Comparative Analysis of the Training Needs and Job Performance Constraints among Block Extension Supervisors in Abia and Akwaibom States, Nigeria (Published)
Comparative analysis of the training needs and job performance constraints among block extension supervisors in Abia and Akwa Ibom states was studied. Primary and secondary data were collected with structured questionnaire from 28 BESs drawn from Abia and Akwa Ibom states. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, means and t-test were employed in data analysis. Result shows that BESs in Abia and Akwa Ibom states had highest need for training in control of ecto-parasite (X= 3.93) and endo-parasite (X= 4.29) respectively. In fishery practices, Abia and Akwa Ibom states BESs had greatest need for training in fish pond construction (X = 3.71) and site selection for pond. In extension message delivery, Abia and Akwa Ibom states BESs had highest training needs in reporting farming/field problems, identification of new farmers (X=4.93) for each practice and coordination of farmers meeting (X=4.64) among others. In soil science, Abia and Akwa Ibom states BESs had highest training needs in fertilizer application methods (X= 4.93) and (X= 4.57). In Agroforestry, the BESs in Abia and Akwa Ibom states had highest need for training in establishment of snail farm (X= 4.21) and (X= 3.93). In agronomic practices, Abia and Akwa Ibom states BESs had highest need for training in site selection for crops land preparation, planting technique and fertilizer application (X= 4.79) and (X= 4.64). The major problems facing the BESs were poor input backup, lack of tangible facility for movement on the field, irregular supply of OFAR and SPAT inputs e.tc for Abia and Akwa Ibom states. Recruitment of more EAs and constant in-service training were recommended among others.
Infrastructural constraints in Nigeria militate against efficient performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) and adversely affect industrial growth in the country. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship that exists between manufacturing SMEs production and industrial growth in Nigeria. Secondary data were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics publications for the period 2002-2016, and regression analysis was used in analysing the data. Findings of the study revealed that manufacturing SMEs production has a statistical significant relationship with industrial growth in Nigeria. This implies that manufacturing SMEs are capable of accelerating industrial growth through their contributions to the economy. The study, however, advocates more government intervention of facilitating access to concessional funds to SMEs to trigger SMEs sustainable growth and industrial growth in Nigeria.
Economic Analysis of Terrorism in Nigeria (Published)
The different agitations and goals of the perpetrators of terrorism in Nigeria seem to define the root causes of terrorism in Nigeria. This study provides an in-depth economic analysis of terrorism in Nigeria, it linked terrorists costs-benefits matrices (as incentive to violence) to the root causes of terrorism such as; economic deprivation, socio-economic conditions, and population group with different identities. The effects of terrorism on Nigeria progress accounts for the dislocation and distortions of both industry and education in the affected parts of the country (this has also re-enforced terrorists activities). The study recommended among others that counter-terrorism measures must therefore take into account these root causes of terrorism in Nigeria with the view of making the price of terrorism and the opportunity costs of terrorism very high, so as to reduce the incentive to terrorists activities in Nigeria.
Analysis of Interest Rate Determination and Its Effect on Economic Growth in Nigeria (1990-2017) (Published)
The study examined the analysis of interest rate determination and its effect on economic growth in Nigeria; for the period 1990-2017. Secondary data were used and sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study employed Gross Domestic Product as proxy for Economic Growth and used as the dependent variable; whereas, prime lending rate (interest rate), inflation and private domestic investment were used as explanatory variables to measure interest rate. Hypotheses were formulated and tested using Ordinary Least Square econometrics models. Private domestic investment had a significant effect on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Inflation had an insignificant effect on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Interest rate had an inverse significant effect on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. The coefficient of determination indicates that about 65% of the variations in economic growth can be explained by changes in commercial bank lending variables in Nigeria. The study concluded that interest rate had an insignificant effect on economic growth in Nigeria. The study recommended that Government and policy makers should focus on maintaining inflation at a low rate (single digit) and ensure that the rate is stable; this will take care of the problem of inflation on the economy. CBN should increase their surveillance on the commercial banks; in order to address the issue of arbitrarily increase of the lending rate. Government should provide healthy environment for the banks in the industry so as to render efficient financial services to the economy.
National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)
Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them. Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.
