investment of undeveloped lands. The current government policies concerning undeveloped lands are not clearly defined or set in professional way. The researcher recommends an integrated plan consisting of chronologic stages of solving the whole case of undeveloped lands, starting with warning periods, giving priority to the most important and strategic pieces of land, and starting with the largest areas, as well as recommendation to fulfill further field studies about complicated cases of undeveloped lands in big cities of the Kingdom Saudi Arabia

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Sharia, Taxes, Undeveloped land, Zakat

Evaluating the Awareness and Perceptions of English Teachers in using E-Learning Tools for Teaching in Saudi High Schools (Published)

The study was carried out to evaluate English teachers’ awareness and perceptions in using e-learning tools. In this study, a total of 22 English teachers from Yanbu educational department participated in the online survey. The majority of the participants (77.3%) are male. Different e-learning parameters were measured like; skill in using educational technology, teachers’ personal use of technology, type of technology used in the classroom, e-learning confidence, barriers to e-learning, perceived effectiveness of e-learning, and willingness to adopt e-learning tools for teaching. The result of the study showed that English teachers are aware and familiar with popular e-learning tools and perceived its usefulness in teaching and learning. Moreover, teachers were faced with some barriers that prevent them to employ technology in the classroom like; lack of reliable Internet connectivity, lack of training, inadequate devices for both teachers and students, and shortage of class time needed to integrate technology in classroom. The study recommends among other things to provide training programs, workshops and seminars to improve teachers’ skills in integrating technology. Furthermore, it suggest to equip schools with a reliable Internet connectivity and technology devices and to provide teachers with enough time to prepare for using e-learning tools.

Keywords: E-Learning Tools, English Teachers, Perceptions, Saudi Arabia, awareness

Teachers’ Attitudes and Perspectives toward Mobile Learning Implementation in Secondary Schools in Saudi Arabia (Published)

This paper aims to study teachers’ attitudes and perspectives toward mobile learning implementation in secondary schools in Saudi Arabia. The study consists of 34 English language teachers, all from Saudi Arabia. The study depends on the descriptive approach to evaluate English language teachers’ attitudes, and perspectives toward using smart phones in pedagogical processes. The results asserts that Saudi English language teachers have positive attitudes and perspectives toward using smart phones in pedagogical process with total mean of (3.04) out of 4. Furthermore, the findings show that the total mean of using or developing mobile learning applications is equal to (2.73) which show that the majority of Saudi English language teachers perceived themselves as undecided or proficient and more close to proficient concerning their ability to use smart phones and mobile applications for language teaching.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, Saudi Arabia, Secondary Schools, Teachers' Attitudes

Educational Technology in Saudi Arabia: A Historical Overview (Published)

This paper is a descriptive paper on the emergence of the new and relatively new phenomena on e-learning in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this paper is to highlight key phases and changes towards e-education in general. Also, it highlights the history of using educational technology in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia since the mid-1900s, the beginning, the improvements, and the current status. Finally, it also describes the rapid increases in using technology in schools, institutes and universities, and presents the attitudes of Saudi people towards this global phenomenon, so-called e-learning. The paper serves as a literature review of e-leaning/e-education in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: E-education, E-learning, Educational Technology, Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia Educational Map- From Sand Dunes towards Western Skyscrapers Platforms (Published)

This paper explores the emergence of the concept of education and its ideological roots vis-s-vis Islamic principles and pedagogy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Hence, a general description of the Saudi Arabian educational system and a general account of how and when education was first introduced into the KSA is a necessary step to provide a complete picture the system of education and its rapid developments towards E-learning and/or distance learning status. In fact, all legal decisions within the Kingdom; however, are based on the Sharia Law-Islamic law as set forth by the Holy Qur’an, as stated in the Education Policy document. Therefore, according to Islamic studies constitute a major portion of the curriculum at the educational levels, and even science textbooks emphasize Islamic notions. This, in turn, may propose some obstacles in learning and teaching distance education from a Western ideological perspective. Therefore, the paper will lay out some of these hindrances and pedagogical implication in how to transition from traditional towards a more modern pedagogical education paradigm within the KSA.

