Tag Archives: Perception

Perception of Health Hazards Associated With Agro-Chemicals Use among Arable Crop Farmers’ In Mubi Agricultural Zone, Adamawa State, Nigeria (Published)

Unsafe use and handling of agro-chemicals among Nigerian farmers continue to constitute health hazards and environmental degradation. The study investigated respondents’ socio-economic characteristics; agro-chemicals use; awareness of safety practices; information sources and perception of health hazards in agro-chemicals use. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 251 respondents. Data was analyzed using frequency, percentages and correlation. Respondents’ mean age was 40 years; 68.1% were male; 70.1% were married; and 69.9% had 1-5 persons per household. Most respondents (48.6%) attained only primary school, 69.8% had farming experience of ≥10 year, 96.3% used agrochemicals, 74.5% were unaware of safety precautions and 43.4% perceived agrochemical use as hazardous. Farm associates/friends and radio were the most used information sources.  Perception of health hazards in agrochemicals use was positively correlated to educational attainment(r=-0.82), farming experience(r=0.35), age(r=0.20) and household size(r=0.16). Agricultural extension outfits/agents should educate farmers on safe use of agrochemicals.

Keywords: Arable Crop Farmers and Agro-chemicals, Health Hazards, Perception

Consumer Perception and Factors Influencing in Adapting of Bottled Water Consumption in Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka (Published)

The bottled water consumption pattern shows an increasing trend in Batticaloa District for the past decade. Development activities and tourism promotion play an important role in the development of bottled water sales and consumption in the District which is visible in increased number of bottled water distributors and sales points. A survey was conducted to examine the factors influencing the bottled water consumption and how they influence in the consumers’ preference in selected DS divisions of Batticaloa District. The study also aims to find the significant relationship of consumption behavior spatially. The analysis of the responses shows that some of demographic and marketing factors are significantly associated with the consumption pattern and provide a significant contribution to the consumer perception towards bottled water. The consumption pattern also shows a strong relationship with the geographical locations in the District.

Keywords: Bottled water, Consumers, Perception, Spatial, consumption pattern

Relevance of Entrepreneurial Studies as Perceived by Vocational Education Undergraduate Students in Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated the perception of undergraduate vocational education students on the relevancy of entrepreneurial Studies in Ekiti state. In order to elicit information required for this study, three research questions were developed and answered while two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A 17 item structured questionnaire titled vocational education students’ entrepreneurial studies perception (VESESP) was developed for data collection. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample for the study was 84 respondents made up of 97 male and 49 female vocational educational students in the two institutions running vocational education programs in Ekiti state. Face and content validity were carried out on the structured questionnaire by two experts in vocational and technical and education. The Cronbach alpha method was used to compute the reliability of the questionnaire to obtain a co-efficient of 0.79. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the research questions while t-test statistics and ANOVA were used to test the hypothesis. Based on the data collected and analysed, it was discovered that majority of respondent view entrepreneurship education as desirable and that entrepreneurship education prepares students very well for future entrepreneurial careers, there were also no significant differences among students running various degree programmes among other findings. However, it was also observed that there are various challenges facing entrepreneurship education as perceived by the students, this includes; students not having the opportunity to interact with high level entrepreneurs, inability of students to be able to prepare business plan after attending entrepreneurship education classes among others. Recommendations were thereafter made on ways to improve on entrepreneurship education courses in order to achieve the desired objectives of making vocational and technical education graduates to be job creator rather than job seekers.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship education, Perception, Undergraduate Students, Vocational education

Perception and Attitude of University of Cape Coast Students on Homosexuality (Published)

Homosexuality has received a great deal of attention in public and current scholarly research especially after the United States of America has unanimously legalized  in the the whole country. In view of this, the research purported to find out the perception and attitude of University of Cape Coast students on homosexuality. A survey research design was used with structured questionnaire as the instrument for data collection. The research was conducted at the University of Cape Coast; participants were randomly sampled. Four hundred students from Level 300 in the College of Education Studies were used.The findings of the research revealed that University of Cape Coast students frown on homosexuality. Students do not want homosexuals to be their leaders or hold positions in the university. In their opinion homosexuals should not be taken as role models; they rather had sympathy and care for the homosexuals about negative treatment meted out to them. Students have the attitude of giving help to the homosexuals when the need arises but they are disgusted about homosexuality. Students would feel uncomfortable if their roommates were to be homosexuals and would not want homosexuals to be allowed to adopt children. It was also discovered that there was no gender difference in the perception and attitude of the students on homosexuality. In the light of these findings, these recommendations were made; that University of Cape Coast should be clear on rules and regulations regarding homosexuality as the students’ handbook which serves as a guide to students is silent about it. That there should be public education on homosexuality. That the Counselling Centre should be on the alert to assist homosexuals and those who might be traumatized because of the activities of the homosexuals.

