The paper reviews existing literature on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to ascertain the level of corporate social responsibility activities that will enhance the performance/profitability of businesses in Nigeria. It revealed that the success of an organization depends on the extent to which the organization is capable of managing its relationship with key groups, such as financial and stakeholders, but also customers, employees, and even communities or societies. Stakeholders must be considered in the decision making process of the organization. CSR is a concept that includes many different activities and actions which businesses have to involve themselves in for the purpose growth sustainability and growth of businesses. Businesses that voluntarily participates in local community development, such as providing the community with donations, assisting them with projects and sharing some of its profit with the community, helps to increase the business profitability in the long-run.
Risk Management, Risk Concentration and the Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated the effect of risk management and risk concentration on the performance of Deposit Money banks in Nigeria for the period 1997 to 2016. The study adopted credit risk, liquidity risk and capital adequacy risk as proxies for risk management/concentration, and return on assets as the measure for performance of Deposit Money banks. Secondary data was collected from the annual financial statements of listed banks and the Nigerian Stock Exchange fact book. The study employed multiple regression technique based on the E-views 7 software for analysis of data. The results of the analysis indicated that credit risk and liquidity risk had positive and significant effect on return on asset, while capital adequacy risk had negative and insignificant effect on return on asset. The study concluded that risk management/concentration affected the performance of banks in Nigeria. Based on the findings, the study recommended that the management of banks should establish sound lending policies, adequate credit administration procedure, and effective and efficient machinery to monitor the lending function in line with established guidelines. Also, the character and financial statement of the borrower must be properly scrutinized and a careful evaluation of the customer’s credit worthiness be carried out before extending loan facilities to potential borrowers.
The study examined academic motivation and academic performance of Junior High School (JHS) students in Ghana. Differences between the academic motivation of male and female students as well as between students from urban and rural schools were examined. Participants were 756 male and 714 female JHS 2 students randomly selected from 24 Junior High Schools through stratified random sampling using gender and location as criteria for stratification. Two research instruments, the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) with a Cronbach Alpha Reliability Coefficient of 0.75 and Achievement Tests in Mathematics, English Language, Social Studies and Integrated Science were used to collect data. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and t-tests were used in analyzing the data. The results showed a positive relationship between academic motivation and academic performance of JHS students. While the results showed a statistically significant difference between the academic motivation of students in schools in urban and rural areas, there was difference between the academic motivation of male and female students. It was recommended that teachers, parents and all those concerned with the education of children should put in place psychological processes that are intended to boost the ego of students thereby making them have an inner feeling of satisfaction when they accomplish academic tasks.
Recently, there have been concerns about the attitude of some secretaries or administrative assistants in various organisations across Ghana and this has been blamed on several factors. This study subjects the types of leadership styles to productivity of secretaries or administrative assistants in the public sector in Ghana. The study adopted quantitative approach and survey as a research design. This enabled the researchers to take primary data from large number of respondents. It was found out that Leadership is not attached to a particular style but uses a style that may fit the situation or circumstance they face. Many secretaries and administrative assistants are aware of the competences needed to perform their role. However, these competences are not in use or exhibited by this category of employees. Autocratic leadership style does not necessary lead to high turnover and absenteeism, low productivity and distortion of communication.
The study sought to analyse the effect of road asset management (RAM) on performance of road agencies in Kenya. The study was guided by stakeholder theory and it posited a conceptual framework in which road assets management was the independent variable, road agency performance the dependent variable. A correlation survey design was employed to find out the relationships between the study variables.A purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondents for the study and data was collected using structured questionnaire. Results showed that RAM was a positive and significant predictor of road agency performance in Kenya and it accounted for 81.7% of variance in performance of the road agencies in Kenya.The study concluded that RAM contribute significantly to road agency performance and recommends that RAM should be integrated in the policies of road agencies in Kenya in order to realize better condition of roads in Kenya in the long run.
Application of Comics as Instructional Strategy in Language Skill Development: An Oracy Enhancement Paradiigm (Published)
English language is very important in Nigeria because it is used for education, commerce, governmental activities and in inter /intranational relations, among others. The teaching of English language is being faced by a lot of problems ranging from poor teaching methods, students’ weaknesses in pronunciation, poor reading abilities and bad writing, which amount to students’ poor performance. It is therefore important that the language is properly taught in order to enhance the communicative competence of students. This papers looks into the use of comics in pedagogy. Important areas highlighted include: English Language in Nigerian Schools; Oral Communication in English Language; Teachers’ Role in Enhancing English Language Teaching and Students’ Oral Competence Comics and Strategies for Using Comics to Enhance Oral Communication in English Language. Recommendations offered include: teachers should understand that oral language is at the base of literacy which involves risk taking through a willingness to confront more languages than what is presently owned. It therefore requires diligence and hard work on the teacher’s part to help students come across more words in their learning.
