Nigeria as a democratic country has three divisions of government. These are; Executive, Legislature and the Judiciary. These three arms of government function independently of each other. Each of these branches of government is a creation of the law and functions within the limits marked out for it by the law and the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 (as amended). The Legislature is the law making organ of government. By virtue of section 4 of the Constitution, the legislative power of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is vested in the National Assembly which consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. The National Assembly has power to make law for the peace, order and good government of the Federation or any path thereof. The House of Assembly at the State level makes law for the peace, order and good government of the State or any path thereof. The exercise of legislative power by the National Assembly or by a State House of Assembly is subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of law and judicial tribunals established by law. Therefore, the National Assembly or a State House of Assembly shall not enact any law that oust or purports to oust the jurisdiction of a court of law or of a judicial tribunal established by law. The constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 is supreme and its provisions shall have binding force on all authorities and persons throughout the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Any law which is inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution, the Constitution shall prevail, and that other law shall to the extent of the inconsistency be void. This paper examines the legal status of section 140(2) and 141 of the Electoral Act, 2010, which prevents the Tribunals or Courts from pronouncing winners of elections. The section of the Act only allowed the Tribunal and Courts to order for re-run elections. The National Assembly by enacting that Act ousted the jurisdiction of the Courts and thereby ran foul of the constitutional provision. The paper contends that the National Assembly acted in excess of its legislative powers and any action taken by any of the authorities without or in excess of its legal authority or power is ultra vires the Constitution and therefore void.
The study determined the opinions of technical teachers about poverty reduction and strategies to be adopted for poverty reduction in Akwa Ibom State. A survey research design was used for the study. Sixty technical teachers were sampled from the population of 131 technical teachers in all the technical colleges in Akwa Ibom State. Poverty Reduction through Investment in Technical Education Questionnaire (PRITEQ) developed by the researchers was used to collect data for the study. The instrument was validated by three experts from University of Uyo and the reliability coefficient of the instrument was .86. Data obtained were analysed using mean and simple percentage. Findings of the study revealed that poverty reduction may occur through investment in technical education. Also, mandatory technical education, siting of industries/skill acquisition centres, adequate funding of poverty reduction programmes and training people for self reliance are the strategies to be adopted for poverty reduction in Akwa Ibom State. It was recommended among others that government and international agencies should fund technical education programme heavily.
The main crux of this paper is to draw the attention of all social studies practitioners, researchers, students of our discipline – social studies and others, to the fact that social studies in Nigeria’s education system is not the preserve of the Universal Basic Education level schools. This is undoubtedly an integral part of it. However, there is more to it than is ordinarily perceived.
This research study which focused on Evaluation of Learning Outcomes for both Public and Private Primary School pupils in Ebonyi State Nigeria, adopted a descriptive survey design. The sample size for the study was 3,041 pupils and was restricted to primary four (4) pupils, made up of 1503 males and 1538 females. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. Instrument for data collection was 110 test items developed by the researchers in the areas of Numeracy, Literacy and Life-skills .The instrument was given to the Experts for face and construct validity and was finally subjected to a reliability test, using Kudar-Richardson formula 20(K-R 20) which yielded a reliability co-efficient of 0.78. The test instruments were administered to the pupils with the help of research Assistants. Mean, Standard deviation and Percentage were used to answer the research questions while t-test and Chi-square (x2) Statisticts were used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the of the findings revealed that both male and female primary 4 pupils are very poor and have very low competencies in Numeracy, literacy and Life skills. It is therefore recommended that the Federal Government of Nigeria should mount training and retraining programmes for the teachers on the method teaching the pupils Mathematics, English language and Life skills, in addition to supply of adequate textbooks. Also, supervision Team to monitor classroom teaching and learning should be set up among recommendations
Knowledge, Practice and Perception of Contraception by Literate Adolescents in Calabar, Nigeria (Published)
The current prevalence rate for contraceptive use in Nigeria is approximately 11%–13%. This rate is very low in view of the fact that sexual activity is high and there is also widespread awareness of the various contraceptive methods among Nigerian adolescents and youths. There is sufficient research evidence identifying the various factors that contribute to the low prevalence of modern contraceptive use in Nigeria, with the most common factors being religious adherence and myths about the side effects of modern contraceptives. This survey aims to ascertain the knowledge, practice and perception of contraception among literate adolescents in Calabar. This was a self-administered questionnaire -based study carried out in Calabar metropolis. The information was obtained at three different higher institutions in Calabar. Information collected include age, knowledge and use of contraceptives, source of information, and awareness of other methods of contraception and myths about contraception. A total of 1,596 female adolescents were recruited into this study. Their age range was 16 to 19years, with a mean age of 17.6years. The respondents have all attained basic secondary education and were all currently pursuing tertiary education and have all had sexual intercourse and have heard about contraception or family planning. Of this number, 968(60.7%) have used Emergency contraceptive pills, 26.6% used male condom, 6.1% use CopperT (CuT), 1.9% use injectables, 1.1% use implants while 3.6% have not used any method. They all however had one form of concern or the other about modern contraceptive methods. Adolescents and youths are undoubtedly the bedrock to propagate any programme irrespective of the field. Adolescents are therefore in dire need of information on reproductive health issues not only on contraception but also on other issues concerning their reproductive health. They should be assisted and given unhindered access to various methods of contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion.
