Tag Archives: Nigeria

Determinants of the Technical Efficiency Performance of Privatized Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria: An Econometric Analysis (Published)

This work is designed to empirically evaluate the determinants of the technical efficiency of ten privatized manufacturing firms in Nigeria. The firms were selected from the numerous firms in the four geo political zones to represent the interest of the entire country due to their age long establishment, size and government equity investment in them. The study adopted  Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and ordinary least square regression  as the techniques of analysis and the period of analysis is five years before and five years after privatization. The efficiency scores generated from the first stage using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used as dependent variables in the second stage against a set of explanatory variables. The investigation revealed that concentration ratio, size and age of firms were considered as determinant of technically efficiency. It also shows that, concentration ratio will lead to higher monopoly power, with age firms gain experience and with size, firms gain more strength to control or have a larger share of the market. It is recommended that there should be market competition with liberalization of entry conditions, in order to terminate monopoly and allow for new entrants to make operations competitive for production. This will be in line with the industrialization policy.

Keywords: Determinants, Nigeria, Privatized Manufacturing firms, Technical Efficiency

Tourism Potential of Onicha Igboeze Community New Yam Festival, Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out to assess tourism potential of Onicha Igboeze community New Yam Festival. Six (6) villages, 12 key informants and 60 ordinary residents were selected for the study through multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. Primary data were collected through the use of semi-structured questionnaire, interview schedules and Focus Group Discussions. Secondary information was sourced from historic records and documentaries on the subject matter. Data were analyzed using mean scores from 4-point Likert-Type scale and Explanatory Factor Analysis. Historical and other descriptive information were presented in documentary form. Results showed that the interplay of the rural ambience of Onitcha Igboeze community, the recreational content and structure of her New Yam Festival, and the community’s positive socio-cultural values provide adequate response to recreational needs of a modern urbanized society. It was recommended that community leadership in conjunction with the State ministry of tourism should work to promote the festival as a premium tourism product.

Keywords: Ebonyi State, New Yam Festival, Nigeria, Onitcha Igboeze Community, Rural tourism, Tourism potential

Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Concentrations at Wood-Based Burnt Brick Sites in Selected Local Government Areas of Benue State, Nigeria (Published)

This study evaluated the concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, CH4 and NH3 at sixteen wood-based burnt brick sites selected from eight purposively sampled Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Benue State. The six greenhouse gases were monitored for two years, from 2012 to 2013, using CROWCON Gasman Digital Gas Meters. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in analyzing collected data. Results indicate that the concentrations of each of the greenhouse gases were significantly much higher during the dry season compared to their wet season concentrations (p<.0.5). There were also significant differences in the inter-local government concentrations of the assessed gases within the same period. The use of fuelwood to burn bricks is believed to have principally resulted in the observed significantly higher concentrations of the greenhouse gases during the dry season, from the months of November to March, and corresponds with the season of active wood-based burnt bricks production. The production of perforated bricks can reduce the volume of fuelwood used since the bricks are hollow and can be cured faster, and thus save energy cost as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Greener alternative energy sources (like solar, wind, liquefied hydrogen gas and hydro) should be used in firing bricks as this can reduce greenhouse gas emissions from burning wood at brick sites.

Keywords: Burnt Brick, Energy, Gas Concentrations, Greenhouse, Nigeria

Solid Waste Management Trends in Nigeria (Published)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current trends in solid waste management in Nigeria and to identify the major challenges inhibiting the attainment of sustainability in solid waste management in the country. The study relied on a desktop and descriptive approach; hence, data were obtained mainly from previous publications relevant to the current study, particularly from peer reviewed publications. Sources such as waste management agencies webpages and documents, journal articles, environmental organizations reports and books were used to obtained data. These data were then analysed using a descriptive approach. It was found that solid waste management is a major concern in the country. Inadequate environmental policies and legislation, low level of environmental awareness, poor funding and inappropriate technology, corruption and unplanned development were some of the challenges facing solid waste management in the country.  As a result, the paper concludes that for waste management to work, various aspects of Government services such as engineering, urban planning, Geography, economics, public health and law among others must be brought together under a proper policy to deliver an effective waste management system.