Factors Affecting Students’ Academic Performance in Colleges of Education in Southwest, Nigeria (Published)
This study was carried out to assess factors affecting students’ academic performance in Colleges of Education in southwest, Nigeria. Four hundred and eighty students from six Colleges of Education were randomly selected for this study. Data collected were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The results obtained showed that 52.4% of the respondents were between 20 – 24 years of age, predominantly female (67.6%), supported by family/guardian (88.9%), stayed off-campus (69.8%), had personal motivation for studying Education (65.8%) and bold (91.1%). Also, results of parental background revealed that the parents were married (63.8%), educated (68.2%), and earned average income of ₦60,604.5/month. The study concludes that students’ factors, parental background, school factors, and teachers’ factors have serious influence on students’ academic performance. It is hereby recommended that school facilities should be adequately provided; Colleges of Education should be given appropriate attention and funding while government should provide alternative power supply by purchasing generator plant for Colleges of Education.
Influence of Leadership as Strategy Implementation Practice on Performance of Postal Corporation in Kakamega County, Kenya (Published)
Organizations across the world have recognized the importance of strategy formulation in improving service delivery. Good practices in strategy formulation and implementation are among the key pillars of competitive advantage and organizational sustainability. Studies indicate that most managers rightly make effort to formulate strategies, but little investment is made to implement those strategies properly. Therefore, the study explored the effects of strategy implementation practices on performance of Postal Corporation in Kakamega County (Kenya). Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the research findings on leadership as one of the strategy implementation practices on organizational performance. The researcher anchored the study on cross sectional survey research design which emphasized on collection of data at a particular point in time rather than over a period of time. The target population of the study was one hundred and thirty two (132) top and middle-level management staff of Postal Corporation drawn from Kakamega, Lugari, Khwisero and Khayega branches. Stratified sampling method was used to sample ninety-nine (99) respondents. Structured questionnaires were then used to collect the data from the sampled managers to which only seventy-six (76) responded. The received questionnaires were sorted, classified; data was then coded and analysed by descriptive statistics (percentages, mean and standard deviation). Inferential analysis was done by multi regression analysis where the result of R square was 0.476 indicating that 47.6% of the performance could be predicted from the study variables. The study found that leadership significantly affected the performance of Postal Corporation in Kakamega County as indicated by a p value of 0.043, which was within p<0.05 level of significance. In light of the findings, the researchers recommended that a related study be conducted in a wider spectrum of both public and private institutions to determine the consistency of the results.
Benchmark and Competitive Analysis of Port Performances Model: Algeciras Bay, Rotterdam, New York-New Jersey and Tangier Med (Published)
In this research paper four sea ports namely, Tanger Med, Algeciras Bay, Rotterdam and New York-New Jersey has been taken into study to understand and evaluate their efficiency of operations and benchmark them. Port efficiency is the measure of amount of input and output and their ratio. Port efficiency is not solely dependent on port performance. The port performance strategies of the case ports were studied and efficiency variables were found through various literatures. To analyze input and output variables of the ports, efficiency software named Data Envelopment Analysis Program was used to find the most efficient ports. Then the variables for the most efficient ports were benchmarked and ranked. A hypothetical port efficiency model has also been suggested for better efficiency of the ports.
A 3-Way Paradigm of Lesson Study Strategy on Teachers’ Productivity, Teaching Profession and Trainee Proficiency: A Contemporaneous Paradigm (Published)
This paper is showcasing a tripartite interwoven interactions in Education, that sychronously run to address a-3Way-Paradigm through the Lesson Study Strategy in the new millenium classroom. The quest for professionality and functionality will continue to make all educational stakeholders dive for strategies that will pave way for maximum productivity in the ocean of knowledge economy of the world. Lesson Study is a pedagogical strategy that is capable of producing productive interactions that revolve roundabout the 21st Century Classroom Teachers, the acts of Teaching and the Trainees. The process opens with a team of concerned teachers collaborating on a common discipline of interest. The goals of teaching and learning, how and what to employ in order to achieve the identified goals in the classroom are discussed. Classroom presentation is a collective resposibility of everyone in the team. One of the team members presents the teaching interactions with tthe students while others are in the classroom as observers. The team reviews and scrutinises the classroom interactive outcomes outside the classroom thereafter and effective remidiation is put in place for the overall achievement of the identified goals. In this paper therefore, the productivity of the teacher, process of teaching and proficiency of the trainees are independently focused. Lesson Study as a teaching strategy is capable of producing professionalism in the Teacher, productivity in Teaching and proficiency in the Trainees.
