Tag Archives: Nigeria

Personnel’s Perception of Continued Relevance of Shorthand and Typewriting Skills to Office Management in Osun State Owned Tertiary Institutions, Nigeria. (Published)

Shorthand and Typewriting are two major skilled courses in Office Education Programme in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Acquisitions of skills in these two subjects were regarded as trade-in-stock for secretarial practitioners in managing offices. But with the current applications of Information and Communication Technology to manage in offices, the relevance of Typewriting and Shorthand skills became a subject of discourse. The main objective was to determine the continued relevance of the two subject’s skills to office management in Osun State owned tertiary institutions. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Five research questions and five hypotheses were raised for the study. The population comprised 171 executives with their individual secretaries, making 342 participants. The entire population was used as the sample size. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data and descriptive statistics to analyse. The findings among others revealed that Shorthand and Typewriting were still relevant to office management. Based on the findings, it is recommended that secretarial training institutions should intensify efforts towards the training of students in these “twin” subjects.

Keywords: Nigeria, Office Management, Osun State, Shorthand, Tertiary Institutions, Typewriting Skills

Towards A Critical Thinking-Based Curricular and Pedagogical Innovations for Sustaining Democracy in Nigeria (Published)

Democracy, in addition to being a political system is also a way of life that is so admired that it has become a global model. Unfortunately those ingredients and flavour that make democracy the global ideal are terribly lacking in Nigeria, in addition to democracy not having any stronghold in Nigeria. Using the philosophical method, the paper raises sign posts on how critical thinking based curricular and pedagogical innovations can be a relief in reinventing and sustaining democracy in Nigeria. The position of the paper is that there is no substitute to positive thinking and positive thinking especially at the evaluative, insightful and critical thinking levels, can proffer solutions for resolving the pessimism that surrounds democracy in Nigeria. The paper makes recommendations, part of which include developing learners’ curiosity for participation in the democratic processes, the development of learners autonomous moral thinking as well as identifying live problems that threaten democracy and making such the subjects of arguments, dialogues and deliberations

Keywords: Critical thinking, Curriculum, Democracy, Nigeria, Pedagogy

Investigating the Influence of Social Media on Sociability: A Study of University Students in Nigeria (Published)

This article investigates the influence of social media on the university students’ sociability in Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 250 students at BIU and 350 students at DELSU through heterogeneous samples in different faculties and departments of respective institution. The data derived were subjected to descriptive statistics with simple percentage, chi-square test and one-way ANOVA. Findings revealed that age, year of study, family income plays decisive role in respondents’ ability to exploit the benefit of social media utilization for sociability. Further, majority of the respondents were observed to use Facebook as major platform for friendship sociability, with mobile media (feature phone with internet connection and smartphone) as a medium of constructive sociability behaviour and respondents’ friendship size of above 200 demonstrate the strength of respondents’ sociability practice. The study also found that the respondents’ frequency of interaction with friendship groups cut across different time frame with communication relations and socio-pleasure as a means of strategic sociability fulfilment. Future research should focus on why university students use social media for romantic sociability since evidences are emerging on the relations of social media sociability and romantic behaviour of young people.

Keywords: Abraka (DELSU), Benin City (BIU) and Delta State University, Benson Idahosa University, Nigeria, Social media, sociability

Role of Academic Libraries in Accreditation of Courses and Teaching Programs: A Case of Afe Babalola University Library, Ado – Ekiti (Published)

This study focused on the role of academic libraries in accreditation of courses and teaching programs in Nigeria taking a cursory look at Afe Babalola University, Ado – Ekiti (ABUAD) Library. It is worthy of note that no educational institution can perform its tripartite functions of teaching, learning and research without well – equipped library and other facilities. This study therefore analyzed the invaluable contribution of Afe Babalola University, Ado – Ekiti (ABUAD) library in courses accreditation and teaching programmes. The findings indicated that in Afe Babalola University, decentralized library system has enhanced specialized collections that are rich and in-depth for providing access to information in print and electronic media. Also, the systematic organizations of the collections have enhanced accessibility by users. This in turns have enhanced full accreditation of most of the courses that are being offered. Furthermore, the library has assisted in equipping students with the necessary skills needed for effective learning, reading skills, information literacy skills and the provision of relevant up – to – date information materials. Access to collections has also been enhanced through long opening hours including weekends.

