Tag Archives: Saudi Arabia

Schools with Disadvantaged Students Outperforming Schools with Advantaged Students: An Investigation of Factors Explaining the Odd (Published)

The relationship between student academic achievement and socioeconomic status has been a topic of interest for decades. It is now well established in the research literature that students with high socioeconomic status are more likely to perform better academically than their counterparts. Despite this generally accepted claim, some schools with disadvantaged students outperform schools with advantaged students. Yet, these two types of schools deviating from the literature have received less attention from the research community.  The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate factors explaining student achievement of these two types of schools, which defies findings from the literature. Analysis of the data revealed that teachers’ major, professional development, collaborations, students’ motivations, and students’ perceptions of their schools, teachers, and ability to do well on the subject were the main significant differences between the two groups. Based on these findings, recommendations for future studies and policy are drawn

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Advantaged, Disadvantaged Students, Saudi Arabia, student socioeconomic background

Schools with Disadvantaged Students Outperforming Schools with Advantaged Students: An Investigation of Factors Explaining the Odd (Review Completed - Accepted)

The relationship between student academic achievement and socioeconomic status has been a topic of interest for decades. It is now well established in the research literature that students with high socioeconomic status are more likely to perform better academically than their counterparts. Despite this generally accepted claim, some schools with disadvantaged students outperform schools with advantaged students. Yet, these two types of schools deviating from the literature have received less attention from the research community.  The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate factors explaining student achievement of these two types of schools, which defies findings from the literature. Analysis of the data revealed that teachers’ major, professional development, collaborations, students’ motivations, and students’ perceptions of their schools, teachers, and ability to do well on the subject were the main significant differences between the two groups. Based on these findings, recommendations for future studies and policy are drawn.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Saudi Arabia, advantaged and disadvantaged students, student socioeconomic background

Is Oil Forever? Saudi Government Revenue Diversification is Now Necessary (Published)

This research aims to identify the potential government revenue diversification sources in Saudi Arabia. The purpose behind this was the fact that the Saudi economy rely on oil as main source of export and fiscal revenue. That said, the shock in oil prices directly affect government revenue. The current Saudi economic model has weaknesses due to its over-reliance on oil revenue. Therefore, an increasing economic divarication is paramount as it would reduce exposure to volatility and uncertainty in oil market. To achieve above stated aim, secondary data is collected from the Saudi Ministry of Finance, IMF, world bank and OPEC from 2000- 2015. The data analysis approaches used in this research is a great contribution to knowledge as it covers three main analysis tools: Trend analysis, Correlation and Contribution analysis. Trend analysis revealed that although Saudi revenues are showing an increasing trend but the high proportion of oil revenues cause a fall in total revenue due to dropping oil prices in global market. This finding was further supported by correlation analysis. The results show strong positive correlation between total revenue, oil revenues and non-oil revenues before financial crisis 2007-2008 however, the situation changed to a negative correlation between total revenues and non-oil revenue sector signalling to a presence of revenue diversification effort. Similarly, the correlation between oil prices and revenues show high positive correlation but negative correlation with production proving the fact that oil production increases in Saudi Arabia when oil prices drop to cover the revenue need of the economy. These results led the researcher to examine the potential sources that can help Saudi policy makers to diversify revenues and reduce revenue volatility. Contribution analysis is employed to examine the proportion of other sectors in total revenues. Investment, document fee and taxes are recognized as main predictors of total revenues other than oil revenues. This research concluded that revenue diversification is necessary not only for Saudi economy but the results can be generalized to those economies too which are relying on only one or few revenue sources. The study shows great implications for policy makers, government and authorities responsible for stabilizing the economy

Keywords: Diversification, Revenues, Saudi Arabia, oil

Teaching English as a Foreign Language: The Case of Saudi Arabia (Published)

This paper aims to describe English language teaching as a foreign language in Saudi Arabia. It highlights the nature of the curriculum, teaching procedures and materials. The paper critically reviews the teaching methods, qualifications in addition to concepts related to culture and society.

Keywords: English, Learning, Method, Saudi Arabia, Teaching

Acquisition of Wh-Questions in English by Saudi English Majors in Najran University (Published)

This study analyzes question formation errors in English made by EFL majors in Najran University – KSA. The aim of the study is to find out the types and causes behind making such errors. For this purpose, the researcher has designed a wh-question generating instrument. After identifying the categories of errors, the data analysis has shown agreement with similar previous studies. The most common error types in forming wh-questions in English are: auxiliary omission, wrong question word, aux.-subject inversion, Wrong auxiliary and many others.Our study has also revealed that some of the errors are due to grammar incompetence required for question formation, while others can be attributed to structure dissimilarities of the two languages.

