Tag Archives: Phonology

A Comparative Analysis of English and Annang Phonological Systems (Published)

The problems facing an Annang speaker of English are many: he applies the rules of Annang in his use of English particularly in sound production; when he is confronted with vowel sounds that are non-existent in the Annang sound inventory, he reduces the English vowel to the nearest vowel in his inventory; he hardly discriminates between long and short vowels; he also has problems relating to nonsegmental phonology particularly in the areas of stress and intonation.  This study has provided the rationale for the comparative analysis model.  Four null hypotheses were used for the study and were measured with the Chi-square test.  One hundred and twenty final year Annang Secondary School students provided the sample and were drawn through stratified random sampling.  Literature was reviewed on phonology and Annang language studies.  At 0.01 confidence level and 1 degree of freedom (df), the calculated value of x2 (30.8) was greater than the table value of X2 (6.63) and so. Hypotheses 1 and 2 were rejected.  At 0.01 confidence level and 1 degree of freedom (df), the calculated value of X2 (22.8) was greater than the table value of X2 (6.63) and so Hypotheses 3 and 4 were rejected.  It was discovered that Annang speakers of English encounter problems in sound articulation.  There is need for English teachers in Annang land to diagnose these problems and help the learners overcome them

Keywords: Annang Language Studies, Comparative Linguistic Analysis, Phonology

Foregrounding the Theme of Shallowness in the Hollow Men: A Stylistic Analysis (Published)

This paper aims to analyze The Hollow Men through Stylistic Analysis at the levels of graphology, phonology, morphology and the lexico-syntactic to foreground the hollowness and emptiness of the universe after the traumatic situation of world wars. All language choices used by the poet lead towards the shallowness, despair, vagueness, nothingness and inability of love for the universe/ people. The people are detached from nature, one another, and live in a place which is dead, cactus, and barren of any spiritual presence just like the people of that land as what Singh (2013) and Urquhart (2010) pointed out in their studies.

Keywords: Graphology, Lexico-Syntactic, Morphology, Phonology, Shallow., Stylistic Analysis

A Consonant Shift in Kuwait: Challenging the Bedouin Vs Sedentary Hypothesis? The Case Of [ʧ] (Published)

In light of sociolinguist phonological change, the following study investigates the shift of [ʧ] to [k] sound in the speech of Kuwaitis and argues against the Bedouin/ Sedentary distinction. The main hypothesis is twofold: first the shift seems to be driven not by the differences between the sedentary and Bedouin varieties, but by the widespread of the English language as a prestige form and by the recent change of Kuwaitis’ lifestyle; second, the shift is not totally in the direction of [k], but rather in the direction of a lexical replacement by either English loanwords, classical Arabic, or other Arab dialects. To test this hypothesis, 130 informants were informally interviewed. 503 tokens were collected and were examined across gender, age, level of education. Their speech was phonetically transcribed and accordingly was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Results indicate that the [ʧ] variant is undergoing change and that the social parameters and the significant social changes, that Kuwait has undergone recently, have triggered this linguistic shift.

Keywords: Kuwaiti Variable, Phonology, Social Parameters, Sociolinguistics

A Phono-Morphological Study on Jin Hua Dialect (Published)

This paper discusses the phono-morphological feature of Jin Hua dialect, a city that is located in the central region of Zhejiang Province, China. Phonologically, the dialect contains 27 consonants and 51 vowels. The consonants ‘R’ and ‘L’ are not distinguished, i.e. all words with the starting consonant ‘R’ are pronounced ‘L’. Phonetic change occurs to nouns whose pronunciations end with /an/; /ia/; /a/; /e/. Precisely, four transition patterns have been confirmed: (I) /an/ → /a/; (II) /ia/ → /uá/, /a/; (III) /a/, /an/, /e/ → //; (IV) /e/ → /á/. Furthermore, vowel nasalisation results from the weakening of nasal-coloring in Wú dialect and appears to be limited to pronouns. Syntactically, the word order of an adverbial phrase is [Adj + Adv], which in standard Chinese would be: [Adv + Adj]. This accidently resembles the Thai language, Vietnamese and French. Deictic, i.e. 来 lái ‘come’ and 去 ‘go’, are extensively employed as modal particles in motion as well as change-of-state constructions. Another dialectal habit comes from the focus particle 添 tiān ‘one more time’. It is often added to the end of the sentence in order to emphasise the utterer’s opinion.