Keywords: Behaviour and Practice., Gay, Heterosexual, Lesbian, Perception, attitude, homosexual.

Constraints to Use of Soil Quality Maintaining Strategies in a Climate Change Stricken Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Published)

The study assessed constraints to use of soil quality maintaining strategies among crop farmers in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents for the study. Data were collected using interview schedule and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Results show that 65.00% of the respondents were females. Majority (60.00%) were married, with 54.16% having household sizes of not less than 6 persons. Most serious constraints were inadequate finance and capital intensiveness of some strategies. Significant relationships existed between age (r2 = 0.152, p < 0.05), sex (c2 = 5.21, p < 0.05), household size (r2 < -0.212, p < 0.05) and constraints to use of soil quality maintaining strategies. There was significant difference in the extent of constraints to use of the strategies between male and female respondents (t = -1.12, p < 0.05). It is recommended that individuals should save funds for soil quality maintenance. Moreover, programmes aimed at reducing constraints to use of the strategies should be patterned according to severity of the constraints between male and female farmers.

Keywords: Constraints, Information, Maintaining Strategies, Perception, Soil Quality

Student and Staff Perception on the Growth and Administration of Parallel Degree Programmes in Kenya (Published)

The introduction of parallel degree programmes into public universities in Kenya initially triggered off stiff resistance from regular students as well as education experts who argued that quality would be sacrificed in pursuit of additional funds by the universities to address their deficit.  Public universities shifted from the public-good paradigm to a market model in which generation of funds for the survival of the institution takes center stage. This paper examines the growth of Privately Sponsored Student Programmes (PSSP) in Kenya and the perception of staff and students on its management by the institutions. The descriptive study adopted ex-post facto research design. A sample of 460 privately sponsored students from all schools and campuses of Moi University and 140 teaching and non-teaching staff was used. Stratified random sampling procedure was used to identify the schools and the students while purposive sampling was used on the staff. Data was collected using questionnaires for students and staff while interview guides were used on administrators of schools and satellite campuses. The PSSP students at Moi University feel the University is not providing the quality education they had hoped to get. The staff has a more positive attitude towards PSSP and asserts that they are willing to put in more effort to ensure that PSSP achieves its objectives. However, the students think that there is little chance of any of them getting first class honours degree because of inadequate teaching, shortage of supporting infrastructure and favouritism

Keywords: Growth, PSSP Administration, Parallel Programmes, Perception

Ambulatory Health Care Staffs’ Perception of the Influence of Training on Performance (Published)

Organizations invest in improving skills, competences, and knowledge of employees to enable them do better on their jobs. Investing in people development is crucial for bolstering organizational performance. Training assumes great significance in the healthcare industry as personnel need to update their skills, understanding of health needs of patients and to offer quality healthcare services to patients. The researchers set out to explore healthcare staffs’ perception of the influences of training on performance.

Keywords: Healthcare staff, Perception, Training

Assessment of the Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal on Work Productivity: A Case Study of Kumasi Polytechnic (Published)

Performance appraisals allow the organization to tell the employee something about their rates of growth, their competencies, and their potentials. The absence of effective performance appraisal is a fundamental cause of low output of staff to work.  This study outlines the benefits that can be derived from the use of the performance appraisal system if it is properly administered to workers on the campus of Kumasi Polytechnic. It was found out that performance appraisal influences performance positively. However, the researchers realized that performance appraisal is mostly undertaken on annual basis at the workplace.  Again, it was also realized that Kumasi Polytechnic uses rating scale, descriptive system and management by objective system methods of appraisal to evaluate employees.  It was also realized that management by objective is the mostly used method. Hence, it showed that appraisal is conducted annually in the institution. Finally, we realized from the research that performance appraisal has got much influence on job performance of Kumasi Polytechnic employees.