Microfinance and Performance of Micro and Small Enterprises; Does Training Has an Impact (Published)
Access to finance is considered as very important for gaining high performance of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs). Yet it has been observed that despite the availability of access to finance the performance of several MSEs is poor, which is a major hurdle in the growth rate of MSEs. The purpose of this study was to find the difference in certain performance indicators of MSEs who owners have been given training against those whose owners have never been given any kind of training. In order to conduct study survey research has been conducted and a sample of 384 MSEs was selected on simple random basis. The findings revealed that all the performance indicators including sales increase, income increase, assets increase, employment increase, and meeting household expenses have shown a significant difference among the two groups. The findings of the study are very important for the policy makers and the people who are involved in microfinance industry.
Employee Engagement and Performance of Selected Private Universities in Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
In the present turbulent and unpredictable Nigerian business environment, the non-availability of employee voice in some private universities in Delta State has made employee turnover intention a major problem. The broad objective of the study is to determine the relationship that exists between employee engagement and performance of selected private universities in Delta State, while the specific objective is to ascertain the extent to which employee voice affects turnover intention of employees in the selected private universities in Delta State. Survey research design was adopted for the study, a total population of 254 employees in the selected private universities was used for the study, and the Taro Yamane sampling technique was used in selecting the sample size of 155 employees. The data collection tool employed by the researchers was the questionnaire, while the analysis of the data was done using the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient analysis. The findings revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between employee voice and turnover intention of employees in the selected private universities in Delta State. Based on the findings, the researchers concluded that when employees have a voice on matters that affects them in the organisation, it increases employees desire to stay in such organisation. The researchers however recommended that management of private universities should provide an avenue through which employees can express their opinions on matters that affects them.
Impact of Safety Management Strategy on the Performance of Employees in Ashakacem Plc, Nafada-Bajoga, Gombe State-Nigeria (Published)
This study examines the impact of safety management strategy on the performance of employees in Ashakacem PLC. The main objective is to determine how safety management strategy of Ashakacem impact on employee’s performance. The study employs the use of both primary and secondary sources of data from different cadres of employees (managers, middle level, low level) and contract staff including distributors and customers of the company. The data were analyzed using Simple Percentages and Chi-square to test the formulated hypotheses which reveals that, “effective safety management strategy impact positively on the performance of employees”, particularly in the areas of the provisions of personal protective safety equipment and enforcement of safety laws such as the provision of fire extinguishers, first aid facilities, hand gloves, mouth and Norse guard, dielectric safety boot and thermal socks, head gear kits, dielectric hard hat, high and medium energy goggle, Lab Coat etc. These have the most significant impact on employee’s performance while the establishment of factory Clinic for staff and seminar/safety talks and enforcement of ground safety rules has the least impact. Some recommendations were made; among which is the need for effective monitoring and evaluation of all safety measures in line with the ground safety rules to ensure safe and healthy working environment for effective performance. The study concludes that the company’s protective wears are of certified international standards made to be comfortable-to-wear, permanently flame-resistant and arc-rated material protecting workers against the thermal effects of both electrical arc flash and toxic materials arising from the factory production processes and procedures which is dependent on company’s strategic safety management policy and formation combined with excellent decision-making exercise that help in reducing employee’s risks conditions to the barest minimum level.
The Influence of the Levels of Education and Knowledge on the Performance of Community Health Workers in Soy Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
Community health workers (CHWs) the world over help to alleviate the shortages of health workers in the health sector. They are involved in the delivery of health services to the community and constitute the first point of contact on health-related issues in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The performance of CHWs is often hampered by various factors. The purpose of the study was to investigate the socio-cultural factors influencing the performance of CHWs in Soy Sub-County. Based on the study, this paper explores the influence of CHWs’ level of education and knowledge on their performance in Soy Sub-County. A correlation research design was used in the study with systematic sampling method being used to identify the respondents. In total, 98 respondents were given questionnaires to fill. Qualitative data was also collected from 7 heads of community health management team (CHMT) using key informant interviews. The collected data was then presented using frequency distribution tables while inferential statistics were computed using regression and correlation to determine the relationship between socio-cultural factors and performance of community health workers. Qualitative data was analysed manually to generate trends, sub-themes and themes from which conclusions were inferred regarding the performance of CHWs. The research findings showed that there was a significant (p= .000; α = 0.05) relationship that exists between education and knowledge and CHWs’ performance. Based on the findings, it was recommended that a strategy should be developed to incorporate all the stakeholders that affect the performance of community health workers in coming up with a training programme for CHWs. Moreover, there should be a policy shift in Kenya to encourage male CHW to scale up delivery of health services at community level. The findings of the study support decision-making on CHWs’ training programmes and also constitute the basis of transformation of implantation of community strategy in Soy Sub-County.