 

Keywords: Academic Libraries, Accreditation, Nigeria, teaching programs

Constraints to Participation in Women-in-Agriculture Programme in Aboh Mbaise local government area of Imo State, Nigeria (Published)

The study assessed the participation in women-in-agriculture programme in Aboh Mbaise local government area of Imo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 120 women. Data were collected with a set of structured questionnaire and were analyzed using mean and percentages. Results showed that all the WIA packages were available in the study area and the women participated in all of them. Major constraints to participation in WIA programme were inadequate capital (91.5%) and illiteracy (69.5%). It was recommended that the WIA programme should be sustained and upscaled and that credit facilities should be made available to the women.

 

Keywords: Constraints to participation, Nigeria, women-in-agriculture programme

Empirical Analysis of Tax Revenue Collection by the Federal Government in Nigeria (Published)

The main objective of this study is to analysis tax revenue collection by the Federal government in Nigeria. The study adopted quantitative research design; the secondary data will be obtained from the FIRS in respect of the total tax revenue collected from the oil and non-oil taxes for the period of 2011-2015. The population of the study is made up of Federal Inland Revenue Services and the sample size is Planning, Reporting and Statistics Departments. The findings from the study revealed that Capital Gains Tax, Stamp Duty, Education Tax and Petroleum Profit Tax are positively significant at 1%, 5% and 10% respectively while Company Income Tax and Value Added Tax are not significant.  However, Company income tax has more total collected revenue than all the remaining variables. Therefore, it is recommended that government should enhance the collection of tax revenue processes and ensure that any deviations from compliance with the laid down rules and regulations are severally dealt with and punished accordingly

Keywords: FIRS, Federal government, Nigeria, Tax Revenue, revenue collection

Malaria Prevalence and Drug Management in Pregnant Women Attending Remotely Located Daura General Hospital, North West Nigeria (Published)

Health authorities in Nigeria have for many years promoted national malaria control measures such as the use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs), indoor residual spray of insecticides (IRS), intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for pregnant women and children and the use of artemisinin combined therapy (ACT) as first line of treatment to reduce the prevalence of the disease in the country. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these control measures, there is the need for continued disease monitoring and management across different zones of the country, especially among high risk cohorts such as children and pregnant women at remote locations. A 13 months study (July 2014 to July 2015) was carried out to establish the current prevalence of malaria among female patients attending Daura General Hospital in North West Nigeria, using standard laboratory procedures. Daura is a remotely located town that lies in the semi-arid zone of northern Nigeria at the intersection of roads from Katsina, Kano and Zinder in Niger Republic, with coordinates of 130 2’11’’ North, 80 19’4’’ East and 1,558 feet (474 meters) above sea level. Of the 8413 patients that tested positive for malaria parasite during the period, 1119 (13.30%) were children, 3721 (44.23%) were women, 2609 (30.99%) were men and 966 (11.48%) were the elderly. Among the infected women population, 2105 (56.57%) were pregnant (PGW), while 1616 (43.23%) were non-pregnant (NPW) women, indicating statistical significance in malaria prevalence between the two cohorts (p<0.05). Age related prevalence was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the 11 – 20 years group (32.68%) of the PGW and 21 – 30 years group (44.43%) of the NPW than the 25.89% recorded in the 21 – 30 years group and 21.05 and 20.38% recorded in the 31 – 40 years and 41 – 50 years groups of the PGW respectively. The highest seasonal prevalence rate was recorded during the late rainy season (LRS) months of July to September (10.86% for PGW and 8.83% for NPW) followed by the 7.73% recorded for PGW and 7.24% recorded for NPW during the early dry season (EDS) months of October to December. The lowest rates (5.67 and 5.46% for PGW and 6.50% for NPW) were recorded during the early rainy (ERS, April – June) and late dry season (LDS, January – March) months respectively. Monthly prevalence rates were highest during August (15.63%), September (15.11%) and October (11.26%) for the PGW, while corresponding prevalence figures for these months among the NPW were significantly lower (p<0.05) at 8.29, 9.22 and 7.80% respectively. Major drugs prescribed for the prevention of malaria during the second and third trimesters once foetal quickening is noticed include sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine given monthly, while for cure and treatment during all trimesters quinine SO4, arthessunate, α-β arteate and arthessunate/lumefantrim were prescribed. Analgesics, electrolytes and vitamins were also indicated. Malaria is a major cause of hospital visits  pregnant women especially during the rainy season months, indicating the need to improve advocacy on intervention control measures among these groups in the study area.

