Pornography viewing is gradually becoming a part of life in many countries around the world, including Nigeria. However, the role of the extensive consumption of pornography among the Nigerian youths has not been given much attention in the investigation of HIV risky sexual behaviour in Nigeria. This study examines the predictive strength of pornography viewing and gender differences on HIV risky sexual behaviour among university students. Using a survey design, 596 university students were selected from 12 departments across three faculties, with simple random technique. A questionnaire focusing on socio-demographic profile and HIV risk behaviour scale (r=0.81) was administered to the participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, t- test and regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Two hypotheses were tested. The results revealed that pornography viewing and gender differences jointly and independently predicted HIV risk behavior (R2 = .18; F = 59.01; p<.01). Pornography viewing is crucial for a comprehensive examination of HIV risk behaviour.
Effects of Manpower Development on Organizational Efficiency: A Study of Enugu Electricity Distribution Company (EEDC) in Abia State, Nigeria (2014-2016) (Published)
The study focused on the effects of manpower development on organisational efficiency, with reference to Enugu Electricity Distribution Company (EEDC) in Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria; covering the period of 2014 to 2016. The specific objectives were to; identify the manpower training and developmental programmes adopted by EEDC in developing their employees, ascertain the impact of training and developmental programmes on employees’ performance and identify challenges militating against the efficiency of EEDC in Abia State. The researcher adopted survey research design, primary and secondary data was used. Descriptive Statistics, and Logistic Regression analysis were used run the analysis. Findings revealed that orientation, internship training, case study method, seminar/workshop and classroom method are the major training and developmental programmes used by EEDC in developing their manpower, while internship training method, case study method, and seminar/workshop impacts on the performance of the employees. Also findings revealed that lack of modern equipment, inadequate megawatts of power, overload networks, vandalisation/militancy, government policies, peculiarities of transmission and distribution network where the major problems responsible for the poor performance and inefficiency of EEDC in Abia State. The researcher recommends that training programmes should be design to acquaint individual participant with specific knowledge and skills required to improve their efficiency in the organisation, while serving the career goals of the employee. The need for the manpower developmental policies of the organisation to be continuous and in congruence with their strategic policies was also emphasised.
The study examined career counselling needs for women in Rivers State, Nigeria. The survey method was used. A simple random sampling technique was used to select three hundred (300) female undergraduate students from a population of nine hundred. The instrument used for this study was the “Students Self Rating Career Counselling Needs Scale’ SSRCCNS) for data collection. The t-test statistics was used to test the two null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that the two null hypotheses were accepted: There is no significant difference in career counselling needs between part-time female undergraduate students who are having academic problems, and those having clear standing. Also, it was revealed that there was no significant difference in career counselling needs between female part-time undergraduate students who are employed and those unemployed. Based on the findings some recommendations were made: (1) Universities in Rivers State should open service career counselling centre to assist students with their career counselling needs. (2) Career counsellors should pay attention to dual career women. (3) Career counsellors should assist students to express their fears about gender role stereotyping in the given culture.
Are These Cracks Foundational? Situating Local Government Performance in Nigeria within the Context of Its Legal Framework (Published)
The obvious bellow-the-mark performance of Nigeria’s 774 local governments is a key reason for the call from various quarters of the Nigerian society that it be scraped. Today this third tier of government in Nigeria is synonymous with wanton corruption and gross underperformance. This paper attempts a pathology of these glaring cracks and discovers that they are only mild manifestations of a foundational defect, as key provision of the constitution upon which the local government system is premised are faulty, and ties the local government to the whims and caprices of the state that most times uses it as an avenue for political manipulations, embezzlement and the outright misappropriation of funds. Nigeria local governments are therefore weak, lack funds and bereft of the needed autonomy to perform optimally, as wells as meet the development intent for their establishment. This paper among others recommendations calls for broad and far-reaching constitutional amendments/local government reforms that would re-craft and reposition this vital tier of government to meet up with the development challenge of the 21st century.