Effects and Coping Measures of Flood among Farming Households in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
We explored the ways in which people in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria dealt with the extreme flood that occurred in 2012, with specific attention to the effects which the people were unable to avoid through coping measures. The study combined purposive and random sampling techniques in selecting sixty farming households from three communities that were affected by the flood. The main tool for data collection was questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. We found that 100% of the surveyed households reported crop losses. To deal with the adverse effects, 75% of respondents migrated from their various houses to a place of safety especially to their relations’ houses. The main determinants of coping measures to the flood by the households include gender, farm size, farming experience and access to credit. There is a need for government investments in structural preventive measures.
Very little is known about the subject of construction externalities, especially amongst stakeholders in the Nigerian construction industry and built environment, yet its existence and effects are palpable. Hence, the study, via relevant literature and personal observations sought to provide; first, a theoretical understanding of the nature of construction externalities; its constituents or composition as well as its effects, and secondly, to point out the level of awareness on the part of stakeholders and the manner or extent to which they have been addressed or considered in Nigeria. Ultimately, this paper presents as a solution to efficient and balanced allocation of resources, realistic taxation and better economic planning by the Nigerian government; the need to be apprised of the benefits and adverse effects of construction externalities on the citizenry.
Application of a Stochastic Frontier Production Function to the Measurement of Technical Efficiency of Commercial Poultry Egg Production in Nigeria (Published)
Some studies on poultry production in Nigeria focused on problems and prospects of poultry production, part time commercial poultry farming, technical efficiency of small scale poultry-egg production and none on the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Nigeria This study therefore examined the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using a set of well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the study. First, five (5) major towns were randomly selected from the nine (9) major towns in the Local Government Area. Secondly, six (6) commercial poultry egg farmers were randomly selected from each of the five (5) major towns to make a total sample size of 30 farmers for the 2011 production cycle. Data collected were presented and analyzed using tables, frequency count, percentages and stochastic frontier production function. The stochastic frontier production function was specified and estimated, using maximum likelihood estimation. The results showed that majority of the respondents were found to be between the age range of 31-50 years old (60%), 56% of them were males, 50% of them had first leaving school certificates and 50% of them had 5-6 family members, 60% had 3-5 years of poultry rearing experience and 53% of them used hired labour for their operations; 60% of the respondents adopted the deep litter system of management. The results also revealed that the coefficients of expenditure on flock size (0.755), expenses on feed intake (0.851), expenses on medication and vaccination (0.220), expenses on labour (0.201), and cost of capital (0.562) were significant determinants of output of commercial egg production at 5% level of significance in the study area. The mean technical efficiency was 58% and ranges between 0.559 and 0.909. The sigma squared (σ2) of 0.65 for the commercial poultry farmers were statistically significant and different from zero at 5% level of significance. The variance ratio (gamma) was estimated as 0.52 for the farmers and were also significant at 5% level which implied that about 52% variations in the output of the farmers were due to the inefficiency of inputs. The study revealed that a national policy and programme to strengthen the commercial poultry production is required in the area of finance and inputs. It can therefore be recommended that capital should be channelled to commercial poultry production through the provision of macro-credits and formulation of policies and programmes by the Government to direct financial institutions to grant a definite and a reasonable proportion of loan-able funds to commercial poultry farmers. Programmes on economic production of major poultry feed ingredients like maize and soya-beans be instituted for least cost poultry feed production. Potent medicine and vaccine should be provided in sufficient quantities, easily accessible and enlightenment programme on mode of administration be embarked upon by the government to commercial poultry farmers in the study area. Exotic poultry parent stocks and fertile eggs imported should be screened and certified to be of good quality at the point of entry into the country by controlling bodies. Poultry equipment manufacturers should be encouraged by the Government with provision of credit facilities and subsidies.