Keywords: Environmental Awareness, Nigeria, Port Harcourt, Solid waste management, policies

Tax and Taxation in Nigeria: Implications on the Construction Industry Sector (Published)

The pressure for development, public finance and revenue concomitantly attract challenges impacting and impairing on businesses especially in building and construction sector of the economy. Mitigating these responsibilities by various levels of government is the concern for efficient and inclusive fiscal policies for streams of auspicious and sustainable revenue windows particularly taxation. This study therefore examined implication of tax and taxation on the construction sector in Nigeria with a view for industry operator’s decision making. Using extensive review of related literature as well as eliciting primary data through structured questionnaires administered on purposive but randomly selected 100 respondents, elicited data were analysed using descriptive and inferential tools. The result indicated that Value Added Tax and With Holding Tax are most identified , 85% of respondents are aware of the identified taxes while Multiplicity of taxes, corruption risk and lack of confidence in the tax and poor enforcement of tax laws and policies were ranked major inhibiting factors to tax payment. Yet, tax administration was found to have no insignificant effect on tax payment in Nigeria tax system. The study conclusion avail for long-run taxation behaviour on the building and construction sector of the economy and on investment decision, it recommended that appropriate guidance and understanding of tax system and policies required by operators/investors and tax authorities in order to attract tax compliance in the economy.

Keywords: Construction industry, Economy, Nigeria, Public Sector, Tax System

Compensation Issues in the Niger-Delta – A Case Study Of Boboroku, Jesse, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)

It is common to find oil companies operating in the Niger Delta region acquiring expansive farmlands to facilitate their operations in the area while the natives of affected communities are generally left in precarious conditions arising from acquisition of their farm lands. The paper examines issues of compulsory acquisition, evaluating the quantum of compensation paid to natives of communities whose farmlands are acquired and issues that must be dealt with to provide adequate compensation to claimants. Using an oil well acquisition base in Boboroku, Jesse in Ethiope-West Local Government Area of Delta State as a case study, various compensation claims were examined vis-à-vis open market claims in compulsory acquisition. It was found that many claimants received N1000.00 or less as full compensation claims for their crops while families lucky to own lands received more reasonable payments. It was established that there was no statutory provision for disturbance losses from revocation of land interest. Also, the productivity of economic crops and trees was not considered nor was computation of claims based on market-values. The paper established that claims should be compensated on the basis of productivity value and lifespan of interests being acquired and not on arbitrary rates supplied by the acquiring authorities.

Keywords: Boboroku, Compensation, Compulsory acquisition, Delta State, Niger-Delta, Nigeria

Umbilical Cord Care and Management Outcome among Mothers in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State – Nigeria (Published)

In developing countries umbilical cord infections constitute a major cause of neonatal morbidity and pose significant risk for mortality Methods of caring for the umbilical cord vary greatly between communities depending on their cultural and religious beliefs, level of education and resources. The risk of cord infection is increased by unhygienic cutting of the cord and application of unclean substances. This study examined the cord management practices and management outcome among mothers in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional community-based study was conducted in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Calabar South is one of the two Local Government Areas that make up Calabar Metropolis with 11 wards. Women of child bearing age were used as population of the study. A sample size of 451 mothers was selected using the snowball method. A structured pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed descriptively using frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviation. All analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0 at 95% confidence interval. Results: Whereas most of the respondents 224(49.8%) used methylated spirit in cleaning the cord, others used dettol 88(19.6%), saliva and salt 44(9.8%), herbal preparations 44(9.8%). Most of the respondents 314 (69.8%) applied unhygienic substances at the base of the stump after cleaning the cord. Main reason for choice of materials includes to wade off evil spirits and hasten cord separation 270(55.9%). The outcome of cord management showed that majority of the umbilical cords were infected 338 (75.1 %.). Conclusion: Majority of the respondents applied harmful and contaminated materials/ substances to the umbilical cord. Good umbilical cord care practices can lead to improved newborn care while poor umbilical cord care practices may result in neonatal morbidity and mortality. Improving the standard of umbilical cord care among mothers can largely be achieved through health education and follow up visits by nurses after discharge from the health facility.