Civil Service anywhere in the world plays a very significant role in transforming government policies and programmes into reality. In most developing countries in general and Nigeria in particular the performance of Civil Service in discharging its duties is quite below expectation even after many reforms and restructuring had been carried out. The work identified and discussed what needs to be done for optimum performance of the Civil Service in Nigeria. It examined human and environmental factors that hindered Nigeria Civil Service from realization of its intended goals. The work is of the view that the attainment of optimum performance by the Civil Service in Nigeria is predicated upon the level of commitment and fidelity by the leading operator of the service. The work relied on secondary source and observation to gather the data that were used in this work. The work recommended among others that for Nigerian Civil Service to attain optimum performance there must be vigorous and sustained campaign to make propriety the prime mood of the nation’s culture.
Assessing Free Education of Public Secondary Schools for Sustainable National Development in Nigeria (Published)
Education is inevitable tool for sustainable development and economic development is the desire of all nations of the world but how to attain a sustainable development remains a challenge to many nations. This paper examined free education and its adaption for sustainable national development in Nigeria. Education is a social service, which is meant to eradicate illiteracy, ensures comfortable living of the citizens as well as the development of the country, it should be provided free for all. In the course of this paper, information and data were gathered from literature and forty two (42) principals spread across forty two secondary schools in the four (4) Local Government Area of Umuahia Education Zone to describe the Concept and support of the arguments raised. The data for the study were collected using an instrument titled “Assessing Free Education for Sustainable Development Questionnaire (AFESDQ). The instrument was validated by three (3) research experts and reliability established using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient with reliability 0.83. Data obtained were analyzed using mean for the research questions while hypothesis formulated was tested at 0.5 level of significance. The relationship between free education and sustainable development were established, the extent of enhancement and factors that facilitate free education were also examined with suggestions including among others, the need to ensure equity and egalitarianism, combat the looming poverty, low manpower/ literacy level and provision of scholarships, bursaries to students and adequate funding from government.
This study was carried out to have an overview of the indigenous knowledge of water turtle sold in Edo state, using twelve major markets (Uselu, New Benin, Uwa, Oba, Yanga, Osa, Oka, Oregbeni, Oliha, Uwelu, Ogida, and New markets) in Benin City the state capital as the sampling centre. Useful investigations were initiated through oral interview and focus group discussions with certain determinative parameters in mind. These include among others, handling – holding methods, feeding stuff, slaughtering methods, and years of turtle trade, price indices and socio-cultural indices. There were three methods by which turtle were slaughtered of which putting in boiling/boiled water was the simplest and fastest. The price indices showed that turtles were sold for as low as N500 ($2.00) and as high as N4000 – N 5000 ($13.3 – $17.00) based on their size. Results showed that turtle sales started more than 30 years ago in the City, the socio-cultural indices revealed that turtle was used mostly for spiritual purposes, while the meat was a delicacy among people that eat this meat. With adequate management regime in place, the possibility of successfully domesticating them in this environment is high as any food consumed by man were popular feedstuffs used in feeding turtle during their holding period; in addition to different fruits like pawpaw, banana, mango and pineapple commonly available being used. The study has thus shown that socio culturally the people of the state have nothing against water turtle consumption, making it an animal protein source to be expected for the citizenry under domestication to make it readily available. The pricing of turtle could also become standardized if there is a steady supply from culture as this will in turn reduce the pressures currently placed on wild species.
The Relationship between Types of Misconceptions and Achievement in Genetics among Senior Secondary School Biology Students in Jos North LGA of Plateau State (Published)
This research work was aimed at finding out the relationship between types of misconceptions and achievement in genetics among senior secondary schools biology students’ in Jos-North Local Government Area of Plateau State. Correlation research as well as survey research designs were employed for this study. Three research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The research was analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, mean and standard deviation while the hypothesis was analyzed using Pearson’s r. The population of the study consisted of randomly selected biology teachers and students’ of Government Senior Secondary Schools in the area of study. Thus, a total of two hundred and ten (210) respondents’ were used. Two hundred students and ten teachers drown from ten schools served as sample for the study. Three instruments were used for data collection. Achievement Test in Genetics (ATG), Questionnaire on Types of Misconceptions (QTM) and Biology Teachers’ Questionnaire on Students’ Causes of Misconceptions in Genetics. Major findings from this research work revealed that, there is poor trend of students’ academic achievement in genetics test, students’ held vary form of misconceptions in genetics concepts and the most prevalent misconception found among the students’ was the vernacular misconception, abstractness (AC), was the major reason for students’ causes of misconceptions, and there is perfect negative relationship between students types of misconceptions and their achievement. Recommendations were made based on these findings. Some of these recommendations are; effective and evidence-informed pedagogic practices are clearly needed by all teachers, and students, to identify, overcome and eliminate misconceptions in the acquisition of accurate scientific knowledge, to promote effective and meaningful learning, teachers’ need to identify the causes of such misconceptions and find ways to rectify them. The Government on her part should brace up to her responsibility of providing adequate teaching aids and instructional materials to all her schools, which must be equally use by the biology teachers to stimulate students in learning genetics.