Keywords: Education, Ideology, Islamic, Pedagogy, Policy Documents, Saudi Arabia, Western

The Features of Effective English Teachers as Viewed by English Language Teachers and High School Students in Saudi Arabia (Published)

This paper aimed to study the features of effective English teachers as viewed by English language teachers and high school students in Saudi Arabia. The study consists of 17 English language teachers and 17 secondary school students, all from Saudi Arabia. The study depended on the descriptive approach to evaluate English teachers language proficiency, pedagogical knowledge and socio-affective features. The results asserts that the teachers advocated socio-affective skills, English proficiency, and pedagogical knowledge in order of importance, whereas the students advocated English proficiency, socio-affective skills, and pedagogical knowledge. The results show that the features of effective English teachers within the language proficiency are reading, writing and comprehension proficiency. For pedagogical knowledge, the research indicates the significant of preparing the lesson and using various teaching aids. Finally, the socio-affective features of English language effective teachers are “listening to the students” and “to be fair with all students”.

Keywords: English Teachers, High School, Language, Saudi Arabia, Student

E-Commerce Activities through E-Banking Services: A Comparative Analysis of the Perceptions of Saudi Islamic and Conventional Banks Customers (Published)

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to explore and evaluate customers’ use of e-commerce activities through e-banking services in Saudi Islamic and conventional banks through analysing the perceptions of their customers. Design / methodology / approach -This paper presents the initial findings with the objective of developing a better understanding of customers’ preferences based on their opinions and perceptions expressed through a questionnaire survey with a sample of 198 Islamic and conventional bank customers representing six banks in the country. Findings – The findings indicate that the order of preferences in terms of mean ranking is similar in both types of banks in five out of six cases. Based on the application of K-W and MW-U tests, the findings also show that independent variables have turned out to be more significant in Islamic banks than in the conventional banks. Research limitation / implications – The study has considered six banks out of the total of 12 in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the research is based on a limited selection of bank customers in three main regions of Saudi Arabia.Practical implications – With reference to practical implications, the findings suggest that e-commerce activities can play a significant role in expanding the dealing of e-commerce through e-banking services in Saudi Arabia. Originality/value – This is the first paper in the area of exploring and evaluating customers’ use of e-commerce activities through e-banking services on a comparative analysis of Islamic and conventional banks in Saudi Arabia. The findings and implications of the research offer invaluable information to the industry and policy-makers.

Keywords: E-Banking services, E-Commerce, Islamic and conventional banks, Saudi Arabia

Relationship between Teachers’ Effective Communication and Students’ Academic Achievement at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia (Published)

Effective Communication between faculty members and students is one of the concerns of the educational stakeholders at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the relationship between teachers’ effective communication and students’ academic achievement at the Northern Border University. The survey questionnaire containing 26 items was administered on 100 students, 50 males and 50 females to ask about their perception towards the effective communication of the faculty members and their academic achievement at the Faculty of Education and Arts, Northern Border University in the City of Arar, Saudi Arabia. The results of the Descriptive statistics method showed that, almost more than half of the students agreed that, the friendly and understanding position maintained by their faculty members had helped them to highly achieve academically. The results of the independent sample T-test found no statistically significant differences between the students ‘academic achievement and their faculty members’ verbal communication across the respondents’ gender and year of study. The study recommended for the Northern Border Authority as well as the Saudi Government looking into other areas that might bring about the effective communication of the staff and the students’ academic achievement in the University.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Effective Communication, Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia

Relationship between Teachers’ Effective Communication and Students’ Academic Achievement at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia (Published)

Effective Communication between faculty members and students is one of the concerns of the educational stakeholders at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the relationship between teachers’ effective communication and students’ academic achievement at the Northern Border University. The survey questionnaire containing 26 items was administered on 100 students, 50 males and 50 females to ask about their perception towards the effective communication of the faculty members and their academic achievement at the Faculty of Education and Arts, Northern Border University in the City of Arar, Saudi Arabia. The results of the Descriptive statistics method showed that, almost more than half of the students agreed that, the friendly and understanding position maintained by their faculty members had helped them to highly achieve academically. The results of the independent sample T-test found no statistically significant differences between the students ‘academic achievement and their faculty members’ verbal communication across the respondents’ gender and year of study. The study recommended for the Northern Border Authority as well as the Saudi Government looking into other areas that might bring about the effective communication of the staff and the students’ academic achievement in the University.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Effective Communication, Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia

AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING CUSTOMER LOYALTY OF TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA (Published)

This research aims to evaluate the effect of the variables; namely, price, service quality, brand image and trends on customer loyalty of service providers of mobile phones in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to a convenient sample throughout the major cities of Saudi Arabia. A total of 775 were returned representing a response rate of 89.6%. The study showed that the majority of respondents had prescribed to more than one service provider at the same time. Additionally, it was revealed that all the variables tested; price, service quality, brand image and trends, had a direct effect on customer loyalty of service provider. Results obtained from this research will offer necessary feedback for improving a company’s strategy, marketing mix, services, and product offerings, thereby, achieve customer satisfaction and improve their customer loyalty while attracting new ones.

