Video Documentary Training in Agricultural Extension in the 21st Century: A Qualitative Assessment of Cassava Farmers in South-West Nigeria (Published)
Video documentaries are means of communication adopted by several sectors including agriculture to pass useful and required information to respective audiences. It has become one of the major tools utilized by extension agents as instructional materials for agricultural educational purposes in major parts of the world. In Nigeria, agricultural programmes are packaged by extension agents in collaboration with some media houses and broadcast at certain times which may not be convenient to watch, understand, and later referred to. This study therefore assessed the effectiveness of video documentary as training tool for farmers in south-west Nigeria. Methodologically, the qualitative approach was adopted as farmers were trained with the aid of a video documentary as instructional material and were assessed before and after the trainings provided with structured interview guides to gather the data required. The findings showed that video documentaries are effective training tools that aid understanding and retention of information shared even after several weeks of the training. Conventional extension practice is enjoined to embrace video documentaries as instructional training tools to facilitate and enhance farmer’s agricultural learning.
Impact of Safety Management Strategy on the Performance of Employees in Ashakacem Plc, Nafada-Bajoga, Gombe State-Nigeria (Published)
This study examines the impact of safety management strategy on the performance of employees in Ashakacem PLC. The main objective is to determine how safety management strategy of Ashakacem impact on employee’s performance. The study employs the use of both primary and secondary sources of data from different cadres of employees (managers, middle level, low level) and contract staff including distributors and customers of the company. The data were analyzed using Simple Percentages and Chi-square to test the formulated hypotheses which reveals that, “effective safety management strategy impact positively on the performance of employees”, particularly in the areas of the provisions of personal protective safety equipment and enforcement of safety laws such as the provision of fire extinguishers, first aid facilities, hand gloves, mouth and Norse guard, dielectric safety boot and thermal socks, head gear kits, dielectric hard hat, high and medium energy goggle, Lab Coat etc. These have the most significant impact on employee’s performance while the establishment of factory Clinic for staff and seminar/safety talks and enforcement of ground safety rules has the least impact. Some recommendations were made; among which is the need for effective monitoring and evaluation of all safety measures in line with the ground safety rules to ensure safe and healthy working environment for effective performance. The study concludes that the company’s protective wears are of certified international standards made to be comfortable-to-wear, permanently flame-resistant and arc-rated material protecting workers against the thermal effects of both electrical arc flash and toxic materials arising from the factory production processes and procedures which is dependent on company’s strategic safety management policy and formation combined with excellent decision-making exercise that help in reducing employee’s risks conditions to the barest minimum level.
Emotional Intelligence and Self-Management Training Programs in Reducing Peer Victimization among Nigerian Adolescents: Interaction Effects of Locus of Control and Gender (Published)
Peer victimization among adolescents especially the school-going adolescents is a growing concern in Nigeria. Initiatives by policy-makers, educationists and school authorities, among others have not yielded the desired results as youth involvement in organized armed crime has been on the increase. This study investigated the effect of self-management and emotional intelligence training programs in reducing peer victimization among Nigerian adolescents. A quasi experimental pretest, post-test, control group research design of 3x2x2 factorial matrix type was used for this study while gender (male and female) and locus of control (internal and external) used as moderating variables. The study participants were one hundred and eighty (180) Senior Secondary 2 students selected from 3 coeducational secondary schools in Remo educational block of Ogun State, Nigeria. One standardized instrument was used in collecting data while analysis of covariance was used to analyze the generated data. Results show that self-management and emotional intelligence training programs were effective in reducing peer victimization but self-management was found to be more effective. The study also revealed that only locus of control of participants combined to interact with the treatment in reducing peer victimization among the participants. Results showed that participants with internal locos of control benefit more from self-management and emotional intelligence training. It was concluded that participants’ peer relationship skills improved significantly as a result of the treatment. The findings have effectively demonstrated that the treatment packages could be used as veritable tools in equipping adolescents with necessary skills that can be used to expedite some kinds of cognitive processes in our youths such as decision-making, problem-solving, self-control, and therefore bringing about peaceful co-existence among the people.