 

Keywords: Hospital, Malaria, Nigeria, Pregnant Women, drug management

Cluster Analysis of the Incidences on HIV in Nigeria (Published)

Data clustering is a vital tool when it comes to understanding data items with similar characteristics in a data set for the sake of grouping. Clustering may be for understanding or utility. Clustering for understanding, which is the focus of this work deals with grouping items with common characteristics in order to better understand a dataset and to identify possible or pre-interest sub-groups that could be formed from such data. The HIV prevalence statistics in Nigeria is measured bi-annually across 36 states and FCT which were zoned under 6 geo-political zones happens to be a suitable data to implement this subject matter. Cluster Analysis was implemented through the general methods of Hierarchical (agglomerative nesting) and Partitioning methods (K-Means). These techniques where implemented on the platform of R (Statistical Computing Language) to cluster HIV prevalence rate in Nigeria so as to find out states that could be considered same category and to investigate the concentration of the disease in respect to geo-political zones. Relative type of validation was used for cluster validation (a mechanism for evaluating the correctness of clustering).

Keywords: Clustering analysis, HIV, Nigeria, Pregnant Women, data

Teacher Quantity in Nigeria: What Quality (Published)

This paper focuses attention on Teacher Quality in Nigeria: What Quality? An historical portrait of teacher quantity in Nigeria is undertaken. This presentation gives an insight, into poor quality of prospective teacher trainees, poor quality of teachers of teachers, poor quality of training programmes/curriculum, poor implementation strategies of teacher education programmes, governments and society’s role in poor quality of teachers amongst others

Keywords: Nigeria, Quantity, Teacher

Boosting Achievement Using Individulised And Demonstration Strategies In Biology: How Do Male And Female Students Behave In Nigeria? (Published)

This study determined the effectiveness of demonstration, individualized and conventional methods and Gender on the achievement of Secondary School Two students in biology. The study employed a multi stage sampling techniques; in the first stage, three schools were randomly selected out of the twenty Secondary Schools in Abeokuta South Local Government of the state. At the second stage, sample sizes of sixty students were randomly selected from the list of students and their gender. In the same manner, thirty students were male while the female constitute the same number. The study which lasted six weeks made use of two valid and reliable instruments: Biology Achievement Test (BAT) and Operational guide for instruction (OGI) Stimulus instrument. Students were exposed to different methods (Demonstration and Individualized) while those in the control were not exposed to any treatment but were rather taught in the Convectional way. Data analysis involved the use of Analysis of Covariance, Descriptive Statistics and t-test.The result indicated that the demonstration method is a more potent method of improving achievement in biology. (F (1.167) = 42.838; P < 0.05), (F (1.167) = 486.287; P < 0.05), F (2.167) = 90.389; P < 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant difference in the academic achievement of male and female students when exposed to the two experimental methods and control, hence female students performed better than their male counterparts. Arising from these findings, demonstration method and individualized method where recommended for teachers use in biology classrooms.