Keywords: Calabar, Management outcome, Mothers, Nigeria, Umbilical cord care

Corporate Board Size, Risk Management and Financial Performance of Listed Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the effect of corporate board size, risk management on financial performance of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria for the period of 2011-2016. The population of the study is fifteen (15) listed deposit money banks in Nigeria out of which a sample of fourteen (14) were used for the study due to the accessibility and availability of data. Corporate board size and risk management as the independent variable was proxy with numbers of board of directors, liquidity risk, credit risk and operating risk, while the return on equity(ROE)  and earnings per share (EPS) were used to proxy financial performance. Data were collected from secondary source through the annual report and account of the banks for the period under study and the data was analysed using multiple panel regression techniques. The findings reveal that board size, credit risk and operating risk are significant negative effect on return on equity (ROE) and earnings per share (EPS) respectively. The study also shows that liquidity risk is negative and insignificant effect on ROE and EPS of the study banks in Nigeria. It is recommended among others that the banks should regulate their risk management practices and ensure they minimize the non-performing loan as it has been found empirically to reduce the quality of the firm’s financial performance. They should also reduce their operational cost for better performance

Keywords: Banks’, Corporate board size, Financial Performance, Nigeria, Risk Management

Communications Feedback Mechanism: A Public Sphere Perspective of a State House of Assembly (Published)

Given its attendant implication to democracy, governments and their agencies are coming to terms with the need for increased citizen’s participation in governance. Yet this quest is impaired because government institutions and their publics under-utilize feedback mechanism. It is in the light of this notion that this study examined communications feedback mechanism and how its publics leverage on this feedback mechanism to foster public sphere discourse in a single state’s House of Assembly in Southern Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research method and its sample size was 400. Data were gathered using a questionnaire and analyzed with percentages and frequency distribution tables. Findings are among others revealed that respondents are not aware of any feedback mechanism and that constituents’ level of participation in public sphere discourses remains low. Against this backdrop, this study recommends that the House enact a legislation that will make it mandatory for the public to participate in all phases of law making, while submitting that public hearing be democratized to accommodate more constituents. Also recommended is that the House should synergize with Non-Governmental Organizations cultural/traditional and religious organizations to engage constituents in regular town hall meetings on issues that concern them. Conclusion and recommendations are reached.

Keywords: Communication Feedback Mechanism, Legislative Public Relations, Marketing Political Services, Nigeria, Public Sphere Discourse

Factors Influencing Medication Adherence among Patients With Diabetes Mellitus And Hypertension In Nigeria (Published)

Medication non-adherence results in increased morbidity, mortality and financial loss. Reasons for medication non-adherence are multifactorial. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of, and factors contributing to medication non-adherence among patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension attending some secondary and tertiary health care facilities in Lagos, Nigeria. Of the 100 patients, 32% were compliant with their medications. Most (39%) respondents were noncompliant because of lack of funds and cost of medication, 19% due to forgetfulness, 16% because they felt well, and 15% due to non-availability of drugs at the pharmacy. Other reasons for non-compliance include illnesses (9%), side effects of medications (1%) and misinterpretation of prescription (1%). Among the socio-demographic variables studied, only male gender was positively associated with medication compliance. Adherence to anti-diabetics and anti-hypertensives was low. Both health system and patients’ related issues contributed to poor compliance and these should be addressed to improve medication adherence.