Contribution Of Information Communication Technology To Effective Teaching And Learning Of Agricultural Science In Some Selected Public And Private Secondary Schools In Ibadan North East Local Government In Oyo State (Published)
This study investigates contribution of information communication technology to effective teaching and learning of agricultural science in some selected public and private secondary schools in Ibadan North East Local Government in Oyo State. A descriptive survey research design was adopted and a total population of one hundred (100) students and twenty (20) teachers; fifty (50) students from Ten (10) of the public and private secondary schools respectively and Ten (10) teachers from Ten of the public and private schools were randomly selected for the study. A self-structured questionnaire was used to collect information and a simple percentage and frequency count was used to analyses the collected data also the 4 point likert scale analysis was used to identify various contribution of ict to effective teaching and learning of agricultural science among both the teachers and students in the study area. The results of the findings showed that the use of computer technology in teaching and learning of agricultural science makes the subject more simple, understandable and improves the understanding of the students. It also revealed that students do not have adequate access to Information and Communication Technology ( ICT) facilities in their schools except on their phones. Furthermore, the finding showed that majority of the private secondary schools are using computer technology effectively. In-service training on the use of computer technology and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) should be organized for the teachers and students in public secondary schools by the government.
Communication Audit of Cable News Network (Cnn) Online Reports on Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria (2012-2016) (Published)
Previous studies on conflict reportage in Nigeria had accused Western media of inclinations for feeding the people with inaccurate and contradictory reports. This study was predicated on the need to investigate the patterns and trends of the Cable News Network (CNN’s) online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria over a period of five years, 2012-2016. The study adopted the content analysis method of research and conducted a census of 58 online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria as obtained from Cable News Network website (http://edition.cnn.com/text=boko+haram). While direction of reports, sources of report, prominence, balance and report genre provided content categories for the study, the Cronbach Alpha test was adopted for inter-coder reliability. The study found high prominence on CNN’s online reports of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. There was high level imbalance in CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The study found low level of objectivity in CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. It was also established that CNN made use of only one source of information in her reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The study found out that the straight news genre dominated CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. Finally, the study showed that CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria did conform to the allegation of information distortion leveled against Western Media. The researchers then recommended diversification of information sources, combination of report genres and fortification of conflict reporters as measures that would enhance accuracy, objectivity and fairness in conflict reportage.
Pornography viewing is gradually becoming a part of life in many countries around the world, including Nigeria. However, the role of the extensive consumption of pornography among the Nigerian youths has not been given much attention in the investigation of HIV risky sexual behaviour in Nigeria. This study examines the predictive strength of pornography viewing and gender differences on HIV risky sexual behaviour among university students. Using a survey design, 596 university students were selected from 12 departments across three faculties, with simple random technique. A questionnaire focusing on socio-demographic profile and HIV risk behaviour scale (r=0.81) was administered to the participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, t- test and regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Two hypotheses were tested. The results revealed that pornography viewing and gender differences jointly and independently predicted HIV risk behavior (R2 = .18; F = 59.01; p<.01). Pornography viewing is crucial for a comprehensive examination of HIV risk behaviour.
Effects of Manpower Development on Organizational Efficiency: A Study of Enugu Electricity Distribution Company (EEDC) in Abia State, Nigeria (2014-2016) (Published)
The study focused on the effects of manpower development on organisational efficiency, with reference to Enugu Electricity Distribution Company (EEDC) in Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria; covering the period of 2014 to 2016. The specific objectives were to; identify the manpower training and developmental programmes adopted by EEDC in developing their employees, ascertain the impact of training and developmental programmes on employees’ performance and identify challenges militating against the efficiency of EEDC in Abia State. The researcher adopted survey research design, primary and secondary data was used. Descriptive Statistics, and Logistic Regression analysis were used run the analysis. Findings revealed that orientation, internship training, case study method, seminar/workshop and classroom method are the major training and developmental programmes used by EEDC in developing their manpower, while internship training method, case study method, and seminar/workshop impacts on the performance of the employees. Also findings revealed that lack of modern equipment, inadequate megawatts of power, overload networks, vandalisation/militancy, government policies, peculiarities of transmission and distribution network where the major problems responsible for the poor performance and inefficiency of EEDC in Abia State. The researcher recommends that training programmes should be design to acquaint individual participant with specific knowledge and skills required to improve their efficiency in the organisation, while serving the career goals of the employee. The need for the manpower developmental policies of the organisation to be continuous and in congruence with their strategic policies was also emphasised.
