Tag Archives: Poverty

Socio-Economic Security and Democratic Participation in Nigeria (Published)

Democracy has been an acceptable platform of interaction in the committee of nations. It is also the most widely acceptable system of governance. Essentially, the birth of democracy in Nigeria has endured for over a decade, but the democratization process in Nigeria suffers from several security issues, given that the citizens have been exposed to high levels of insurgency, poverty and unemployment. Social and economic insecurity has being a major setback to democratic governance in Nigeria and this has impaired the participation of the citizens in democratic governance, thereby leaving governance for a privilege few. This paper examines the linkage between social and economic insecurity and the participation of Nigeria citizens in democratic governance. The researchers adopted a public opinion questionnaire based on experts’ judgment; and using the Cronbach alpha formulae; internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.87 was obtained. The data collected was analyzed using the one sample t-test, with hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings indicate that social and economic insecurity negatively impact on democratic participation; given that the fear of violent attack, poverty, absence of the dividend and unequal distribution wealth reduce democratic participation. Recommendations are made that politicians should be obliged by law to fulfill the promises made during campaigns or before elected into offices. Government should create an enabling environment to address issues of poverty, unemployment, corruption among governing class and insurgency, so that security for life and property will be assured.

Keywords: Insecurity, Poverty, Security, Socio-Economic, democratic participation

The Effect of the Provincial Government Public Expenditures on the Autonomy Regional Era in Indonesia (Published)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of economic spending (BEK) and education spending (BPD) by province on poverty in the era of regional autonomy in Indonesia. Data were collected through the publication of the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics and the Director General of Fiscal Balance of the Indonesian Ministry of Finance for the period of 2012 to 2015. The analysis in this study was conducted with panel data analysis model, using fixed effect model. Based on the estimation result, it is found that the variables of economic expenditure and education expenditure are significant together with poverty, while the partial variable of economic expenditure by province has significant and significant effect to poverty in the era of regional autonomy in Indonesia, and the variable of education expenditure by province is not significant. However, the ability of independent variables in to have an update dependent variable of 34.71% and the rest of 65.29% influenced by other variables not included in this research

Keywords: Economic Expenditure, Education Shopping, Poverty, and era of autonomy Area

Impact of Comprehensive Village Development Programme (Cvdp) On Poverty Reduction: A Case Study of Two Villages in Comilla Adarsha Sadar Upazila (Published)

The present study highlights the impact of Comprehensive Village Development Programme (CVDP) on Poverty Reduction in two villages of Comilla District. It was found that the programme has contributed much to human resources development through imparting training, organizing capital through share-savings, harnessing local resources through participative planning, enriching entrepreneurial skills by implementing different Income- Generating Activities (IGA) through micro-credit, and on the whole, creating social capital for village development. This research used head count method for poverty measurement and found that CVDP played vital role in reducing poverty in the two researched villages. It was found that poverty in the researched villages is now less than 23% in 2013 compare to 67% in 2003.

Keywords: Poverty, Poverty measurement, Village Development

Reducing Poverty through Fertilizer Subsidy Programe “Evidence from Rwanda (Published)

Farm input subsidies are assumed to improve agricultural production and productivity for small  resource poor farmers in developing countries by promoting the use of improved farm inputs,  mainly inorganic fertilizers and hybrid seeds. This is expected to contribute to increased income from produce sales, improved food security at household and national levels, and consequently, contributing to poverty alleviation. However, little insights exist on the impacts of this program. The overall objective of the study was to determine the effect of the fertilizer subsidy program on reducing poverty among small holder farmers in Gatsibo district, Eastern province of Rwanda. Multi stage sampling techniques were employed to select respondents. Structured questionnaires was employed to collect data from 200 smallholders maize farmers including (86 farmers with fertilizer subsidy and 114 without subsidies in the period 2015B, 2016A and 2016B agricultural seasons in the selected sectors of  Kabarole, Rwimbogo and Rugarama). Propensity score matching using a “with” and “without” the fertilizer subsidy project evaluation approach was used to estimate the effect of fertilizer subsidy and  descriptive statistics using t-test was used compare effects of fertilizer subsidies across respondents. Based on the study objectives, results from propensity score matching indicated an effect on yield between fertilizer subsidy users and non-users.