Keywords: Adherence, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Nigeria

Business Education: An Indispensable Tool for Achieving Sustainable Development in the South-East States of Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out by the researchers in the South East States of Nigeria to determine how business education could be an indispensable tool for achieving sustainable development. A survey research design was used for the study. The population comprised 46 business educators teaching in public universities in the South East States of Nigeria. A self-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers and carefully validated by the experts in the Faculty of Education of Enugu State University of Science and Technology was used for data collection. Mean and Standard deviation were used to answer the two research questions that guided the study while t.test hypothesis was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study showed that business education programme is an indispensable tool for achieving sustainable development in the South East States of Nigeria because it provides the needed manpower required in industries. The study equally revealed that one of the strategies for achieving sustainable development in the South East States of Nigeria through business education programme is to ensure that the school curriculum is relevant to the skills required of industries. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the mean responses of male and female business educators on the relevance of business education in achieving sustainable development and the strategies for achieving sustainable development in the South East States of Nigeria. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers recommended among others that the curriculum planners should ensure that the school curriculum content is relevant to the skills required of industries because of the relevance of the programme in providing the needed manpower in industries.     

Keywords: Business Education, Business Educator, Nigeria, Sustainable Development

Savings-Investment and Economic Growth Nexus in Nigeria (Published)

Nigeria as a developing nation needs adequate savings to encourage investment and promote economic growth. Empirically, this work has made an attempt to analyze the impact of savings and investment on the growth of the Nigerian economy. From the result of the study conducted within the period 1970 to 2015, using a battery of contemporary econometric approach involving unit root test, co-integration test and error correction model it was found that factors such as Gross Domestic Savings (GDS), Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF), Labour Force (LAF) and Savings Facility (SF) are the main drivers of economic growth in Nigeria. Furthermore, evidence from the investment model shows that Real Gross Domestic Product and Gross Domestic Savings (GDS) are the two drivers of Investment in Nigeria. This means that if there is proper capital accumulation in the form of savings, investment would be great and sustainable. The multiplier effect is on the well-being of the people through increased capital and output. The study recommended among others that; the government through the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) should ensure the reduction of reserve requirements of commercial banks in order to make available adequate funds in form of loans and advances for investment which will boost economic growth. Government should always maintain a good political atmosphere that is devoid of political upheavals because insecurity in the country has contributed immensely to the discouragement of the people from the cultivation of banking habit. More so, foreign direct investment will be discouraged in an environment ravaged with rancor. Banks should be encouraged to establish branches in the rural areas to discourage the rural dwellers from saving in their local saving boxes. This will bridge the gap between savings and investment. The government of Nigeria has a role to play by making policies that would encourage the spread of banks. This would be done by upgrading the standard of the Nigerian banking sector.   Labour force has been revealed to be a positive growth stimulant in the study. Thus, government and the private sector should ensure that there is realistic and practical curriculum development in schools that will evolve a more productive labour force. Finally, the Governor of the apex bank (CBN) and monetary policy committee should liaise with the necessary operators to ensure that there are realistic interest and inflation rates that will stimulate economic activities and bring about the requisite economic growth in Nigeria.

Keywords: Co-integration, Investment, Nigeria, Savings, economic growth

Financial Liberalization and Domestic Savings in Nigeria: An Empirical Analysis (Published)

One of the reasons for financial liberalization is to adequately mobilize domestic savings in developing countries. Hence, this study investigated the existing relationship between financial liberalization and domestic savings in Nigeria. In achieving this, contemporary econometric approach involving unit root test, co-integration test and error correction model was adopted to analyze the time series data from 1970 to 2015. The study used interest rate spread and financial liberalization index as measures of financial liberalization. It used credit to the private sector over GDP and the number of bank branches over the population to measure financial deepening and financial inclusion respectively. The findings revealed that per capita income and financial deepening were the two factors that affected domestic savings in Nigeria significantly as against interest rate which was widely viewed as the major factor affecting savings mobilization in Less Developed Countries. The study recommended increase in the existing level of per capita income which could be achieved by upward review of wages and salaries of workers every three years. Monetary authorities should use moral suasion to encourage microfinance banks and commercial banks to establish branches in rural areas to help further reduce the population of unbanked Nigerians and ensure greater financial deepening. Monetary authority should ensure that interest rate is determined by market forces to reflect the true depth of the Nigerian financial system and thereby reduce the interest rate spread. The sustenance of CBN autonomy was equally recommended as a key to ensuring financial system stability