Keywords: EFL Learners’, Grammar, L 1 Interference, Question Formation, Saudi Arabia

Impact of Saudi Arabia Economic Changes (Oil Shock) 2016 on Consumer Purchasing Habits; With Special Reference to Retail Shopping In KSA (Published)

Consumer behaviour is a complex phenomenon, consisting of a set of decision-making processes, economic determinants and market incentives. The complexity of the buying processes of consumers may be largely linked to a sensation that ‘s hard to predict and control. However, consumers are a primary source of income for business organisations, so knowing their behaviour has a great importance for the survival of business and market prosperity. For this, the researcher focuses primarily on highlighting the effects of the current economic recession (oil shock) of Saudi Arabia among the behaviour of consumers, in particular for household goods. An explorative research followed by descriptive research has been taken. Primary data has been obtained through a close-ended questionnaire, and it was collected using online Google form and the personal basis from the consumer of Saudi Arabia during January 2017 March 2017. Following receiving the data, it was examined with deceptive statistics. Chi2 test at P. Value 0.05, correlation coefficient has been utilised to check the validity and reliability of the hypothesis, and results were interpreted accordingly in the article.  It was investigated that the majority of the respondents had a negative impact of the current economic crisis on the household purchase. Besides, it was also found that there was a variation in opinion among the respondents regarding the changes of their household consumption and expenses before and after the economic crisis (Oil shock).

Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Consumer Perception, Economic Crisis, Household, Oil Shock, Retailing, Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabian Educational Reforms: A Road from Traditionalism to Modernization (Published)

People are the true wealth of any nation.  Adequately prepared and well educated, they can push a country towards development and prosperity.  With this in mind, the Saudi Arabian government has always believed that developing the nation’s citizens is not only an investment but a sacred duty too. Yet, it has faced social resistance in implementing change for fear of losing national identity to globalization, which is felt through the current debates in the media and official arenas.  But the country is working hard to reach a platform of modernized ideas and beliefs that the majority can agree on. Then Saudi Arabia will be able to rise to the level of the developed countries without losing its culture nor identity. In this Study, the author utilized a descriptive method in order to provide a brief description of the country’s demographic characteristics, trends in education before and after 1953, and indicated the Saudi philosophy of education upon which everything else in the educational system is built through presenting the structure of the educational system including policies.  Issues related to general education, special education and post-school education are presented. Major developments in the Saudi educational system after 1953 in general, and 1990 in specific will be discussed.  Finally, government efforts to overcome current educational issues will be delineated to demonstrate how the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia will be able to move forward towards modernization without jeopardizing its religion, language, culture, or identity.

Keywords: Educational Reforms, Modernization, Saudi Arabia, Traditionalism

The Buying Pattern of Energy Drink and its Use among the Young Generation of Saudi Arabia (Published)

Energy drink intake has to turn into a favorite exercise around the world, in particular among the younger generation. In Saudi Arabia, there are significant limitations in energy drinks – in abstract, tastes, advertising, the attention of sponsorship, are not permitted,” however, it is not limited to the use of social media. The core purpose of this study is to investigate the consumption patterns of energy drinks among young people in Saudi Arabia even after partial restrictions on the promotion of energy drinks. This method of the research was used an exploratory approach in nature with the data collection through survey method (Maxim, 1999) were gathered from the respondents. A self-administered structured questionnaire was developed using survey monkey online services.  After getting the responses, the data were edited, tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics (Frequency distribution) through the excel sheet and the result was explained accordingly. The result reveals that there is a trend of widespread use of energy drinks among young people, especially students in the age group 23-27 (72.10%). It also indicates that there is a high level of social acceptance of energy drink consumption in the region. The respondents showed a tendency towards buying decisions of it, but between the choice of brands, a certain degree of loyalty was shown. There is a call of some awareness program to increase the knowledge among the youth about the consumption of energy drinks and their effects on health.

Keywords: : Energy Drinks, Buying Pattern, Consumer Behavior, Power Drink, Saudi Arabia, Youth

Determination of Injury under the GCC Common-law on Antidumping, Countervailing Measures and Safeguard Measures and its Rules of Implementation (Published)

Anti-dumping investigations consist of two major stages. The first stage involves identification of whether the product under the investigations is being dumped. Once the investigative authority finds that the product is being dumped, it moves the second phase, injury determination. While significant experience has been gained in the first stage, the second stage came to the scrutiny relatively recently. Indeed, in earlier times the majority of anti-dumping investigations were terminated at the first stage. Only few anti-dumping complaints reached the second stage. However, with the proliferation of anti-dumping investigations in the United States and the EU, many anti-dumping complaints now reach the injury determination stage. Due to this developed many of the concepts of injury determination has been clarified. However, some of them remain vague and ambiguous. The current paper looks at these concepts and attempts to explain them.The vast majority of the existing research on anti-dumping understandably focuses on the US and the EU anti-dumping laws. Recently, scholars began paying more attention to the development of anti-dumping laws in China and India. There is also the research covering anti-dumping legislation in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and Brazil and so on. However, very little research is available on anti-dumping laws of the States belonging to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). There are few works that mention the GCC Common Law on Law on Antidumping, Countervailing Measures and Safeguard Measures and its Rules of Implementation (GCC Common Law). These works, however, do not provide any in-depth analysis of the GCC Common Law provisions. The current paper aims to address the research gap by focusing on injury determination provisions contained in the GCC Common Law.