Keywords: Dialect, Morphology, Phonology

Analysis and Critical Reflection of Acehnese Language Phonology (Published)

The uniqueness of any language arises because of its distinct phonetic system. For one to learn a new language and effectively communicate in it, he or she will have to incorporate new intonation patterns, new grammar rules and new sounds among other skills. The number of local languages spoken in the Indonesian province of Aceh is significantly high. Acehnese, which is popular in the northern part of Sumatra, is one among them. Acehnese is identified to share several phonemes with languages such as English and Arabic. However, some of its sounds cannot be established in both languages. The current study principally aims to evaluate and critically reflect on the phonology of Acehnese, for instance by describing it in detail. Zulfadli Aziz, who is a native Acehnese speaker pursuing a Ph.D. at Adelaide University, provided the data used in the research. By using IPA symbols, the researcher noted and transcribed all the language instances. Several similarities and differences are identifiable between Acehnese and English, and a large number of Acehnese words originated from Arabic. The current study identifies the challenges that native Arabic and English speakers are likely to encounter in learning Acehnese. Additionally, the paper proceeds to provide several practical techniques that can be employed to ease the experience that foreign-language learners go through while learning Acehnese.

Keywords: Acehnese, Consonant, Consonant Clusters, Phonology, Vowels


This paper provides an analysis of Al-ibdaal ‘substitution’ phenomenon found in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) derivational processes, particularly, in the pattern ftaʕal. Al-ibdaal ‘substitution’ is defined in many Arabic morphological books (Al-Raagihi, 1984; Al-Galaayiini, 1991) as removing a letter and replacing it by another. For example, the /t/ in ztaha: is replaced by /d/ resulting in zdaha: ‘flourished’. The paper analyzed examples of words representing the pattern ftaʕal based on prosodic morphology; an approach used to describe non-concatenative morphological processes as those found in Arabic and other Semitic languages (McCarthy, 1981). The analysis of the words revealed that there is actually no substitution of sounds and the change that takes place in that pattern is phonologically motivated. The paper recommends the reconsideration of the concept of Al-ibdaal ‘substitution’ in the pattern ftaʕal in Arabic morphological books

Keywords: Arabic Morphology, Morphophonology, Phonology, Prosodic Morphology, Substitution

The teaching of English to French-Speaking Cameroonian learners at the secondary level of education in Cameroon: A Phonological Appraisal (Review Completed - Accepted)

This work set out to examine the teaching of English in the Francophone subsystem at the secondary level of education in Cameroon. The researcher was motivated by the fact that, in Cameroon, when Francophone learners leave secondary school, despite their rich syllabus, most of them still perform poorly orally. Their speech is generally full of phonological errors that pose problems of intelligibility, as each of them typically adds in his/her own speech some idiosyncratic features reflecting his/her particular native language, educational background and personal temperament. The data – which were drawn from both phonic and written sources thanks to some survey methods like questionnaires, interviews as well as textbooks and English papers in official examinations – were systematically analysed within the theoretical frame of Needs Analysis. Interestingly, the findings reveal that most Francophone learners still perform poorly orally when they leave secondary school because aspects of spoken communication like phonology are not given sufficient attention. In fact, the teaching of English at the secondary level of education in the Francophone subsystem does not respect the syllabus specifications for the teaching of English to Francophone learners; rather, it is examination-oriented. Thus, only aspects of written language (grammar, vocabulary, reading comprehension, essay writing) that are evaluated by official examination English papers are sufficiently taught. Our findings equally reveal that, in the textbooks that are designed for the teaching of English to Francophone learners, phonology is totally downplayed. With regards to the English paper in official examinations, our findings show that no consideration is given to phonology. The four sections that make up the paper are based on grammar, vocabulary, reading comprehension and essay writing.

Keywords: Cameroon Educational System, Francophone subsystem, Phonology, input.

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