Keywords: Achievement, Biology, Demonstration Strategies, Male and Female Student, Nigeria

Hindrances to Microfinancing: A Nigerian Case Study (Published)

Traditionally, commercial banks lend money to large, credit-worthy corporations and avoid doing business with small and medium enterprises due to the associated risks and costs. These small and medium enterprises depend on microfinance banks to obtain loans for their businesses, but for some reasons, some of these businesses do not approach microfinance banks for loans. This research investigates reasons why some businesses do not apply for loans from microfinance banks even though they need funds for the efficient running of their business. Results show that lack of collateral, ignorance of businesses about the existence of microfinance banks, and high interest rates are the main reasons that are hindering businesses in applying for loans from microfinance banks. Microfinance banks need to reach out to economically active poor businesses that cannot obtain loans from commercial banks or other financial institution.

Keywords: Business, Enterprise, Entrepreneur, Loans, Microfinance, Nigeria

Corruption in the Education Industry in Nigeria: Implications for National Development (Published)

This paper sees corruption generally as a condemnable behaviour and particularly identifies corruption in the education industry as a practice that has multiple capabilities for undermining the national development of Nigeria. Corruption in the education industry terribly creates infrastructural deficits that result in poor instructional delivery and making many people not to have access to education which in addition to being a fundamental human right is a spring board for their empowerment and emancipation infrastructural deficits and inability of a people to have access to education systematically renders useless the ability of the people to engineer  national development as generations of citizens are left frustrated, disgruntled and disenchanted in addition to manifesting terrible immorality in the forms of militancy and insurgency. Embrace of militancy and insurgency as a result of lack of access and infrastructure owe their sources to corruption, which disastrously has multiplier effects on the economy and the national development of the Nigerian state: potential human beings who ideally are great assets for the development of Nigeria are lost to actions/activities that are not investor and investment friendly. The paper recommends among other things the teaching of skills that can promote greater transparency and accountability in managing issues in education, stronger and implementable in managing issues in education, stronger and implementable social justice measures for the citizens to developing curricular and pedagogical measures for sensitizing citizens to rise up to kill corruption in Nigeria.

Keywords: Accountability, Corruption, Curriculum, Education, Innovation, National Development, Nigeria, Pedagogy, Transparency

Effect of Petroleum Profit Tax on Economic Growth in Nigeria (Published)

The study examines the effect of petroleum profit tax on economic growth of Nigeria. Income from petroleum taxes is the proxy for PPT while economic growth was measured using Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The research adopted expos-facto research as secondary data were used for the analysis. Data were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and the Federal Statistical Bureau. The study covered twelve year period (2004-2015). Time series data were analyzed using the simple linear regression.  The results reveals that  PPT had positive and significant effect on Nigerian GDP. The study recommends that the government should provide the necessary human and material infrastructures that are needed to support petroleum business so they can earn more income that will boost taxation.

Keywords: Gross Domestic Product, Nigeria, Petroleum Profit Tax, economic growth

Effect of Sustainability Accounting and Reporting on Financial Performance of Firms in Nigeria Brewery Sector (Published)

This paper evaluates the effect of sustainability accounting on the financial performance of listed manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Firms used for the study were chosen from the Nigerian brewery sector. Data were sourced from the financial statements of three sampled firms. Data were analysed using the ordinary linear regression.  The study reveals that sustainability reporting has   positive and significant effect on financial performance of firms studied. Following the findings, the study recommends that firms in Nigeria should invest reasonable amount of their earnings on sustainability activities while specific accounting templates be articulated by professional accounting regulating bodies to guide firms’ reportage on sustainability activities. The Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRC) and others alike should make sustainability reporting compulsory while adequate sanctions are spelt out and enforced on defaulting organizations to serve as a deterrent

Keywords: Financial Performance, Nigeria, Return on Assets, Return on Equity, sustainability accounting

Corporate Governance and Audit Quality in Nigeria: Evidence from the Banking Industry (Published)