 

Keywords: Anti-Dumping, Gulf States, Saudi Arabia, WTO

The Adequacy of the Common Law of the GCC to Protect the Saudi Domestic Manufacturing Industry from International Trade Dumping Practices: A Critical Evaluation of the Protection System (Published)

The Practice of dumping in the global market is clearly of concern to all trading States, whether importers or exporters. It is a form of price discrimination and unfair competition, affecting a broad range of competing interests, both national and foreign, and products in the captive market. What protects the Gulf market in general, and the Saudi market in specific, from these injurious practices are the legal provisions of the GCC ‘Common Law on Antidumping, Countervailing Measures and Safeguard Measures and its Rules of Implementation’. Since the adoption of the GCC Common Law in 2003, almost all dumping complaints did not proceed further than the investigation stage. One possible explanation that might be provided is that there might be no real dumping problems in Saudi market. However, this explanation is difficult to accept, especially because Saudi Arabia had experienced the existence of the problem even before adopting the free market system by becoming a WTO member. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify the gap between the theory and the application. This requires an investigation of the adequacy of the Common Law so that it can provide a sufficiently protective framework to the Saudi market against the dumping problem. It also requires exploring how the law is applied.

Keywords: Dumping, Gulf States, Saudi Arabia, WTO

The Influence of Reading Comprehension on Reading Fluency (Published)

This paper presents an argument regarding whether Arabic language is useful in supporting the learning process of English language in Saudi Arabian classes. The paper address the literature review in the area regarding languages as supportive tools in learning English. Finally, the paper conclude that Arabic language is of extreme importance and act as a supportive tool for learning English language. Arabic language is very important for the process of learning English especially for English beginners.

Keywords: Arabic, Education, English Language, Saudi Arabia

How Can In-Service Development Take a Part in Saudi English Teacher Development? (Published)

This paper presents a solution to how in-service development in Saudi Arabia can enhance the lack of English language proficiency of Saudi Arabian EFL teachers. The paper examines the problem and mentioned that a lack of English language proficiency and development was an issue that needed to be addressed. In the literature review particular theories were reviewed, which helped to explain the issues that the KSA is currently facing with a solution suggested.

Keywords: Education, English as Foreign Language, Saudi Arabia

Does Arabic Language Act As a Supportive Tool for Learning English in Saudi Arabian Classes (Published)

This paper presents an argument regarding whether Arabic language is useful in supporting the learning process of English language in Saudi Arabian classes. The paper address the literature review in the area regarding languages as supportive tools in learning English. Finally, the paper conclude that Arabic language is of extreme importance and act as a supportive tool for learning English language. Arabic language is very important for the process of learning English especially for English beginners.

 

Keywords: Arabic, Education, English Language, Saudi Arabia

Overview of Zakat Application, Taxes, Sharia Law and Undeveloped Lands in Saudi Arabia (Published)

This paper seeks to give a clear understanding of Zakat application, taxes, and highlights their explanation according to Sharia law. Moreover, this paper gives a comprehensive example of undeveloped lands in Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia. 

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Sharia, Taxes, Undeveloped land, Zakat

Investigating the possibility of applying Zakat or Fees to reduce undeveloped lands in Riyadh – Saudi Arabia (Published)

This study aims to identify and analyze the causes of the wide spread of undeveloped lands in Riyadh, evaluate current obstacles to reduce their size, analyze current government policies, critically evaluate current proposals, and suggesting recommendations to adjust regulations concerning undeveloped lands in Riyadh. The study opted to a mixed method approach through a questionnaire as a tool to collecting data. The sample was composed of 60 participants containing investors, brokers, real estate developers, religious scholars, law experts, government officials, and consumers. After analyzing the data, the results appeared as follows: Monopoly is on the top the obstructive factors, then comes the unwillingness of real estate investors to accelerate the development of their undeveloped lands, as well as the lack of basic rules concerning the donation of lands to citizens and the lack of procedures in monitoring the investment of undeveloped lands. The current government policies concerning undeveloped lands are not clearly defined or set in professional way. The researcher recommends an integrated plan consisting of chronologic stages of solving the whole case of undeveloped lands, starting with warning periods, giving priority to the most important and strategic pieces of land, and starting with the largest areas, as well as recommendation to fulfill further field studies about complicated cases of undeveloped lands in big cities of the Kingdom Saudi Arabia