Keywords: Agriculture, Agriculture input subsidies, Fertilizer Subsidies, Poverty, propensity score matching

Interfaces between Road Infrastructure and Poverty in Africa: The Case of Malawi, 1994-2013 (Published)

Critical assessment on the correlation between public investment on road infrastructure and poverty was carried out, and therefore this research paper provides an in depth analyses of the linkage between road infrastructure and poverty, as well as, other relevant macro economic variables used in the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) as target indicators. Using primary and secondary data from 1994-2013, dynamic time series models were applied in elaborating the various factors with thrust on road infrastructure that may influence poverty in Malawi. Noting poverty reduction as priority of Malawi Government’s development agenda since the early 1990s, MGDS provides the country’s socioeconomic growth and development platforms. According to the latest 2010 Integrated Household Survey (IHS3), the majority of Malawians (50.7 percent) are languishing in abysmal poverty; this level is remotely far from the MDGS target of 27 percent by end 2015.  The country has a high inequality index (Gini 0.38) reflecting profound inequalities in access to assets, services and opportunities across the population. The distribution of the benefits of economic growth is also important for the alleviation of poverty. However, the distribution of income and wealth are highly skewed, with a majority of the population living in a state of absolute poverty. Based on NSO surveys (1998-2010), the poorest 20 percent of the population control only around 10 percent of national consumption implying inequality is not decreasing at all for long time. Hosts of factors explaining why poverty level continues to be rampant are: share of agricultural as a percent of GDP (proxy to agricultural production) and export as percent of GDP (proxy to exports). However, this paper findings show that there is significant (p=0.000<0.05) relationship between road network and poverty levels. Estimates from Granger Causality analysis indicate that for one percent increase in road network, a reduction of 7.2 percent in poverty level is perhaps achievable. Average inflation rate over the last 20 years stands at 22.41 percent, and this has an immense impact on poverty level since it dramatically reduces the purchasing power of the majority of the population. For a one percent increase in the inflation rate, there is a consequence of about 3.7 percent increase in the average poverty level. Average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate is 4.7 percent annually with a minimum of -4.9 percent and a maximum of 10.2 percent in the last 20 years. Poverty level appears to significantly respond to (GDP). There is a 4.27 percent reduction in poverty level if a one percent GDP increment takes place as shown in the dynamic time series analysis. In fact, the declining of agricultural production for export and the growing gap in balance of payment (average Malawi Kwacha -498.92 billions or approximately US$1.1 billion) would immensely influence GDP negatively and therefore poverty becomes abysmal as GDP growth plummets. In a nutshell, the findings confirm that in the long run economic growth is the key to alleviation of extreme poverty since it creates the resources to raise incomes. Given the importance of agriculture in contributing towards GDP in Malawi, the positive impact that this sector has on poverty is evident. For agriculture to meaningfully impact economic growth, road infrastructure plays a great role. Other pro-poor variables such as development roads and other investment on infrastructure are vital for economic growth and hence poverty alleviation. 

Keywords: Granger Causality, Infrastructure, Malawi, Poverty, Public Investment, Vector Autoregression

Economics of Domestic Violence against Women: The Nigerian Evidence (Published)

Domestic violence essentially denies women’s equality before the law and reinforces their subordinate social status. The fight against domestic violence against women has existed for centuries yet persists all over the world. This study therefore investigates domestic violence against women as a form of poverty and uses the principal component analysis and the Foster Greer and Theorberke (FGT) decomposition methods to analyse this. The study further uses bar charts to show the perception of Nigerians towards domestic violence and relates it to different poverty levels. The findings suggest that the Southern regions are more involved in domestic violence than the Northern region of Nigeria. Also when examined across poverty levels, the results shows that the poorer an individual is in Nigeria, the more likely he is to think that it is justified if he beats the wife for one reason or another. The study therefore recommends more sensitization campaigns to target the poor

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Nigeria, Poverty, Women

Poverty Decomposition For High And Low Users of Climate Smart Agricultural Techniques in Northwest Nigeria (Published)