This study examined the relationship between corporate governance and the quality of auditor’s report with evidence from the Nigerian Banking Industry. The research design adopted for this study is the ex-post facto as the research relied on historic data. Eleven (11) deposit money banks quoted on the Nigerian Stocks Exchange were sampled. In testing our hypothesis, the correlation analysis was applied to a dataset covering seven (7) years from 2007 to 2014 that is   the post-corporate governance period. Analysis suggests that while board composition has a negative and insignificant relationship with audit quality, separation of the roles of the CEO from that of the chairman of the board, board size, and composition of the audit committee has positive and significant relationship with audit quality. Furthermore, findings also show that ownership concentration has a positive but insignificant relationship with audit quality. Findings  also show that the strength of the positive linear relationship between the separation of the roles of the CEO from that of the chairman of the board and the audit quality is as high as 0.702377 or 70.23% followed by the relationship between board size and audit quality which stood at 0.452896 or 45.28%. However, the   study thus concludes that effective corporate governance arises out of responsible and simultaneous vigilant actions by the managers, the board of Directors, shareholders and auditors. Good financial Reporting from the external auditors is an important building block of corporate governance because the information provided to the shareholders has to be optimal in terms of cost and benefits. The study also recommends that the relationship between management and shareholders have to be characterized by transparency and fairness.

Keywords: Audit Quality, Board Composition, Board size, Corporate Governance, Nigeria

Assessment of the Environmental Effects of 2012 Floods in Aguleri and Umuleri, Anambra East Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

The study assessed the environmental effects of 2012 flood in Aguleri and Umuleri in Anambra East Local Government Area. In doing this, questionnaire was administered randomly to the residents. The data generated were analyzed using frequency/percentage tabulation.  Independent samples T-Test and Mann-Whitney U-Test statistical techniques were used due to the nature of the data generated. The following hypotheses were tested; namely: (1) there is no significant difference between the causative factors of 2012 floods in the two communities and (2) there is no significant difference between the environmental effects of 2012 floods in the two communities. The results showed that there is no serious variation between the causes and health, personal, social, economic and post effects of 2012 flood in the two communities. In addition, the result also proved that anthropogenic activities induced the 2012 flood in the community. Furthermore it also showed that the 2012 flood caused serious social, economic, personal and post effects on the inhabitants of the area. Consequent upon the findings, the study recommended that there should be flood hazard mapping in order to ascertain areas prone to flooding, so as to reduce the occurrence of flood in the area. It further recommended that the river channels in the area be constantly dredged from time to time so as to increase their capacity for retaining water. Moreover, it recommended that the inhabitants of the area be enlightened on the causes and effects of flood. Finally, it recommended that environmental laws, especially those relating to flood occurrence and management, and land-use be enforced. In addition, areas of future research should be: (1) to ascertain the after-effect (post effect) of flooding on agriculture in the area; and (2) to obtain a flood hazard map for the entire Anambra State, especially the Anambra East Local Government Area, so as to know the areas prone to flooding, and to adopt adequate flood management techniques.

Keywords: Aguleri, Anambra, Environmental Effects, Floods, Nigeria, Umuleri

Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Nigerian Mobile Telephony (Published)

The Telecommunication industry in Nigeria has developed to be very competitive, as different Telecom companies jostle for the attention of subscribers. However, one of the key challenges confronting these companies is how they manage their service quality, which holds a grea deal to customer satisfaction. It is against this backdrop that this research seeks to empirically measure how service qualiy/delivery impact on customer satisfaction of Mobile Telecommunication providers in Nigeria.  The data used for this study were obtained using a structured survey questionnaire. The questions were close ended and used a 5 point Likert-scale. The sample consists of 532 mobile subscribers in Nigeria, using a simple random sampling technique spread across all the six geo-political zones in the country while a proportionate sampling approach was adopted by the researcher to give a fair representation to the service providers using the proportionality formula. The data obtained from the survey were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 20. The survey was restricted to subscribers using the four major GSM mobile phone operators. The research  determined that a relationship exist between service quality/delivery and customer satisfaction, also between SERVQUAL reliability dimension and customer satisfaction and between customer satisfaction and switching intention among mobile phone users in Nigeria. The results have indicated that the two constructs ( SQ and CS ) are undeniably independent but are closely related and without a doubt, potential partners, implying that an increase in one is likely to cause a change in another. It is therefore recommended that with the ever-increasing influence of the Nigeria Communications Commission (NCC),and the continous complying with  is one major strategy that the companies must adopt to remain cost-effective.

Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Mobile Telephony, Nigeria, Service Quality, Telecommunication

Needed Urgently: A Pedagogy for Boosting the Interests of Youths in Citizenship and Civic Education in Nigeria (Published)

Policies and policy directions in Nigeria are terribly shallow in terms of welfare considerations for the youths and the sustainable development of the Nigerian state. Adults who have been at the helm of affairs have been superlatively self-centered and this has consequently retarded general development in the Nigerian state in general and detrimentally hampered the development of the youths in particular. This paper makes a case for citizenship and civic education for the youths as a viable option for reversing this unfortunate trend. The paper extols the values of citizenship and civic education as needed innovations to affect the necessary changes and makes a case for urgent pedagogical re-engineering where the interests of the youths can be boosted in citizenship and civic education as a strategy to reverse the ugly trend. The paper proposes and recommends that such pedagogical strategies can focus on sensitizing the youths on the dangers that are inherent in their continued marginalization, making youths to think critically and analytically especially on how their participation in civic and democratic processes can reverse the trends in their favour, making social justice and good governance the focus of educational provision for youths and translating theory into practice by inculcating democratic norms of participation, commitment to learning, agreeing with others and accommodating divergent views of others.

Keywords: Citizenship Education, Civic Education, Democracy, Nigeria, Pedagogy, Policy, Politics, Youths

Accelerating Inclusive Agricultural Growth in Nigeria: An Examination of Strategic Issues, Challenges and Policy Options (Published)

Agriculture has been identified as a critical sector with huge potential for promoting inclusive growth by stimulating economic growth, reducing poverty, and creating employment for a large number of people in developing countries. Against this backdrop, the paper assessed the sector’s potential in accelerating sustainable broad-based growth and examined key strategies for realizing inclusive agricultural growth in Nigeria. Using data, covering 1981-2015, the results indicate agriculture’s significant contribution to economic growth which is a necessary (but not sufficient) condition for achieving inclusive growth. Results of employment elasticity computed for the three major sectors suggested that agriculture led others (1.88) followed by services sector (1.18) and industry (0.33) in contributing to employment. Based on the analysis, the paper recommended policies such as increased public investment, access to farm inputs, youth-friendly and price stabilization programmes in order to accelerate inclusive growth in the agriculture sector.

Keywords: Agriculture, Inclusive Growth, Nigeria

Challenges of Climate Change and Industrial Sector Experience: A Review of Evidence from Nigeria (Published)

The world climate pattern has continued to generate serious concern in the recent times especially with the increasing effect of human activities on the global environment. Nigeria, as an integral part of the world also had its own share of the evolving challenges of the climate change phenomenon (such as flood, rising sea level and extreme weather events, drought and excess rainfall, temperature rise and precipitation among others)especially its effect on sensitive agricultural resources and production.Therefore,with relative few studies and dearth of information on climate change activities towards industrial sector especially in Nigeria, the study  decided to explore the literature and review various challenges of climate change vis-à-vis the experience of Nigeria’s industrial sector.  Based on the reviewed studies, the industrial activities had negative experience with  challenges of climate change in Nigeria, with many of the climate-sensitive productive materials and critical infrastructure such as agriculture and coastal resources, pipelines, road networks and power plants among others,(that were agents of industrial production) negatively affected. Hence, this reduces the total output of the sector. However, a comprehensive adaptation process of mitigating the negative effect of climate change on Nigeria’s industrial sector is sacrosanct.

Keywords: Adaptation Measures, Climate Change, Green House gasses, Industrial Sector, Nigeria

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