Effect of Gender Factor on Teacher Trainee Students’ Attitudes towards the Study of Science in the Colleges of Education-Ghana (Published)
Students’ participation and performance in Science depend on the kind of attitude students’ show towards science. This kind of attitude exhibit by students’ is caused by some factors. This paper therefore seeks to investigate the effect of gender as a factor on teacher trainee students’ attitude towards the study of science and make recommendations for college authorities. The instrument used was a structured questionnaire which consisted of a four-point Likert scale items. Data for the study was obtained by administering 140 questionnaires to 140 students’ from five (5) public Colleges of Education. The respondents were sampled using stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques. Twenty-Eight (28) respondents from each of the colleges were selected to make up the total number of 140 respondents. All the questionnaires were fully answered and returned. The data obtained was analysed using frequency counts and percentages.
The study determined the relationship between effective communication and employee performance. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and the total population of the study were 142 respondents. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the participants. Data gathered were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The result of the analysis revealed that there was significant relationship between effective communication and employee performance. It was therefore concluded that organizations should endeavour to make effective communication an essential strategy in achieving high employee performance.
Role of Technological Integration in Supply Chain Corroboration on Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Kenya (Published)
The main purpose of the paper was to assess role of technological integration on performance of manufacturing firms. The target population of the study were managers or equivalent from Six (6) departments that is Procurement, finance, legal, stores, human resource and quality control because they are directly concerned with supply chain. The study adopted the use of a questionnaire and a document analysis as the main research instrument. The study adopted both quantitative and qualitative approaches, implying that both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were employed. Quantitative data collected from the document analysis was analyzed statistically using the Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS version 22). The study tested the significance hypothesis at 95% confidence level using regression techniques. The findings on the effect of technology integration revealed that technological integration has a positive and significant effect on firm performance, 0.731, p < 0.05. Thus, technology integration as concept of supply chain collocation is key determinants of performance of manufacturing firms. Firms are thus encouraged to invest in enhancing coordination efforts through utilization of cost-effective technologies. In addition, the investments should also be used to address the integration of technology.
Capital Structure: Definitions, Determinants, Theories and Link with Performance Literature Review (Published)
The theory of capital structure and its relationship with a firm’s value and performance has been a puzzling issue in corporate finance and accounting literature since the Modigliani and Miller theory (MM) (1958) argue that under the perfect capital market condition which assume that, if without bankruptcy cost and capital markets are frictionless, if without taxes, and without asymmetric information the firm’s value is independent from capital structure. According to MM theory, the only variables that determined firm value was its future earnings power (expected cash flow) and hence the capital structure decision is irrelevant. Since that time, several theories have been developed to explain the capital structure of a firm including the Pecking Order Theory, Trade off theory, and the Agency Cost theory. This paper will shed light on the concept of capital structure, its theories and link with firms’ performance.
Influence of Employee Welfare Facilities on Their Performance at the Kenya Judiciary Systems in North Rift Kenya (Published)
The study examined the relationship between motivational factors and employee performance in the judiciary systems located in the North Rift Region of Kenya. Based on the study, this paper discusses the relationship between employee welfare practices and employee performance. The study employed a correlational survey design. The target population was all the 309 employees attached to the courts located in North Rift Region. Stratified random sampling was used to select 179 employees. A pilot test was done at the neighbouring Hamisi Law Courts to assess the reliability of the research instruments. The pilot study tested the face validity of the instrument which was found to be valid. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was used to determine internal reliability of the research instruments. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the research instruments was 0.842. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data. Statistical significance of relationships among selected variables was determined using linear regression analysis. The study established that the motivational factors of employee welfare facilities influenced the performance of the judiciary employees. Evidence of improved performance included a reduction of case backlogs and expeditious determination of cases. Based on the findings from the study, it was recommended that the administration of the judiciary to design effective employee welfare facilities that are likely to stimulate employee efforts towards performance.
Assessing the Impact of Safety Practices of Employees on Performance in the Production Unit of Some Selected Hotels in Takoradi, Ghana (Published)
It has become necessary for safety standards to be maintained and sustained in organizations so that frequent incidents or accidents are curtailed, breakdown of equipment are minimized and the life of employees and the life span of equipment are prolonged. This research work sought to explore employee’s safety practices on performance in the production unit of some selected hotels in Takoradi aimed at achieving these objectives – Identify safety practices and policies in the production unit of hotels and determine the extent of compliance of the safety practices. The study examined 164 respondents using a proportionate stratified sampling to select respondents from the hotels while the hotels were sampled purposively. The results revealed that all the employees of the selected hotels had existing organizational policies ensuring safety at the workplace but some did not comply which could be quite dangerous to their safety and so some disciplinary measures were meted out to employees who did not comply with the safety measures laid down which ranged from written warning letters given to the employees (70%) with 10% having a month suspension without pay. However, those employees who demonstrated a higher degree of safety were either given outstanding employee plaques or their salaries and allowances were increased – 39% and 25% respectively.