We ascertain the effects of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption on the audit fees payable by listed Deposit Money Banks (DMB) in Nigeria. Data for the study was collected from the annual reports of the 15 listed DMBs in Nigeria. The study period spanned two accounting standard regimes: the Nigerian Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS) (2009- 2011) and the IFRS (2012-2014). We analysed the effect of IFRS adoption on audit fees in Nigeria in two ways: first we compared audit fees and the known determinants (audit task complexity and reporting quality) under the two standards regimes using a paired-sample t-test. Second, we employed multivariate analysis to examine and explain the combined effect of audit task complexity, financial reporting quality and IFRS in explaining the change in audit fee following IFRS adoption. We found that audit fees are significantly higher under the IFRS than under the SAS; we also found that IFRS adoption has significantly increased audit complexity and improved financial reporting quality. We conclude that less than 50% of the significant increase in audit fees following IFRS adoption is explained by IFRS task complexities. We recommend further research to ascertain the other factors that could have led to the significant increase in audit fees of DMBs. Lastly, given that the quality of financial reporting increased with IFRS adoption recommend that accountants, regulatory authorities, professional bodies and all other parties in financial reporting chain should deepen their knowledge of IFRS.
Effect of Relationship Marketing and Relationship Marketing Programs on Customer Loyalty (Published)
This study examines the relationship between relationship quality and customer loyalty. Specifically, the study seeks to investigate the influence of customer trust, satisfaction and commitment on loyalty and to ascertain the effect of the relationship marketing program adopted by pension firms on customer loyalty. Regression analysis is used to test the model based on data obtained from a sample of 354 customers of pension service firms from Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Anambra state. The results provide evidence to support the effect of customer trust and satisfaction on customer loyalty. The contribution of commitment to the model is not supported. Additionally, support was found for the effect of relationship marketing program on loyalty. Firms may consider building relationship with customers by engendering a feeling of trust; invest in customer satisfaction and recruit and train socially, and service oriented frontline employees to create strong ties with customers.
This study examined the relationship between revenue generation and economic growth in Nigeria during the 45-year period, 1971 to 2015. This period heralded the sweet side of global energy crisis that precipitated the petrodollar windfall following steep rise in crude oil prices and the sour side that saw the economy shrink as a result of downward spiral of or crash in global energy prices and/or decline in oil production (slump non-oil boom). Using the ANCOVA model, the study expressed the change in growth rate of GDP as a function of various dimensions of tax, chiefly, change in period lag values of value added tax, personal income tax, company income tax, petroleum profit tax and custom and excise duties with a dummy variable that captures the contribution of oil revenue windfall. The results showed no significant difference in average changes in economic growth between the oil boom and oil slump periods. This suggests that Nigeria’s petrodollar windfall had no significantly stimulating effect on the country’s growth and development trajectory during the 45 years. The findings of this study adumbrate the anecdotal evidence of poor resource governance architecture that has characterized not just Nigeria’s petroleum industry but also the country’s macroeconomic management. The resonance with, and the attendant lesson from, the Dutch Disease Syndrome sequel to the country’s historicity of mismanagement of resources including the petro-dollar windfalls, is the major policy implication of this study
Housing has been universally recognized as one of the most essential necessities of humans and is a major economic asset in every nation. Adequate housing provides the foundation for stable communities and social inclusion. There is a significant association between housing conditions and physical and mental health of an individual. People’s right to shelter is thus a basic one and the provision of decent housing to all requiring it should be the hallmark of every civilized society and one of the criteria for assessing the extent of a nation’s development. However, the provision of adequate housing in Nigeria and other developing nations alike still remains one of the most intractable challenges facing the nations. Previous attempts by all stakeholders, including government agencies, planners and developers to provide necessary recipe for solving the housing problem have yielded little or no success. Fund, a basic ingredient for housing development, has to be made easily accessible to investors in housing development if the problem of housing delivery is to be tackled at the root. This paper therefore exposes the various sources of funds available to private housing developers which can be harnessed to enhance housing supply in Nigeria.