Global Development Agenda, Poverty Crisis and the Challenge of Structural Distortion in African Development Paradigm: A Case Study of Nigeria (Published)
African has continued to embrace Global development frameworks particularly the erstwhile Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the on-going Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) initiatives with high expectations because of the critical problems of excruciating poverty, underdevelopment and her seemingly capacity to impact key development super-structure towards desirable growth and sustainable development. She agreed to the on-going SDGs initiatives with the hope that things will eventually turn around. The study critically examines the effects of global a development agenda on African development crisis against the backdrops of high expectations. The study observes that African developing countries are worse off after international development intervention. It further observes that development interventionists’ initiatives have not been able to stem the tide of African underdevelopment crisis due to structural deficiencies in African development matrix. With the results of development performances in Nigeria based on key indices, the study concludes that the level of poverty remain excruciating thereby bringing about the challenge of designing and nurturing new development paradigm that emphasizes removing inherent African structural deficiency in development matrix as we voyage into the new SDGs
Outcome of Prayer: A Study of Children in Selected Denominations in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)
Prayer has been assumed to cause different effects on the life of the praying individual. On one side, prayer could imply on the emotional status, individual growth and the on the personal needs of the individual among others. On the other side, it may cause depression and unhappiness especially when the desired response did not happen. This study was set out to investigate whether the above argument applies to the lives of younger and older children of ages 7-8 and 11-12 respectively in four selected churches in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted phenomenological qualitative design with Semi-structured interviews and conversations, uncompleted sentences, picture projection and letter writing to God as methods for collecting data. The raw data was gathered, transcribed, coded, classified and re-classified until meaningful patterns and themes emerged after which they were analysed with the help of NVivo. 11 Pro. This study discovered that the effects of the children’s prayer are directly related to their reasons for praying; that as they pray, children experience a deep relationship with God, dialogue with Him verbally and non-verbally, and act upon instructions they believe come from God. It was revealed that children’s emotions and feelings are affected negatively or positively based on the stage of development as discussed in Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development that formed the foundation for this study.
The Effect of Librarians’ Knowledge and Funding on Preservation and Conservation Practices in Public University Libraries in Nigeria (Published)
Librarians down the ages have been charged with the responsibility of managing information resources and the library users. One of the management practices in the library is preservation and conservation of library resources which is aimed at ensuring the longevity of the library resources. This is a critical concern at this period of dwindling budgetary allocation to public universities where subtle fund is release to the library for the purchase of resources and therefore little or no chance should be given to deterioration. This study therefore investigates some of the key preservation and conservation practices in public universities in Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A purposive sampling technique was used to select 183 respondents. Questionnaire was used for data collection and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The finding revealed that the knowledge level shown by librarians towards the preservation and conservation of information materials was relatively high and the level of training for staff and funding of conservation and preservation practices in the selected university libraries has improved greatly when compared with previous studies of conservation and preservation. The study recommends that the library management should maintain and improve on the pace of funding and training of staff on preservation and conservation practices in public university in Nigeria.
This study explored maintenance culture in academic libraries of universities in south west, Nigeria by taking a cursory look at Lagos State University Library, Ekiti State University Library, Ado – Ekiti and Olusegun Oke Library of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso as case studies. Related literatures were reviewed on sub heading that concerns the subject matter. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Fifty (50) questionnaires were distributed to each of the university library sampled for the study making a total of One Hundred and Fifty questionnaires (150) in all. Out of this One – Hundred and Twenty Eight (128) were returned valid. Four point Lickert scale was used to elicit responses and data collected analysed using frequency count and percentages (%). The findings of the research work indicated some causes of deterioration of library materials in south west Nigeria which are characterized by high temperature and humidity, natural ageing, mutilation by users, insect activities among others. Some of the maintenance practices identified in the course of the work as being practiced were careful removal of documents from shelves, binding of torn books, fumigation, photocopying, digitization, mounting of securities to check delinquencies among others. It was revealed that there were lack of constant training and retraining for staff on preservation, no preservation policies, inadequate funding, lack of functional library equipments for preservation and conservation among others. Based on the findings, the study recommended the following: working policies should be formulated on maintenance, training should be organized, open communication should be established between library management and university community, equipment on preservation and conservation of library materials should be procured.