The study examined career counselling needs for women in Rivers State, Nigeria. The survey method was used. A simple random sampling technique was used to select three hundred (300) female undergraduate students from a population of nine hundred. The instrument used for this study was the “Students Self Rating Career Counselling Needs Scale’ SSRCCNS) for data collection. The t-test statistics was used to test the two null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that the two null hypotheses were accepted: There is no significant difference in career counselling needs between part-time female undergraduate students who are having academic problems, and those having clear standing. Also, it was revealed that there was no significant difference in career counselling needs between female part-time undergraduate students who are employed and those unemployed. Based on the findings some recommendations were made: (1) Universities in Rivers State should open service career counselling centre to assist students with their career counselling needs. (2) Career counsellors should pay attention to dual career women. (3) Career counsellors should assist students to express their fears about gender role stereotyping in the given culture.
Are These Cracks Foundational? Situating Local Government Performance in Nigeria within the Context of Its Legal Framework (Published)
The obvious bellow-the-mark performance of Nigeria’s 774 local governments is a key reason for the call from various quarters of the Nigerian society that it be scraped. Today this third tier of government in Nigeria is synonymous with wanton corruption and gross underperformance. This paper attempts a pathology of these glaring cracks and discovers that they are only mild manifestations of a foundational defect, as key provision of the constitution upon which the local government system is premised are faulty, and ties the local government to the whims and caprices of the state that most times uses it as an avenue for political manipulations, embezzlement and the outright misappropriation of funds. Nigeria local governments are therefore weak, lack funds and bereft of the needed autonomy to perform optimally, as wells as meet the development intent for their establishment. This paper among others recommendations calls for broad and far-reaching constitutional amendments/local government reforms that would re-craft and reposition this vital tier of government to meet up with the development challenge of the 21st century.
Civil Service anywhere in the world plays a very significant role in transforming government policies and programmes into reality. In most developing countries in general and Nigeria in particular the performance of Civil Service in discharging its duties is quite below expectation even after many reforms and restructuring had been carried out. The work identified and discussed what needs to be done for optimum performance of the Civil Service in Nigeria. It examined human and environmental factors that hindered Nigeria Civil Service from realization of its intended goals. The work is of the view that the attainment of optimum performance by the Civil Service in Nigeria is predicated upon the level of commitment and fidelity by the leading operator of the service. The work relied on secondary source and observation to gather the data that were used in this work. The work recommended among others that for Nigerian Civil Service to attain optimum performance there must be vigorous and sustained campaign to make propriety the prime mood of the nation’s culture.
Assessing Free Education of Public Secondary Schools for Sustainable National Development in Nigeria (Published)
Education is inevitable tool for sustainable development and economic development is the desire of all nations of the world but how to attain a sustainable development remains a challenge to many nations. This paper examined free education and its adaption for sustainable national development in Nigeria. Education is a social service, which is meant to eradicate illiteracy, ensures comfortable living of the citizens as well as the development of the country, it should be provided free for all. In the course of this paper, information and data were gathered from literature and forty two (42) principals spread across forty two secondary schools in the four (4) Local Government Area of Umuahia Education Zone to describe the Concept and support of the arguments raised. The data for the study were collected using an instrument titled “Assessing Free Education for Sustainable Development Questionnaire (AFESDQ). The instrument was validated by three (3) research experts and reliability established using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient with reliability 0.83. Data obtained were analyzed using mean for the research questions while hypothesis formulated was tested at 0.5 level of significance. The relationship between free education and sustainable development were established, the extent of enhancement and factors that facilitate free education were also examined with suggestions including among others, the need to ensure equity and egalitarianism, combat the looming poverty, low manpower/ literacy level and provision of scholarships, bursaries to students and adequate funding from government.