Climate change projections estimate that developing countries who are least prepared for the changes in climate will be the most affected. Meanwhile, the already existing poverty in Nigeria is alarming and climate change threatens food security and poverty to a large extent. It was on this note that the study measured poverty levels for high and low users of climate smart agricultural practices of small holder farming households in North-West Nigeria. The study employed primary data using questionnaire instruments and focus group discussion in the North West region of Nigeria. The FGT Index model, Equally Distributed Equivalent (EDE) FGT, watts index, Sen, Shorrocks and Thon index were employed to decompose the monetary dimensions of poverty while Chakravarty et al (1998) technique, extended watts, extended FGT and Alkire and Foster were employed to decompose the non-monetary dimension. The findings show that poverty rate was higher for low-users of climate smart agricultural practices than for high-users for all dimensions under consideration and for all the decomposition techniques. This implies that farmers should make conscious efforts to practice climate smart agriculture regardless of their poverty status due to the fact that poverty resides more with low-users. It could be as a result of the fact that high-users make their production sustainable by practicing CSA and consequently high yields that might in turn reduce their poverty status. There is need for significant empowerment of the farmers, given that some of the climate smart agricultural practices have cost implications and require extra money to fund.

Keywords: Agriculture, Climate, Nigeria, Northwest, Poverty

Education Inequality with Emphasis on Schools Drop Out Among Girls in Basic Schools: A Case Study of Tamale Metropolis in Northern Ghana (Published)

Over the years, Government of Ghana and Non-Governmental Organizations have implemented a number of policies and interventions aimed at achieving access and quality education which is gender inclusive in basic schools across the country. Some of these policies from Government of Ghana include School Feeding Programme, Capitation Grant, Free Exercise Books and recently the Free School Uniforms for pupils in Basic Schools among others. Despite these interventions, drop out from school especially among girls at the basic level it still a problem in Ghana. This paper specifically focused on school dropout among girls in basic schools in Ghana; A case study of Tamale Metropolis. The Metropolis was selected for the study because of the demographic characteristics that pose challenges to girls schooling and its accessibility with regards to location. Qualitative method was used to gain an insight into the perceptions and feelings of teachers, parents, out of school girls and girl learners on causes of dropouts among girls. The case study design was used because the researchers wanted to have a clear understanding of why and how girl child school dropout happens. The population of the study comprised of head teachers, teachers, District Girls Education Officer, parents, school girls and out of school girls. Purposive sampling was used to select 20 Primary Schools and 10 Junior High Schools from the district whose total enrolment of boys out number girls. Data was collected using interview as main instrument. The study also used secondary data from published dissertations, textbooks, journals and the internet. Several strategies were used to ensure data quality. The findings reveals that parental ignorance on value of girls education, poor parental care, teenage pregnancy, early marriage, poverty, child prostitution, migration of girls to major cities in the south to work as head potters and peer group influence are some of the major reasons why girls drop out of school in Tamale Metropolis. Based on the findings, it has been recommended that Government should roll out programmes to reduce poverty in the country. Scholarships and other incentives should be provided to needy but brilliant girls to enable them stay in school to learn for a brighter future. Sex education and career counselling should be given to girls to help reduce teenage pregnancies. Basic schools should also be encouraged to set up girls clubs to monitor and motivate girls to take their education seriously. Disable and girl friendly infrastructure should be provided in schools to make them safe for girls. Corporal punishment especially canning should be abolished entirely to make schools safer places for girls. Punitive actions should be given to those who marry school girls to serve as deterrent to others. Finally, parents within the metropolis should be sensitized on the value of girls education to enable them support their school girls to stay and learn in school for a brighter future.

Keywords: Basic Education, Dropout among girls, Poverty, Teenage Pregnancy and Girls Education.

The Palestinian Short Story between 1944 and 1967: Themes and Motifs (Published)

The Palestinian short story was typified with its inclination to be a historical manuscript, ruled by a sense of unease, muddle and dread of the future. The continuous depiction of painful confrontations with the authorities, including their various mechanisms, generated a large collection of motifs and themes colored with intense suffering and extreme pain and shaded with a permanent endeavor to detect a better and bright future. As a result, the stories functioned like real photographs of what was actually happening on the ground. Of these themes and motifs, one can read about the Nakba (calamity) and family reunion, land confiscation and Judaization, military rule, military courts, the role of Arab states, the role of the Israeli Communist Party and finding work, poverty, imposed marriages and other social topics.