Keywords: Feedback, Halo, Leniency, Perception, Prejudice, Theory

Entrepreneur Perception and Growth of Beekeeping in Abia State, Nigeria (Published)

The study adopted survey method with a target population of 4963 entrepreneur-farmers. The sample size of 370 was determined using Yamane (1967) formula (Eboh, 2009).Applying Bowley’s proportional allocation statistical technique, the sample size for each category of respondents was estimated. The systematic linear random sampling technique was applied to select the 370 respondents. Primary and secondary sources of data were accessed. The primary data were collected through the researcher’s self-designed questionnaire titled “Entrepreneur Self-Assessment Questionnaire(ESAQ)”.In the questionnaire, the  five point Likert Scale was used to measure the agreeableness of the entrepreneurs on the subject, where Strongly Agree(SA),Agree(A),Neutral(N), Disagree(D),Strongly Disagree(SD) denote the values, 5,4,3,2,1 respectively. In-depth interviews were held with entrepreneur-farmers. Pilot survey was conducted. The instrument was validated by experts’ opinions. Using Cronbach’s Alpha technique, the reliability coefficient of 0.988 was determined, reflecting high degree of internal consistency of the research instrument. One hypothesis and a research question guided the study. At 0.05 level of significance and 15 degrees of freedom, the hypothesis was tested using one way ANOVA technique and Minitab software package. The study revealed that the extent of entrepreneur perception at 89.40 percent had significant positive effects on the growth of beekeeping in Abia State of Nigeria. Recommendations were made

Keywords: Bee products, Beekeeping, Bees, Entrepreneur, Perception, Venom and Toxin

An Assessment of Basic School Teachers’ Perception of the Impact of Motivation on Their Productivity in Ghana (Published)

This study aimed at examining basic school teachers’ perception of the impact of motivation on JHS teacher productivity in the Asante Akim South district of Ghana. The descriptive survey design was used in conducting the study and the population was all the JHS teachers in the district with a sample size of 217, made up of 179 males and 38 females. A questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.74 was used for data collection. Key findings indicated that majority (97.2%) of teachers admitted that government’s study leave with pay policy was necessary for teacher productivity, eighty five percent (85%) of teachers were of the opinion that promotion was a necessary condition for teacher productivity, and there was a strong positive correlation between teachers’ salaries and teacher productivity. It was recommended that the quota system introduced into the study leave with pay policy should be removed to enable many teachers benefit from the facility. The district best teacher award scheme should cover at least 50% of teachers in the district, and promotion in the Ghana Education Service (GES) should be based on hard work rather than long service and further education.

Keywords: Basic School, Motivation, Perception, Productivity, Teachers

Teachers Perception on Ways of Improving the Teaching of Social Studies in Onueke Education Zone (Published)

This study investigated Teachers perception on ways of improving the teaching of Social Studies in Onueke Education Zone. The purpose of the study was to specifically ascertain teaching techniques that could improve the teaching of Social Studies in Onueke Education Zone, find out if some evaluation techniques could improve the teaching of Social Studies. The design of the study was a descriptive survey research. The population of the study comprised 100 Social Studies teachers in Onueke Education Zone. Two research questions and two hypotheses were designed and tested to guide the study. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled “teachers perception on ways of improving the teaching of Social Studies (TPWITSS) in Onueke Education Zone. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and chi-square (X2). Findings from the investigation revealed that respondents accepted all items on the questionnaire significantly improve the teaching of Social Studies, evaluation techniques significantly improve the teaching of Social Studies.

Keywords: Improving, Nigeria, Perception, Social Studies, Teachers, Teaching

The Image of Nation: Case Study on Chinese Student Perception about Indonesia (Published)

Image of Nation is one of important aspect in International Relations today. It can influence the attitude of people and country to another and every country try to attract people and government from another country through the public diplomacy which is focuses on culture. To develop positive image, as part of Indonesian public diplomacy, Indonesia invites foreign student to learn and study Indonesian culture and Bahasa Indonesia. This article focus on analyze the reason of Chinese student from Guangxi Normal University to study Bahasa Indonesia and what is the image of Indonesia after they studied almost one year in Indonesia. The result shows that Bahasa Indonesia is one of prospective language and gives opportunity relate with job opportunity because of Indonesia-China raising relations. In other hand, Indonesia have positive image on the culture, tradition, polite, open minded, familiarity, kindness and friendship. However, Indonesia also have negative image on traffic, time and corruption. Those image describe how Chinese student percepts Indonesia as foreign country. According to this study, there are opportunity and challenges on Indonesian image development.