The study investigated determinants of use of e-wallet scheme among farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. It specifically identified the farmers’ sources of information on e-wallet, determined the inputs supplied through e-wallet, ascertained the farmers’ perceived effects of e-wallet and determined constraints to the use of e-wallet. Data were collected from a sample of 240 farmers with the aid of structure questionnaire and were analyzed using mean statistic, percentages and bar chart. The hypothesis was tested using ordinary least square regression analysis. Results showed that radio (100%), mobile phones (100%) and newspapers (66.7%) were the major sources of information on e-wallet; inputs supplied through e-wallet included fertilizers (X = 2.9), maize seeds (X = 2.5), cassava cuttings (X = 2.3), fingerlings (X = 2.1) and agrochemicals (X = 2.0); perceived effects of use of e-wallet included increased income (90.00%), exposure to more agricultural enterprises (85.00%), increase productivity (85.42%) and timely access to inputs (64.56%). It was further revealed that high cost of inputs (89.58%), poor transportation network (87.50%) and bureaucratic bottlenecks were the major constraints facing the scheme. It was recommended that innovative strategies for financing agricultural projects be introduced so that farmers could afford required quantities of inputs. Also, the input distribution system should be decentralized to reduce bureaucratic bottlenecks.
The Impact of Social Networking on Academic Performance in Mathematics in Selected Secondary Schools in Edo State (Published)
This study was aimed at investigating the impact of social networking on the academic performance of secondary school students in mathematics using selected secondary schools in Edo State. The study was necessitated by the relative new culture of communication and connecting with friends via the internet in this part of the world. The work also seeks to find out what motivate students to study mathematics. The study adopted descriptive research design; simple random sampling procedure was used to select ten public and private secondary schools out of the lot in the area. The research instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. The data obtained from respondents were analyzed using simple percentage and the results were briefly discussed. The findings revealed that students disposition towards their teacher (mathematics teacher in this case) and their intended career can motivate them to study mathematics; students have access to phones, computers and other communication devices and the internet. Majority of the respondents indicate that social networking do not have negative effect on their study habits. It was recommended that students should be enlightened on the academic advantage in social networks and guided to avoid been distracted from their studies.
Batch Studies for the Investigation of the Adsorption of Lead onto Bentonite and Soil of Owerri, Nigeria. (Published)
Variability in lead adsorption by soil and bentonite was analyzed and results indicated that adsorption of lead increased as volume of Pb2+ solution increased. At 25ml adsorption capacity of bentonite and soil were 2494.19mg/kg and 2372.89mg/kg respectively. Maximum adsorption was observed at 100ml of Pb2+ in both soil and bentonite which were 9031.75mg/kg and 9935.75mg/kg respectively. At all volumes of Pb2+ solution, a significant positive correlation at (p≤0.05 and p≤0.01) probability levels were observed between clay, pH, CEC and organic matter content and adsorption capacity in soil and bentonite. While sand and silt content correlated negatively. Clay, sand, pH, CEC and organic matter content, were indicated to be the vital properties controlling adsorption in soil and bentonite. Bentonite and soil adsorption data were analyzed with both freudlich and langmiur adsorption isotherm, freudlich isotherm showed a better fitting of the adsorption data in both soil and bentonite with correlation factor (R2>0.9).
There continue to be gaps in existing knowledge regarding evidence-based ethical challenges and ways of coping among clinical psychologist involved in research. A 17-item scale for assessing Ethical Challenges in Clinical Psychology Research Scale (ECCPRS) was developed; and ethical issues faced by clinical psychologists in conducting research as well as ways of coping was investigated. The cross-sectional survey included 45 male and 39 females, using purposive and convenience sampling. The ECCPRS (α=.89) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (α=.61) was used for data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in analysis. Factor analysis showed that the scale had good sampling adequacy with a significant sphericity, with the single factor accounting for 40.5% of the variations. Confidentiality and informed consent issues were the most frequently reported ethical challenges. Planful problem-solving ranked highest while escape-avoidance ranked lowest. The ECCPRS is useful for assessing ethical issues encountered in conducting research.