Domestic violence essentially denies women’s equality before the law and reinforces their subordinate social status. The fight against domestic violence against women has existed for centuries yet persists all over the world. This study therefore investigates domestic violence against women as a form of poverty and uses the principal component analysis and the Foster Greer and Theorberke (FGT) decomposition methods to analyse this. The study further uses bar charts to show the perception of Nigerians towards domestic violence and relates it to different poverty levels. The findings suggest that the Southern regions are more involved in domestic violence than the Northern region of Nigeria. Also when examined across poverty levels, the results shows that the poorer an individual is in Nigeria, the more likely he is to think that it is justified if he beats the wife for one reason or another. The study therefore recommends more sensitization campaigns to target the poor
Exploring the Extent of Press Freedom in Nigeria (Published)
Press freedom has become one of the major challenges of Journalism practice in the world. This paper explores the factors militating against press freedom in Nigeria using some relevant examples. The researcher used the qualitative method of research using secondary data comprising of books, journals and other scholars opinion for the discuss and analysis. The study is embedded on two theories out of the normative theories i.e the authoritarian and social responsibility theory. The study reveals that there are a lot of factors in Nigeria that impedes or militates against press freedom ranging from secrecy, legal pressure, direct censorship and force among others. Findings also reveal that Nigerian press freedom is a paradox and only exist on paper i.e. on constitution but not in practice. The research recommends that since press freedom is granted in the constitution of Nigeria, there should be statutory backup and in order not to hinder press freedom, journalist should be allowed to have access to government sources and records so long as it will not bring chaos to the society at large.
This article explores the effect of culture on women’s career progression in Nigeria and how Nigerian organisations can incorporate some of the issues raised here in addressing their need for talent. It leaves one with the question- How does the Nigerian culture influence women in the society which in turn becomes a barrier that limits women in the workplace? It is necessary to say that though there is awareness of this inequality of women who work in Nigeria, understanding the Nigerian culture can place its human resource management practices in context. It is expected that the viewpoints raised in this article will help highlight some of the Human resource management issues in Africa’s most populous country. Taking these issues in context can play a role in increasing the productivity of women in Nigeria. This is paper is aimed at exploring culture which is a barrier to the career progress of women in Nigeria.
Employee Job Satisfaction in Nigerian Tertiary Institution: A comparative study of Academic Staff in Public and Private Universities (Published)
The paper examines the difference that exists in the level of job satisfaction between academic staff in private and public tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Centred on detailed review of literature, the hypothesis formulated for research is whether academic staff in public universities are more satisfied with their jobs compared to academic staff in private universities. The variables with which job satisfaction was measured are recognition, pay and working condition. The sample of the study comprise 120 academic staff – 88 members of staff from a public university and 32 academic staff from a private university within Kwara state, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used as the instrument with which primary data was collected. Independent ‘’t’’ test was performed to obtain the difference in job satisfaction between both sectors of tertiary institution. Also, oral interviews were arbitrarily conducted with 8 academic staff from both universities. The findings of the research indicate that a significant difference in job satisfaction exists between academic staff in private and public universities in Nigeria. The result also showed the following: 1. Academic staff in private universities have better working conditions 2. Academic staff in public universities have better payment package 3. Academic staff in private universities are more recognised for their job. Recommendations were offered by researcher to cater for the short-falls identified from the dichotomy in job satisfaction from both sectors 1. private-public interaction 2.To enhance job satisfaction of academic staff in private universities, Government should formulate policies that will cater for other incentives, such as enjoyed by academic staff in public universities.
Correlates of Dyscalculia and Learning Outcome in Mathematics among SSII Students in Obudu, Cross River State-Nigeria (Published)
Dyscalculia brings about different types of learning disorder which affects individuals (students) at various levels of learning. It enables the students, educators and guidance to determine inabilities, phobia, anxiety and develop compensatory mechanism for under developed areas. This paper deals with correlates of dyscalculia and learning outcome in Mathematics among SSII students in Obudu, C.R.S- Nigeria. Types of dyscalculia like; sequential, verbal, practognostic and operational dyscalculia are discussed. Tips on how to reduce dyscalculia are listed in the work. The survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample of 200 students was randomly drawn for the study. Data generated were subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson product moment correlation analysis at 0.05 level of significant. Results obtained show among others that dyscalculia significantly correlates with students learning in mathematics. Based on this it was recommended among others that students should engage in practice, extra-time, graphicalized their work and evaluate their work.