Keywords: Bahasa Indonesia, Chinese Student, Perception, Public diplomacy

Corruption and People’s Opinion on the Removal of Police Check-Points in Yobe State (Published)

Police checkpoint is one of the most dreaded sights by motorists in Nigeria due to the dominance of extortion over all other activities at checkpoints instead of the normal stop-and-frisk expected of a security agent thereby affecting the efficiency of the force in preventing, detecting and containing crime. Yobe state with its high number of Boko-Haram induced checkpoints is one of the states where strong reactions follow the removal of police blockades in other parts of the country. This paper attempts, using survey research technique to assess the perception of the people of Yobe state on the removal of police frisk-barricades from the roads as a means of reducing police corruption in the country. The research found out among other things; that people of Yobe state believe that the removal will tremendous effect in reducing police extortion that has direct bearing on the common man. The study recommends inter alia the review of police salary and welfare packages, introduction of technology driven frisking system and policing the police technique of fishing out corrupt personnel.

Keywords: Corruption, Extortion, Perception, Police

Perception and Practice of Midwife-Led Model of Care among Skilled Birth Attendants in Selected Health Facilities in a Southern State in Nigeria (Published)

Globally, there is noticeable threat to midwifery practice because of limited autonomy of midwives in some settings. The situation is not different in Nigeria, despite the evidence that access to midwife-led care is the most important factor in achieving improved outcomes in maternal and newborn health. It is, therefore, imperative to determine the perception and practice of midwife-led care among skilled birth attendants in selected health facilities in a southern State in Nigeria. Following ethical approval, a mixed method design was undertaken to study a convenience sample of 125 skilled birth attendants from health facilities in four randomly-selected local government areas of the State. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained through questionnaire and focus group discussions respectively. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS version 18 and qualitative data were manually analysed. Results showed that 79.2% had knowledge; 56% exhibited poor practice of midwife-led care. There was statistically significant association between knowledge and practice of midwife-led care at 0.05 level of significance with 1 degree of freedom. Also there was a statistically significant relationship between knowledge and acceptance of midwife-led care at 0.05 level of significance with 123 degrees of freedom. Qualitative data corroborated the quantitative data. Gaps were revealed in the knowledge/perception and practice of midwife-led care in this setting. These have implications for continuing education for midwives and policy formulation towards strengthening midwifery for enhanced maternal and newborn outcomes.

Keywords: Midwife-led model, Perception, Skilled birth attendants, practice

Business Education Students’s Perception Of The Skill Needs For Successful Entrepreneurship In Nigeria (Published)

The paper examined the Business education students’ perception of skill needs for successful entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The population consisted of 6002 business education students. 600 respondents were selected through stratified sampling technique. The study adopted survey design. A four point response item structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Out of the 600 copies distributed, 589 were collected and used for the study. The instrument was face- validated by three experts in the Departments of Business Education and science education of Ebonyi State University. An internal consistency of 0.98 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha correlation coefficient. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while t –test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that business education students need technical and financial management skills to function well in this time of economic meltdown in Nigeria. It was concluded that there was need to put in place learning facilities that will help the business education students to acquire the skills. It was recommended that the institutions training Business Education students for entrepreneurship should have well equipped entrepreneurial development centre.

Keywords: Business Education, Entrepreneurship, Perception, Skill

Farmers’ Perception of Soil: Implications for Soil Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture in the UK (Published)

We identify UK farmers’ perception of soil, awareness of soil in terms of how they describe it, their awareness of its benefits other for than crop production, their familiarity with soil conservation, and their opinions on soil protection and the value of organic fertilizers. Data were collected with the aid of social media using both Twitter and electronic mail to distribute a survey link to farmers. UK yellow pages, Natural England directory and Twitter were used to search for farms. Data were analysed using SPSS version 22.0 statistical software and Wordle. Chi square was used to test for relationships between variables at 95% confidence level (p<0.05), while Phi and Cramer’s V were used to measure strength of association for significant relationships. Results showed that farmers’ describe soils in abstract, scientific, physical attribute and functional terms. Awareness of soil benefits other than crop production was significantly related to age, and farm ownership. Educational level was significantly related to familiarity with soil conservation, and opinion on whether soil should be protected like other natural resources. The implications of these results for soil conservation and sustainable agriculture are discussed and used as, the basis for policy recommendations.