Keywords: Domestic Savings, Financial Inclusion, Financial Liberalization, Financial deepening, Nigeria

Section 140(2) and 141 of the Electoral Act, 2010 of Nigeria: A Legislative Mockery (Published)

Nigeria as a democratic country has three divisions of government. These are; Executive, Legislature and the Judiciary. These three arms of government function independently of each other. Each of these branches of government is a creation of the law and functions within the limits marked out for it by the law and the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 (as amended). The Legislature is the law making organ of government. By virtue of section 4 of the Constitution, the legislative power of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is vested in the National Assembly which consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. The National Assembly has power to make law for the peace, order and good government of the Federation or any path thereof. The House of Assembly at the State level makes law for the peace, order and good government of the State or any path thereof. The exercise of legislative power by the National Assembly or by a State House of Assembly is subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of law and judicial tribunals established by law. Therefore, the National Assembly or a State House of Assembly shall not enact any law that oust or purports to oust the jurisdiction of a court of law or of a judicial tribunal established by law. The constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 is supreme and its provisions shall have binding force on all authorities and persons throughout the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Any law which is inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution, the Constitution shall prevail, and that other law shall to the extent of the inconsistency be void. This paper examines the legal status of section 140(2) and 141 of the Electoral Act, 2010, which prevents the Tribunals or Courts from pronouncing winners of elections. The section of the Act only allowed the Tribunal and Courts to order for re-run elections. The National Assembly by enacting that Act ousted the jurisdiction of the Courts and thereby ran foul of the constitutional provision. The paper contends that the National Assembly acted in excess of its legislative powers and any action taken by any of the authorities without or in excess of its legal authority or power is ultra vires the Constitution and therefore void. 

Keywords: Electoral Act, Legislative Mockery, Nigeria, Section 140(2), Section 141

Poverty Reduction through Investment in Technical Education in Akwa Ibom State (Published)

The study determined the opinions of technical teachers about poverty reduction and strategies to be adopted for poverty reduction in Akwa Ibom State. A survey research design was used for the study. Sixty technical teachers were sampled from the population of 131 technical teachers in all the technical colleges in Akwa Ibom State. Poverty Reduction through Investment in Technical Education Questionnaire (PRITEQ) developed by the researchers was used to collect data for the study. The instrument was validated by three experts from University of Uyo and the reliability coefficient of the instrument was .86. Data obtained were analysed using mean and simple percentage. Findings of the study revealed that poverty reduction may occur through investment in technical education. Also, mandatory technical education, siting of industries/skill acquisition centres, adequate funding of poverty reduction programmes and training people for self reliance are the strategies to be adopted for poverty reduction in Akwa Ibom State. It was recommended among others that government and international agencies should fund technical education programme heavily.

Keywords: Investment, Nigeria, Poverty Reduction, Technical Education

The Status of Social Studies in Nigeria’s Educational Scaffolding (Published)

The main crux of this paper is to draw the attention of all social studies practitioners, researchers, students of our discipline – social studies and others, to the fact that social studies in Nigeria’s education system is not the preserve of the Universal Basic Education level schools. This is undoubtedly an integral part of it. However, there is more to it than is ordinarily perceived.

Keywords: Education System, Educational, Nigeria, Scaffolding, Social Studies

Evaluation of Learning Outcomes of Primary School Pupils in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)