Organisational Commitment and Job Involvement among Casual Workers: The Role of Organisational Justice (Published)
The study investigated the role of organisational justice, age and gender on organisational commitment and job involvement among casual workers from two oil servicing companies in Omoku, Rivers State, Nigeria. The convenience sampling technique was used to select 399 participants made up of 251 males and 148 females. Participants’ ages ranged between 24-52 years (M = 37.94, SD = 7.35). The design adopted was cross-sectional survey design while the One-Way Multivariate Analysis of Variance was utilized to analyze data collected. The findings showed that casual workers who reported the presence of organisational justice had higher levels of commitment and were more involved in their jobs. However, age and gender showed no significant influences on organisational commitment and job involvement among casual workers. The study reaffirmed the need for managers in organisations to infuse policies geared towards enhancing organisational justice in their work places as this could improve work commitment and job involvement.
Le terme “politique” dans l’expression politique linguistique nous informe que dans ce domaine il ya des décisions politiques prises en vue de régler des problèmes linguistiques dans un espace donné. On peut citer des problèmes comme le statut des langues dans le cadre national, le corpus de langue, l’enseignement et la didactique des langues à l’école. Lorsqu’on élabore une politique linguistique, on vise à intervenir dans le devenir d’une langue ou des langues utilisées dans un certain pays ou une certaine région. Il peut s’agit de promouvoir une langue en lui donnant un statut officiel, ou encourager la complémentarité entre deux langues officielles, etc. La politique linguistique idéale est difficile à formuler, mais ce qui est à chercher c’est une solution consensuelle qui garantirait au mieux le développement individuel et collectif d’une ou des langues. Il ne s’agit pas à sauver toutes des langues au sein d’un Etat mais de promouvoir les langues qui favorisent l’accès à la modernité et à la mondialisation. En considérant la position sociopolitique du Nigeria par rapport à ses voisins francophones, sa position primordiale dans la sous-région, particulièrement au sein de la CEDEAO, et face aux défis de la mondialisation, on constate que la politique linguistique nigériane a négligé l’importance du français comme langue de grande communication de la sous-région. Nos propositions concernant la politique linguistique de la langue française visent à donner des suggestions qui pourront aboutir à la formulation des décisions concrètes par le gouvernement nigérian.
The New Trends In Government- Labour Relations In The Downstream Of The Oil And Gas Industry In Nigerian Fourth Republic (Published)
Government -Labour relations particularly in the downstream of the oil and gas industry in Nigeria has not been short of conflicts. In the time past, the conflicts were largely between employers and employees. However, since the Fourth Republic a new trend has emerged that involves state governments and labour union in the industry. It must be said that the conflicts were a product of the reaction of the union against social, economic and political policies of the government. This new trend is best demonstrated in Lagos state, where the attempt by the state government to manage traffic led to clashes of interest between the state government and member of the National Union of Petroleum and Natural Gas Workers (NUPENG). The work examines the nature of conflict between Lagos state government and National of Union of Petroleum and Natural Gas Workers. The work discussed the nature of the conflict, elaborated on the institutional process for industrial conflict resolution, explored how the conflict was managed, examined the role of bad governance in the conflict, discussed the impact and implication of the conflict and offers suggestion on how to improve conflict management in this particular case and in general. The work interviewed relevant authorities and individuals in the conflict: the officials of the Lagos state ministry of transport and its agency- the Lagos state transport management authority (LASTMA) and their counter part in NUPENG. Publications such as a newspapers, journals and books were also consulted. The collected data from the respondents and publications were analysed descriptively. The work argues that bad governance is the root of the conflict as successive government abandoned the infrastructural need of the nation in the sector which culminated in the dependency on imported refined crude oil products. This created it own problem of managing traffic as the major importation outlet is in Lagos and there is lack of parking lots to accommodate the inflows of unprecedented tanker vehicles. The work further argues that, the attitude of members of NUPENG also contributed to the conflict. Also, lack of communication which brews mistrust, lack of confidence and end up in conflict played a part