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Sharia, Taxes, Undeveloped land, Zakat

Evaluating the Awareness and Perceptions of English Teachers in using E-Learning Tools for Teaching in Saudi High Schools (Published)

The study was carried out to evaluate English teachers’ awareness and perceptions in using e-learning tools. In this study, a total of 22 English teachers from Yanbu educational department participated in the online survey. The majority of the participants (77.3%) are male. Different e-learning parameters were measured like; skill in using educational technology, teachers’ personal use of technology, type of technology used in the classroom, e-learning confidence, barriers to e-learning, perceived effectiveness of e-learning, and willingness to adopt e-learning tools for teaching. The result of the study showed that English teachers are aware and familiar with popular e-learning tools and perceived its usefulness in teaching and learning. Moreover, teachers were faced with some barriers that prevent them to employ technology in the classroom like; lack of reliable Internet connectivity, lack of training, inadequate devices for both teachers and students, and shortage of class time needed to integrate technology in classroom. The study recommends among other things to provide training programs, workshops and seminars to improve teachers’ skills in integrating technology. Furthermore, it suggest to equip schools with a reliable Internet connectivity and technology devices and to provide teachers with enough time to prepare for using e-learning tools.

Keywords: E-Learning Tools, English Teachers, Perceptions, Saudi Arabia, awareness

Teachers’ Attitudes and Perspectives toward Mobile Learning Implementation in Secondary Schools in Saudi Arabia (Published)

This paper aims to study teachers’ attitudes and perspectives toward mobile learning implementation in secondary schools in Saudi Arabia. The study consists of 34 English language teachers, all from Saudi Arabia. The study depends on the descriptive approach to evaluate English language teachers’ attitudes, and perspectives toward using smart phones in pedagogical processes. The results asserts that Saudi English language teachers have positive attitudes and perspectives toward using smart phones in pedagogical process with total mean of (3.04) out of 4. Furthermore, the findings show that the total mean of using or developing mobile learning applications is equal to (2.73) which show that the majority of Saudi English language teachers perceived themselves as undecided or proficient and more close to proficient concerning their ability to use smart phones and mobile applications for language teaching.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, Saudi Arabia, Secondary Schools, Teachers' Attitudes

Educational Technology in Saudi Arabia: A Historical Overview (Published)

This paper is a descriptive paper on the emergence of the new and relatively new phenomena on e-learning in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this paper is to highlight key phases and changes towards e-education in general. Also, it highlights the history of using educational technology in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia since the mid-1900s, the beginning, the improvements, and the current status. Finally, it also describes the rapid increases in using technology in schools, institutes and universities, and presents the attitudes of Saudi people towards this global phenomenon, so-called e-learning. The paper serves as a literature review of e-leaning/e-education in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: E-education, E-learning, Educational Technology, Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia Educational Map- From Sand Dunes towards Western Skyscrapers Platforms (Published)

This paper explores the emergence of the concept of education and its ideological roots vis-s-vis Islamic principles and pedagogy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Hence, a general description of the Saudi Arabian educational system and a general account of how and when education was first introduced into the KSA is a necessary step to provide a complete picture the system of education and its rapid developments towards E-learning and/or distance learning status. In fact, all legal decisions within the Kingdom; however, are based on the Sharia Law-Islamic law as set forth by the Holy Qur’an, as stated in the Education Policy document. Therefore, according to Islamic studies constitute a major portion of the curriculum at the educational levels, and even science textbooks emphasize Islamic notions. This, in turn, may propose some obstacles in learning and teaching distance education from a Western ideological perspective. Therefore, the paper will lay out some of these hindrances and pedagogical implication in how to transition from traditional towards a more modern pedagogical education paradigm within the KSA.

Keywords: Education, Ideology, Islamic, Pedagogy, Policy Documents, Saudi Arabia, Western

The Features of Effective English Teachers as Viewed by English Language Teachers and High School Students in Saudi Arabia (Published)

This paper aimed to study the features of effective English teachers as viewed by English language teachers and high school students in Saudi Arabia. The study consists of 17 English language teachers and 17 secondary school students, all from Saudi Arabia. The study depended on the descriptive approach to evaluate English teachers language proficiency, pedagogical knowledge and socio-affective features. The results asserts that the teachers advocated socio-affective skills, English proficiency, and pedagogical knowledge in order of importance, whereas the students advocated English proficiency, socio-affective skills, and pedagogical knowledge. The results show that the features of effective English teachers within the language proficiency are reading, writing and comprehension proficiency. For pedagogical knowledge, the research indicates the significant of preparing the lesson and using various teaching aids. Finally, the socio-affective features of English language effective teachers are “listening to the students” and “to be fair with all students”.

Keywords: English Teachers, High School, Language, Saudi Arabia, Student

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