Keywords: Anaerobic digestion (AD), Ethnopedology, Perception, Soil Conservation, Sustainable agriculture

Teachers’ Perception on the Challenges of 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum Implementation in Edo State. (Published)

This study is carried out to find out the challenges faced in the implementation of the revised 9-year BEC in Edo state. The population for the study comprises all the school teachers from Lower, Middle and Upper Basic teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A total population of two thousand eight hundred and eighty-four (2884) was focused for the study in Akoko Edo Local Government area. The sample of this study was six hundred (600) respondents selected across the state from public Lower, Middle and Upper Basic schools. Purposive sampling technique was used to group the state in terms of Senatorial District in the state.Random sampling techniques was used to select two (2) Local Government each from each senatorial district. Proportional sampling techniques was used to select five (5) schools in each Local Government making thirty schools (30). Strategfied sampling technique was used to select twenty (20) respondents from each schools selected in all the Local Government respectively. A total number of 600 respondents was selected from the 30 schools in the six (6) Local Government for the study. The research hypothesis there is no significance difference on the perceived challenges by teachers’ on the implementation of the revised 9-year BEC on the basis of year of experience was accepted and adequate recommendations were made.

Keywords: 9-year BEC, Challenges, Implementation, Perception, Teachers


The study was carried out in Benue and Nasarawa States, Nigeria to assess perceived benefits of cost-sharing among farmers and public extension agents. Data was collected from a sample of 346 respondents using interview schedule/questionnaire as well as Focus Group Discussion. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage as well as Mann-Whitney U test were used for data analysis. Majority of the farmers (61.4%) and all (100%) the public extension agents were males, middle aged, having formal education which enabled them to understand possible benefits of cost-sharing in agricultural extension service. Farmers’ and public extension agents’ perceived benefits of cost-sharing practices were observed in the areas of equity participation of stakeholders (18.4%), result orientation of scheme (14.2%), effective monitoring of project (13.9%), demand driven of extension service (12.1%) and meeting of targets of extension service delivery (10.8%), among others. There was a significant difference between Benue and Nasarawa States in terms of perceived benefits of cost-sharing practices by respondents. This was due to the higher average work experience of farmers in Benue State as opposed to their counterparts in Nasarawa State implying that the longer the work life of an individual the better exposed he is to work experiences that would enhance his sense of perception and judgment. The study recommends that farmers be encouraged towards consistency in their primary occupation of farming to improve their cognate experience while efforts are made by service providers to ensure that extension services provided for end users are demand driven and result oriented in order to achieve the objectives of extension service delivery. The need for adequate measures for effective monitoring of extension services for greater efficiency was considered necessary as it will help to encourage stakeholders to participate in cost-sharing.

Keywords: Cost sharing., Farmers, Perception, public extension agents

Natural Ventilation and Body Heat Comfort: An Evaluation of Residents Satisfaction in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. (Published)

This study evaluates the variations in the level of natural ventilation in houses across the three main residential density zones of Ogbomoso. The study employs two approaches. First, it surveys the perception of residents with respect to the body heat comfort in their houses. Second, it examines the window opening sizes for compliance with floor areas considered desirable for effective natural ventilation in a warm humid climate like Nigeria. The main objective is to validate residents perception of body heat comfort through the assessment of window opening to floor areas ratio. The methodology employed is the multi-stage sampling procedure where houses are sampled from sampled streets, and a household head sampled from each house, such that the perception of residents and evaluation of window and floor areas ratio are both carried out on the same household and house, respectively. The result shows that residents’ satisfaction as well as window to floor areas decreases with residential density zones.

Keywords: Body Comfort, Body Heat, Natural Ventilation, Perception, Satisfaction, Warm humid


The purpose of this study was to explore perception of teachers on their attitude toward the teaching of essay writing in Onueke Education zone of Ebonyi State. Three research questions and a null hypothesis guided the work. Questionnaire was used as the instrument. A trial test was carried out and tested for reliability and a value of 0.75 was obtained from the test. The instrument was further subjected to face validation. Language teachers – English, Igbo and French totaling 374 drawn from 59 secondary schools served as the population and out of this number, 120 language teachers – 60 males and 60 females were selected using simple random sampling technique. All the responses on the three research questions indicated that although essay writing is very important in the intellectual development of students, yet most teachers’ exhibit non-challant attitude in teaching essay writing. These poor attitudes were discovered to be as a result of the complex nature of essay writing, high students/teacher population and non-motivation of teachers. The hypothesis showed that significance difference does not exist in the perception of both male and female language teachers. It was suggested that teachers should offer selfless services and take the teaching of essay writing very seriously using better instructional strategy. Also the government should motivate the teachers and employ more teachers to lessen the burden of language teachers.

Keywords: Essay, Organization, Perception, attitude, writing

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