Video Documentary Training in Agricultural Extension in the 21st Century: A Qualitative Assessment of Cassava Farmers in South-West Nigeria (Published)
Video documentaries are means of communication adopted by several sectors including agriculture to pass useful and required information to respective audiences. It has become one of the major tools utilized by extension agents as instructional materials for agricultural educational purposes in major parts of the world. In Nigeria, agricultural programmes are packaged by extension agents in collaboration with some media houses and broadcast at certain times which may not be convenient to watch, understand, and later referred to. This study therefore assessed the effectiveness of video documentary as training tool for farmers in south-west Nigeria. Methodologically, the qualitative approach was adopted as farmers were trained with the aid of a video documentary as instructional material and were assessed before and after the trainings provided with structured interview guides to gather the data required. The findings showed that video documentaries are effective training tools that aid understanding and retention of information shared even after several weeks of the training. Conventional extension practice is enjoined to embrace video documentaries as instructional training tools to facilitate and enhance farmer’s agricultural learning.
Impact of Safety Management Strategy on the Performance of Employees in Ashakacem Plc, Nafada-Bajoga, Gombe State-Nigeria (Published)
This study examines the impact of safety management strategy on the performance of employees in Ashakacem PLC. The main objective is to determine how safety management strategy of Ashakacem impact on employee’s performance. The study employs the use of both primary and secondary sources of data from different cadres of employees (managers, middle level, low level) and contract staff including distributors and customers of the company. The data were analyzed using Simple Percentages and Chi-square to test the formulated hypotheses which reveals that, “effective safety management strategy impact positively on the performance of employees”, particularly in the areas of the provisions of personal protective safety equipment and enforcement of safety laws such as the provision of fire extinguishers, first aid facilities, hand gloves, mouth and Norse guard, dielectric safety boot and thermal socks, head gear kits, dielectric hard hat, high and medium energy goggle, Lab Coat etc. These have the most significant impact on employee’s performance while the establishment of factory Clinic for staff and seminar/safety talks and enforcement of ground safety rules has the least impact. Some recommendations were made; among which is the need for effective monitoring and evaluation of all safety measures in line with the ground safety rules to ensure safe and healthy working environment for effective performance. The study concludes that the company’s protective wears are of certified international standards made to be comfortable-to-wear, permanently flame-resistant and arc-rated material protecting workers against the thermal effects of both electrical arc flash and toxic materials arising from the factory production processes and procedures which is dependent on company’s strategic safety management policy and formation combined with excellent decision-making exercise that help in reducing employee’s risks conditions to the barest minimum level.
Emotional Intelligence and Self-Management Training Programs in Reducing Peer Victimization among Nigerian Adolescents: Interaction Effects of Locus of Control and Gender (Published)
Peer victimization among adolescents especially the school-going adolescents is a growing concern in Nigeria. Initiatives by policy-makers, educationists and school authorities, among others have not yielded the desired results as youth involvement in organized armed crime has been on the increase. This study investigated the effect of self-management and emotional intelligence training programs in reducing peer victimization among Nigerian adolescents. A quasi experimental pretest, post-test, control group research design of 3x2x2 factorial matrix type was used for this study while gender (male and female) and locus of control (internal and external) used as moderating variables. The study participants were one hundred and eighty (180) Senior Secondary 2 students selected from 3 coeducational secondary schools in Remo educational block of Ogun State, Nigeria. One standardized instrument was used in collecting data while analysis of covariance was used to analyze the generated data. Results show that self-management and emotional intelligence training programs were effective in reducing peer victimization but self-management was found to be more effective. The study also revealed that only locus of control of participants combined to interact with the treatment in reducing peer victimization among the participants. Results showed that participants with internal locos of control benefit more from self-management and emotional intelligence training. It was concluded that participants’ peer relationship skills improved significantly as a result of the treatment. The findings have effectively demonstrated that the treatment packages could be used as veritable tools in equipping adolescents with necessary skills that can be used to expedite some kinds of cognitive processes in our youths such as decision-making, problem-solving, self-control, and therefore bringing about peaceful co-existence among the people.