Keywords: Brand Image, Customer loyalty, Price, Saudi Arabia, Service Quality, Trends, mobile phones

LEARNING ENGLISH IN SAUDI ARABIA: A SOCIO- CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE (Published)

This study aims at investigating the cultural factors which predispose Saudi students towards learning English in Saudi Arabia from the point of view of Saudi teachers and students. The researcher attempts to examine these factors from Islamic social perspectives by raising questions that examine how positive these factors are and how they encourage and motivate students to learn English language. These cultural factors are : Islam, national identity, globalization, westernization, Saudi teenagers’ attitudes and beliefs, motivation, travelling, social websites, knowing the purpose of learning, need for communication, native speakers’ teachers, and the learning of Arabic language by native speakers of English .The qualitative descriptive research method was used. Two data-gathering tools were used for data collection: a questionnaire and an interview. The total number of the subjects was 226 participants. The analysis of the collected data shows that the most influencing factors upon learning English in Saudi Arabia are traveling abroad to learn English, knowing the purpose of learning English and Saudi teenagers’ beliefs and attitudes . The least influencing factors upon learning English in Saudi Arabia are Islam and westernization.

Keywords: English Language Learning, Islamic Culture, Saudi Arabia, Western Culture

CONCEPTUALIZING THE VIRTUAL LEARNING SPACE(S) IN SAUDI ARABIA: A FOUCAULDIAN PANOPTIC APPROACH (Published)

In a place-conscious culture where marked spaces define national identity and social order, the move from a teacher-centred educational system to the virtual classroom resulted in re-drawing the map of power relations. From the practices of the early Saudi classroom, the Halaga, with its panoptic circle structure, to the modern school classroom with its carefully-drawn rows and set of disciplinary techniques, the Saudi teacher had always exercised his authority from/as the centre. Yet, the educational phenomenon of the virtual-space-based distance learning has left the instructor feeling ‘out of place’. As the setting for the physical presence and the disciplinary gaze is shifted/cancelled in the online classroom, the balance of power has also shifted in favour of the student. This paper explores the hierarchical structure of the virtual space in the not-so-modern Saudi teaching practices and the position of the teacher which has (d)evolved into the power struggles of the 21st century modern ‘educational technological phenomenon’. Applying Foucault’s concept of the panoptic in educational settings, we posit that the traditional power and discipline the teacher used to claim has been transmuted in the reverse panoptic gaze of the students who are in control of the virtual classroom and its time and space. The invisibility of the students in the current distance learning setting, compared to their visibility as a disciplinary tool in the physical Saudi classroom, poses a serious challenge not only to the teacher’s authority, but also to his/her style and methods. On the other hand, some might argue that the students might gain more understanding of a subject via their ‘spatial freedom’ of the online material access. However, we hypothesize that the virtual space in distance learning needs to be teacher-friendly and visual contact between the teacher and the students should still be applied freely.

Keywords: Foucault, Saudi Arabia, distance learning, early Islamic pedagogy, panopticism, spatial freedom, virtual classroom, virtual space

MANAGERIAL CREATIVITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE LEVEL IMPROVEMENT IN SAUDI TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANIES (Published)

This study aims to investigate the application status managerial creativity components among employees namely originality, Ideational Fluency, mental flexibility, risk taking ability to analyze, problems sensitivity, unfamiliar and its impact in improving performance of telecom companies employees in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire is developed to measure the impact of managerial creativity on telecommunications company’s employees in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 210 questionnaires were distributed and 180 were restored, that is 85.7% of the total sample.The results showed that there is a positive relationship between managerial creativity elements, and employees performance of telecom companies in Saudi Arabia, which confirms adopted study hypothesis and there is appositive relationship between them. This indicates that as long as appropriate stimulating environment of managerial creativity elements is available within these companies as long as this level of employees’ performance level is increased. Finally, the study recommended that the importance of pay special attention to all managerial creativity as an important variable that contributes in influencing employees job performance, which will lead to higher morale and increase their loyalty and belonging to these companies.

Keywords: Managerial Creativity, Saudi Arabia, Telecom Companies

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