Keywords: Finding Work, Military Courts, Military Rule, Nakba and family reunion, Poverty, imposed marriages and other social topics, land confiscation and Judaization, the Palestinian short story, the role of Arab states, the role of the Communist Party

Impact of Comprehensive Village Development Programme (CVDP) on Poverty Reduction: A Case of two Villages in Comilla Adarsha sadar Upazila (Published)

The present study highlights the impact of Comprehensive Village Development Programme (CVDP) on Poverty Reduction in two villages of Comilla District. It was found that the programme has contributed much to human resources development through imparting training, organizing capital through share-savings, harnessing local resources through participative planning, enriching entrepreneurial skills by implementing different Income- Generating Activities (IGA) through micro-credit, and on the whole, creating social capital for village development. This research used head count method for poverty measurement and found that CVDP played vital role in reducing poverty in the two researched villages. It was found that poverty in the researched villages is now less than 23% in 2013 compare to 67% in 2003.

Keywords: Poverty, Poverty measurement, Village Development

Analysis of Poverty Trends in Ghana (Published)

The definition of poverty differs across regions and localities in reference to traditions and what society perceived to be poor characterises of a household. In the past, poverty was defined based on household indices such as income levels, consumption and expenditure patterns among others. However, in our efforts to estimate poverty level of households or communities, one has to take into consideration the multi-dimensional nature of poverty and factors that contribute to poverty including both human and social indices normally drafted into poverty reduction projects and strategies.

Keywords: Ghana, Poverty, Trends

Islamic Microfinance System and Poverty Alleviation (Published)

Islamic microfinance is a finance system that follows the teachings of Shariah laws; this is a financial system that does not attract interest and promotes the welfare of its members while following the ethical business practices. This is a concept that is fast gaining prominence as a means of alleviating poverty especially in developing countries. In this paper, it has been found out that Islamic finance plays an important role in social economic development of its members without charging interest on the members. Furthermore, Islamic finance offers different ethical instruments and schemes that can be used for the purposes of microfinance. In Islamic finance, investors are allowed to determine the nature of investments that are done using their money. This paper is therefore important in understanding the concept of Islamic finance in alleviating poverty. It can be very useful for banks and financial institutions who have Muslims as part of their client base.

Keywords: Islamic System, Microfinance, Poverty

Sustainable Tourism Practice; a Panacea for Reviving Bilikisu-Sugbon Tourist Attraction and Reducing Poverty in Oke-Eri, Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigates the current status of the Bilikisu Sugbon tourist attraction in Oke-Eri, Via Ijebu-Ode-Ibadan Express way, Ogun State, Nigeria. It also assess the standard of living of the residents of the Oke-Eri community. The attraction, haven received lots of attention from scholars in archaeology and other disciplines, and also government of Ogun State in the past with the goal of making it a befitting tourist destination has remained in a poor state.A survey was conducted to gather information on the current status of the tourist site. Random sampling technique was used to select 100 local residents of the community and 50 tourists during the 2015 Christmas celebration and another 50 during the 2016 Eid’L Fitri Festival celebration, and questionnaires were administered to them accordingly. Also, purposive sampling method was used to select specific people and groups in the community for personal interview and focus group discussion respectively. Key informant interview method was also used to gather information from three community chiefs and two management staff of the Ogun State Tourism Board. Data gathered were subjected to analysis and presented using frequency counts, simple percentile, charts, chi square.Findings of the study revealed that, the economic activity in Oke-Eri is very low (P<0.05) and there is a high level of poverty in the community despite the tourism potentials present there. It was found that, reviving the Bilikisu-Sungbo tourist site would help in reducing poverty and enhance the socio-economic status the community (P<0.05). The study also revealed that what led to the dilapidation of the attraction after it was earlier developed by the Ogun State Government in the early 1980s was political instability and lack of sustainable development practice. The study concludes that, there is urgent need for the Ogun State government to be committed to the reconstruction of the Bilikisu-Sugbon tourist site in Oke-Eri either through direct investment or encouraging public-private-partnership (PPP) initiative, in order, to redeem the image of the attraction, foster socio-economic growth of the community and reduce poverty in the community. The study therefore recommends that there must be a sustainable master plan in place, public-private-partnership (PPP) initiative should be considered and the local community should be actively involved in the reconstruction process and management of the attraction when re-opened to the general public as a tourist site as part of requirements for ensuring sustainability.