This research study which focused on Evaluation of  Learning Outcomes for both Public and Private Primary School pupils in Ebonyi State Nigeria, adopted a descriptive survey design. The sample size for the study was 3,041 pupils and was restricted to primary four (4) pupils, made up of 1503 males and 1538 females. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. Instrument for data collection was 110 test items developed by the researchers in the areas of Numeracy, Literacy and Life-skills .The instrument was given to the Experts for face and construct validity and was finally subjected to a reliability test, using  Kudar-Richardson formula 20(K-R 20) which yielded a reliability co-efficient of 0.78. The test instruments were administered to the pupils with the help of research Assistants. Mean, Standard deviation and Percentage were used to answer the research questions while t-test and Chi-square (x2) Statisticts were used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the of the findings revealed that both male and female primary 4 pupils are very poor and have very low competencies in Numeracy, literacy and Life skills. It is therefore recommended that the Federal Government of Nigeria should mount training and retraining programmes for the teachers on the method teaching the pupils Mathematics, English language and Life skills, in addition to supply of  adequate textbooks. Also, supervision Team to monitor classroom teaching and learning should be set up among recommendations

Keywords: Ebonyi State, Evaluation of Learning Outcomes, Learning Outcomes, Nigeria, Primary School

Knowledge, Practice and Perception of Contraception by Literate Adolescents in Calabar, Nigeria (Published)

The current prevalence rate for contraceptive use in Nigeria is approximately 11%–13%. This rate is very low in view of the fact that sexual activity is high and there is also widespread awareness of the various contraceptive methods among Nigerian adolescents and youths. There is sufficient research evidence identifying the various factors that contribute to the low prevalence of modern contraceptive use in Nigeria, with the most common factors being religious adherence and myths about the side effects of modern contraceptives. This survey aims to ascertain the knowledge, practice and perception of contraception among literate adolescents in Calabar. This was a self-administered questionnaire -based study carried out in Calabar metropolis. The information was obtained at three different higher institutions in Calabar. Information collected include age, knowledge and use of contraceptives, source of information, and awareness of other methods of contraception and myths about contraception. A total of 1,596 female adolescents were recruited into this study. Their age range was 16 to 19years, with a mean age of 17.6years. The respondents have all attained basic secondary education and were all currently pursuing tertiary education and have all had sexual intercourse and have heard about contraception or family planning.  Of this number, 968(60.7%) have used Emergency contraceptive pills, 26.6% used male condom, 6.1% use CopperT (CuT), 1.9% use injectables, 1.1% use implants  while 3.6% have not used any method. They all however had one form of concern or the other about modern contraceptive methods. Adolescents and youths are undoubtedly the bedrock to propagate any programme irrespective of the field. Adolescents are therefore in dire need of information on reproductive health issues not only on contraception but also on other issues concerning their reproductive health. They should be assisted and given unhindered access to various methods of contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion.

Keywords: Adolescents, Contraception, Education, Literature, Myth, Nigeria

Effects and Coping Measures of Flood among Farming Households in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria (Published)

We explored the ways in which people in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria dealt with the extreme flood that occurred in 2012, with specific attention to the effects which the people were unable to avoid through coping measures. The study combined purposive and random sampling techniques in selecting sixty farming households from three communities that were affected by the flood. The main tool for data collection was questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. We found that 100% of the surveyed households reported crop losses. To deal with the adverse effects, 75% of respondents migrated from their various houses to a place of safety especially to their relations’ houses. The main determinants of coping measures to the flood by the households include gender, farm size, farming experience and access to credit. There is a need for government investments in structural preventive measures.

Keywords: 2012 Flood, Coping, Determinants, Effects, Nigeria, Oguta LGA

Construction Externalities: A Theoretical Insightand the Nigerian Scenario (Published)

Very little is known about the subject of construction externalities, especially amongst stakeholders in the Nigerian construction industry and built environment, yet its existence and effects are palpable. Hence, the study, via relevant literature and personal observations sought to provide; first, a theoretical understanding of the nature of construction externalities; its constituents or composition as well as its effects, and secondly, to point out the level of awareness on the part of stakeholders and the manner or extent to which they have been addressed or considered in Nigeria. Ultimately, this paper presents as a solution to efficient and balanced allocation of resources, realistic taxation and better economic planning by the Nigerian government; the need to be apprised of the benefits and adverse effects of construction externalities on the citizenry.

Keywords: Built Environment, Construction Externalities, Construction Stakeholders, Economic Planning, Nigeria

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