Comparative Effects of Poultry Manure and NPK Rates on Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) Production in Rivers State, Southern Rainforest, Nigeria (Published)
A 2 x 4 x 3 rain fed factorial experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design, was carried out to compare the effects of poultry manure [PM] with N.P.K. (15:15:15) rates on sunflower in rivers state, southern rainforest of Nigeria. PM and NPK rates were 0, 5, 10, and 20g per seedling per pot. Data collected were plant height [at; 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks after planting (WAP)]; number of leaves, leaf area (LA) at 6 WAP; head diameter, head weight, number of seeds per head and seed weight at harvest. Results show that NPK initially produced taller plants but PM increased growth rate with time over NPK. PM at 5, 10 and 20 g produced taller sunflower plants at 10 WAP over NPK rates. There was no significant difference in the number of leaves between plants that received PM and NPK, though NPK influenced higher LA. Head diameter, head weight and seed weight increased with doses of both fertilizers, 20 g PM produced sunflower plants with the widest diameter and weightiest seeds. While number of seeds increased with PM rates, the highest number of seeds with NPK application was at 5 g application. This was still lower than the highest number of seeds produced by sunflower plants fertilized with 20 g PM. Application of 20 g PM produced plants with highest growth rate, wider head diameter, highest number and seed weight. Twenty (20 g) PM application rate per seedling is recommended for Sunflower production in southern rainforest, Nigeria. A further study on higher PM levels is also recommended.
Every social action is perceived as a joint undertaking of’ people in their social settings to improve their living conditions in various communities in the society. Social development as an educational process stimulates consciousness among people in order to be aware of their capabilities to address prevailing situations and realities in various participating communities. Social development as a concept is used to stimulate awareness in people for the ultimate purpose of understanding their social realities ant their potentialities to promote development that will improve their living conditions in their various communities. The paper identified conscientisation strategy, communication strategy and group action strategy as strategies of social development in stimulating community development. Based on the issues discussed appropriate recommendations are made which include the urgent need to ensure that adequate information is made available to people through the instrumentality of conscientisation and communication as well as that social development should be driven by common vision and interest of the people of participating communities in Nigeria.
The Effects of Modern Technology on the Production of Embroidered Clothing in South-Western Nigeria (Published)
Research into embroidery practices in the South-Western Nigeria seems to be few and some of the studies on embroidery production on textile garments look superficial and on the peripheral level. Today, embroidery through machine has completely revolutionized the demand for embroidery designed products such as clothing and fashion accessories both locally and internationally. The invention of machine-tailored embroidery has made it possible to produce a wide range of design However, the modern technology has brought about better but more sophisticated tools and machines to help solve problems. Technology had continued to influence every sphere of endeavour of which the field of fashion and embroidery production in particular is not an exceptions. The effects of modern technology on the production of embroidery are assessed in this paper. The paper concludes and discovered that, majority of the embroiderers are not vast in the computer aided design, which producers use to make diverse designs on various items aside wearable apparel. Even those that use machines to make designs, still find it difficult to use the computer aided design (CAD) which is reigning in the fashion world today
Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni And Co Contents of Water and Sediments, in Relation to Phytoremediation and Translocation by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes Mart. Solms.) At Some Creeks of the Great Kwa River, Southeastern Nigeria (Published)
A passive phytoremediation study to investigate the environmental purification efficacy of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was carried out at Mbat-Abiati and Oberekkai Creeks of the Great Kwa River in Southeastern Nigeria. The study assessed the levels of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co in the water column and underlying sediments (abiotic monitors) in comparison with their levels in E. crassipes (biomonitor). Generally, observed values of heavy metals in sediment and water hyacinth of the two Creeks did not vary significantly (p>0.05), and the sequence that was frequently encountered in the accumulation of the heavy metals was: SEDIMENT>PLANT ROOTS>PLANT LEAVES>WATER. Relative Accumulation Indices (RAI) revealed that the concentration of the heavy metals in the sediments are much higher than values recorded for the waters. This appear normal since sediments are reservoirs for all contaminants and dead organic matter descending from the ecosystem above. The pattern of heavy metal concentrations in the organs of E. crassipes are closely associated with that of its geological substrate (water and sediments). Although zinc displayed the highest accumulation in both root and leaves tissues, and appeared more mobile from roots to leaves than other heavy metal, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) revealed Co as the metal with the highest phytoaccumulation capability in the area, followed by Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn, in that order. Indication from the study is that water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) can effectively absorb and translocate Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co, even when the concentrations of the metals in the abiotic components of the environment is low.