Keywords: Panacea, Poverty, Revival, Sustainability, Tourism

Business Benefit Concerns of Women Processors of African Locust Bean Seeds for Poverty Reduction in Enugu State-Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out to find solution to the business benefit concern of women processors of African locust bean seeds for poverty reduction in Enugu state-Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. Survey and Quasi-experimental design was adopted by the study. The sample for the study was 326 made up of customers from Ogbete (150), Obollo-afor (80 and Ogige (96) markets all in Enugu state. The instruments for data collection were interview schedule, counterfactual questionnaire items, interest inventory and experimental records. Data were collected by the researchers with the help of two assistants selected based on their familiarity with the study area and ability to interpret the questionnaire items in local dialects of the respondents. Percentage was used for quality analysis of the interview schedule (phase 1A), mean was used to answer research questions one (phase 1B) and three while market record was used to answer research question two. The study found out that customers rejected machine processed locust bean because of sour taste, low keeping quality and contamination among others. The study also showed that when the limitations of machine processed locust bean were eliminated through experiment, customers’ demand for the product increased which was indicated by the interest inventory data. The study therefore recommended that workshop should be organized at the local levels by extension officers for re-training of women processors and machine operators using the identified steps in the experimented processing of locust bean seeds to help overcome the business concerns of the women for poverty reduction in the Enugu state.

 

Keywords: Business, Poverty, Processing, counterfactual factors, locust bean

Insight into the Forms of Adult Literacy Education Programme as Agents of Transformation in Nigerian Democratic Society in Terms of Equity and Poverty Reduction (Published)

Though adult education has been identified and perceived for its complexities, the national policy on education in Nigeria and constitution ascribed its functionality to the country’s democratic situation since independence. It democracy, a social mechanism for solving the problems of societal decision making among conflicting interest groups id tied to literacy, participation and education of the adults should be accorded a critical focus and situationally taken care of. This important factor in a democratic setting of Nigeria has not been given adequate attention like that of the youth. It is in the light of this, that this paper addresses the forms of adult literacy education programmes as agents of Nigerian transformational democracy in terms of equity and poverty reduction. The paper concludes that literacy education for the adults had undergone significant changes functionally in terms of felt needs, quality and control since independence. It also suggests that provision of enlightenment programmes should be addressed aggressively.

Keywords: Adult Education, Democratization, Poverty, transformation and literacy

Farm Business Management Skills a Missing Link for Smallholder Farmers: A Case of Malingunde, Malawi (Published)

This study aimed to assess specific farm business management skills which are essential soft skills for increasing agricultural profitability. The study aimed specifically to assess whether smallholder farmers have received farm business training from any organization; examining the level of satisfaction and importance of the farm business management trainings and exploring specific farmers training needs with respect to core principles of farm business management. Quantitative data from 200 smallholder farmers and other stakeholders involved in agricultural activities was collected in central region of Malawi and analysed using Spearman rank correlation with its rho test statistic (rs) tested the relationship between training in farm business management and farmers’ satisfaction and performance. The study found that less farmers received farm business management skills training, training service providers from both government and non-governmental organizations are not providing the necessary management skills due to either inadequate capacity, knowledge and resources or a combination of these.

Keywords: Farm Business Management Skills, Poverty, Smallholder Farmers

Problems and Prospects of Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Nigeria (Published)

Several poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria, initiated by both the Government and Non-Government Organisations (NGOs), aimed at combating and alleviating poverty, have been found not to be successful. Instead of reducing the incidence of poverty, which is their sole aim, these programmes tend to serve as means for draining the national resources due to the pursuit of parochial interests, as a result fostering corruption and dishonesty. For a successful implementation of these programmes, the government and the implementation agencies must take a more proactive approach and specifically look into the area of poor management and poor accountability, among staff. Also poverty is a multidimensional issue, hence cannot be fought focusing only on one sector of the economy, strategies for poverty reduction must also be multidimensional, focusing on all sectors, as well as, on the emancipation of the poor. Strengthen the existing poverty alleviation strategies and ensuring good management could be one major way towards the effective performance of existing poverty alleviation programmes.