This study was carried out to have an overview of the indigenous knowledge of water turtle sold in Edo state, using twelve major markets (Uselu, New Benin, Uwa, Oba, Yanga, Osa, Oka, Oregbeni, Oliha, Uwelu, Ogida, and New markets) in Benin City the state capital as the sampling centre. Useful investigations were initiated through oral interview and focus group discussions with certain determinative parameters in mind. These include among others, handling – holding methods, feeding stuff, slaughtering methods, and years of turtle trade, price indices and socio-cultural indices. There were three methods by which turtle were slaughtered of which putting in boiling/boiled water was the simplest and fastest. The price indices showed that turtles were sold for as low as N500 ($2.00) and as high as N4000 – N 5000 ($13.3 – $17.00) based on their size. Results showed that turtle sales started more than 30 years ago in the City, the socio-cultural indices revealed that turtle was used mostly for spiritual purposes, while the meat was a delicacy among people that eat this meat. With adequate management regime in place, the possibility of successfully domesticating them in this environment is high as any food consumed by man were popular feedstuffs used in feeding turtle during their holding period; in addition to different fruits like pawpaw, banana, mango and pineapple commonly available being used. The study has thus shown that socio culturally the people of the state have nothing against water turtle consumption, making it an animal protein source to be expected for the citizenry under domestication to make it readily available. The pricing of turtle could also become standardized if there is a steady supply from culture as this will in turn reduce the pressures currently placed on wild species.
The Relationship between Types of Misconceptions and Achievement in Genetics among Senior Secondary School Biology Students in Jos North LGA of Plateau State (Published)
This research work was aimed at finding out the relationship between types of misconceptions and achievement in genetics among senior secondary schools biology students’ in Jos-North Local Government Area of Plateau State. Correlation research as well as survey research designs were employed for this study. Three research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The research was analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, mean and standard deviation while the hypothesis was analyzed using Pearson’s r. The population of the study consisted of randomly selected biology teachers and students’ of Government Senior Secondary Schools in the area of study. Thus, a total of two hundred and ten (210) respondents’ were used. Two hundred students and ten teachers drown from ten schools served as sample for the study. Three instruments were used for data collection. Achievement Test in Genetics (ATG), Questionnaire on Types of Misconceptions (QTM) and Biology Teachers’ Questionnaire on Students’ Causes of Misconceptions in Genetics. Major findings from this research work revealed that, there is poor trend of students’ academic achievement in genetics test, students’ held vary form of misconceptions in genetics concepts and the most prevalent misconception found among the students’ was the vernacular misconception, abstractness (AC), was the major reason for students’ causes of misconceptions, and there is perfect negative relationship between students types of misconceptions and their achievement. Recommendations were made based on these findings. Some of these recommendations are; effective and evidence-informed pedagogic practices are clearly needed by all teachers, and students, to identify, overcome and eliminate misconceptions in the acquisition of accurate scientific knowledge, to promote effective and meaningful learning, teachers’ need to identify the causes of such misconceptions and find ways to rectify them. The Government on her part should brace up to her responsibility of providing adequate teaching aids and instructional materials to all her schools, which must be equally use by the biology teachers to stimulate students in learning genetics.
We ascertain the effects of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption on the audit fees payable by listed Deposit Money Banks (DMB) in Nigeria. Data for the study was collected from the annual reports of the 15 listed DMBs in Nigeria. The study period spanned two accounting standard regimes: the Nigerian Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS) (2009- 2011) and the IFRS (2012-2014). We analysed the effect of IFRS adoption on audit fees in Nigeria in two ways: first we compared audit fees and the known determinants (audit task complexity and reporting quality) under the two standards regimes using a paired-sample t-test. Second, we employed multivariate analysis to examine and explain the combined effect of audit task complexity, financial reporting quality and IFRS in explaining the change in audit fee following IFRS adoption. We found that audit fees are significantly higher under the IFRS than under the SAS; we also found that IFRS adoption has significantly increased audit complexity and improved financial reporting quality. We conclude that less than 50% of the significant increase in audit fees following IFRS adoption is explained by IFRS task complexities. We recommend further research to ascertain the other factors that could have led to the significant increase in audit fees of DMBs. Lastly, given that the quality of financial reporting increased with IFRS adoption recommend that accountants, regulatory authorities, professional bodies and all other parties in financial reporting chain should deepen their knowledge of IFRS.
Effect of Relationship Marketing and Relationship Marketing Programs on Customer Loyalty (Published)
This study examines the relationship between relationship quality and customer loyalty. Specifically, the study seeks to investigate the influence of customer trust, satisfaction and commitment on loyalty and to ascertain the effect of the relationship marketing program adopted by pension firms on customer loyalty. Regression analysis is used to test the model based on data obtained from a sample of 354 customers of pension service firms from Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Anambra state. The results provide evidence to support the effect of customer trust and satisfaction on customer loyalty. The contribution of commitment to the model is not supported. Additionally, support was found for the effect of relationship marketing program on loyalty. Firms may consider building relationship with customers by engendering a feeling of trust; invest in customer satisfaction and recruit and train socially, and service oriented frontline employees to create strong ties with customers.