Keywords: Nigeria, Poverty, Poverty Alleviation, Poverty alleviation programmes

The Palestinian Short Story between 1944 and 1967- Themes and Motifs (Published)

The Palestinian short story was typified with its inclination to be a historical manuscript, ruled by a sense of unease, muddle and dread of the future. The continuous depiction of painful confrontations with the authorities, including their various mechanisms, generated a large collection of motifs and themes colored with intense suffering and extreme pain and shaded with a permanent endeavor to detect a better and bright future. As a result, the stories functioned like real photographs of what was actually happening on the ground. Of these themes and motifs, one can read about the Nakba (calamity) and family reunion, land confiscation and Judaization, military rule, military courts, the role of Arab states, the role of the Israeli Communist Party and finding work, poverty, imposed marriages and other social topics.

Keywords: Finding Work, Imposed Marriages., Judaization, Land Confiscation, Military Courts, Military Rule, Nakba Family Reunion, Palestinian Short Story, Poverty, Role of Arab States, Role of the Communist Party

Does Microfinance Improve the Standard of the Poor (Published)

Access to microfinance is expected to improve the standard of living of the poor that are economic active and microfinance clients by enabling them to increase their household income. This study examined the contributions of Microfinance institutions to poverty reduction in Southwest Nigeria, using both primary and secondary data collected from Microfinance institutions (MFIs) and randomly selected customers (micro, small and medium enterprises) of the same Institutions. The study adopted a multistage sampling technique. The data from the survey was used to analyze the impact of loan received on earnings using a loan-impact probability model. The study found that Microfinance is an effective poverty alleviation strategy as it reaches the target customers more effectively and helps to a large extent in improving their standard of living and social status and also impacts greatly on Customers’ savings habit and income generation. The study therefore recommended that MFIs should embark on funds mobilisation drive to be able to reach out to more viable customers for provision of financial services. It also recommended that there should be provision of incentives by government to sustain MFIs in order to further extend their services to the rural areas and capacity building of MFIs in Nigeria should be made mandatory so as to develop appropriate policies that will enhance sustainability and stability.

Keywords: Incentives, MSMEs., Microfinance, Microfinance Institutions (MFIs), Poverty

Contemporary Social, Political and Religious Satire under the Silent Penetration of Poverty and Class Discrimination: An Exploration on Aravind Adiga’s ‘The White Tiger’ (Published)

“The White Tiger” is a Man Booker Prize (2008) winning book is written by the great Indian-Australian writer, Aravind Adiga. This article lets us know how the class discrimination is engulfing the Post-Colonial Indian Society under the silent penetration of poverty and corruption and how the human morality is decaying under the religious and political unrests. Here, the narrator and protagonist, Balram Halwai, struggles against his lower class society from the very initial time of his life. His life undergoes with serious sufferings from economical solvency because of being in the lower Hindu cast. He senses the tortures of the elite class people towards the deprived poor. He witnessed the deaths of many dreams in a poor family. He observes it as a “Rooster Coop” that stands for the extreme poverty where the people below the social margin remain in a great danger and never rebel against the society as they have no wealth and power. He scrutinizes the huge corruptions in politics and in every class he went through. As a driver, he has had a great chance to discover the great Indian corruptions on the root levels of cities and towns. His mind always rebels against those terminations but he is to go on as to be alive in his ways of being an enlightened person. Nevertheless, he takes in a great loss of pain but what he has gained at last is nothing but dishonesty and rampancy of corruption because all his perceptions are only for earthly happiness of money. What he got after killing Mr. Ashok and stealing his money (700,000 Rs.) is really a mystery to the readers. Significantly, Aravind Adiga has tried to rectify the human society by upholding the above facts that are running on ahead.

Keywords: Corruption, Discrimination and Nihilism, Economics, Politics, Poverty, Satire, Sufferings

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