Comparative Effects of Poultry Manure and NPK Rates on Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) Production in Rivers State, Southern Rainforest, Nigeria (Published)
A 2 x 4 x 3 rain fed factorial experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design, was carried out to compare the effects of poultry manure [PM] with N.P.K. (15:15:15) rates on sunflower in rivers state, southern rainforest of Nigeria. PM and NPK rates were 0, 5, 10, and 20g per seedling per pot. Data collected were plant height [at; 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks after planting (WAP)]; number of leaves, leaf area (LA) at 6 WAP; head diameter, head weight, number of seeds per head and seed weight at harvest. Results show that NPK initially produced taller plants but PM increased growth rate with time over NPK. PM at 5, 10 and 20 g produced taller sunflower plants at 10 WAP over NPK rates. There was no significant difference in the number of leaves between plants that received PM and NPK, though NPK influenced higher LA. Head diameter, head weight and seed weight increased with doses of both fertilizers, 20 g PM produced sunflower plants with the widest diameter and weightiest seeds. While number of seeds increased with PM rates, the highest number of seeds with NPK application was at 5 g application. This was still lower than the highest number of seeds produced by sunflower plants fertilized with 20 g PM. Application of 20 g PM produced plants with highest growth rate, wider head diameter, highest number and seed weight. Twenty (20 g) PM application rate per seedling is recommended for Sunflower production in southern rainforest, Nigeria. A further study on higher PM levels is also recommended.
Every social action is perceived as a joint undertaking of’ people in their social settings to improve their living conditions in various communities in the society. Social development as an educational process stimulates consciousness among people in order to be aware of their capabilities to address prevailing situations and realities in various participating communities. Social development as a concept is used to stimulate awareness in people for the ultimate purpose of understanding their social realities ant their potentialities to promote development that will improve their living conditions in their various communities. The paper identified conscientisation strategy, communication strategy and group action strategy as strategies of social development in stimulating community development. Based on the issues discussed appropriate recommendations are made which include the urgent need to ensure that adequate information is made available to people through the instrumentality of conscientisation and communication as well as that social development should be driven by common vision and interest of the people of participating communities in Nigeria.
The Effects of Modern Technology on the Production of Embroidered Clothing in South-Western Nigeria (Published)
Research into embroidery practices in the South-Western Nigeria seems to be few and some of the studies on embroidery production on textile garments look superficial and on the peripheral level. Today, embroidery through machine has completely revolutionized the demand for embroidery designed products such as clothing and fashion accessories both locally and internationally. The invention of machine-tailored embroidery has made it possible to produce a wide range of design However, the modern technology has brought about better but more sophisticated tools and machines to help solve problems. Technology had continued to influence every sphere of endeavour of which the field of fashion and embroidery production in particular is not an exceptions. The effects of modern technology on the production of embroidery are assessed in this paper. The paper concludes and discovered that, majority of the embroiderers are not vast in the computer aided design, which producers use to make diverse designs on various items aside wearable apparel. Even those that use machines to make designs, still find it difficult to use the computer aided design (CAD) which is reigning in the fashion world today
Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni And Co Contents of Water and Sediments, in Relation to Phytoremediation and Translocation by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes Mart. Solms.) At Some Creeks of the Great Kwa River, Southeastern Nigeria (Published)
A passive phytoremediation study to investigate the environmental purification efficacy of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was carried out at Mbat-Abiati and Oberekkai Creeks of the Great Kwa River in Southeastern Nigeria. The study assessed the levels of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co in the water column and underlying sediments (abiotic monitors) in comparison with their levels in E. crassipes (biomonitor). Generally, observed values of heavy metals in sediment and water hyacinth of the two Creeks did not vary significantly (p>0.05), and the sequence that was frequently encountered in the accumulation of the heavy metals was: SEDIMENT>PLANT ROOTS>PLANT LEAVES>WATER. Relative Accumulation Indices (RAI) revealed that the concentration of the heavy metals in the sediments are much higher than values recorded for the waters. This appear normal since sediments are reservoirs for all contaminants and dead organic matter descending from the ecosystem above. The pattern of heavy metal concentrations in the organs of E. crassipes are closely associated with that of its geological substrate (water and sediments). Although zinc displayed the highest accumulation in both root and leaves tissues, and appeared more mobile from roots to leaves than other heavy metal, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) revealed Co as the metal with the highest phytoaccumulation capability in the area, followed by Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn, in that order. Indication from the study is that water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) can effectively absorb and translocate Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co, even when the concentrations of the metals in the abiotic components of the environment is low.
The often-disturbing adverse effects of inflation in developing economies such as Nigeria necessitates developing dynamic inflation forecasting models for appraising shocks on macroeconomic variables. This work utilizes the Box-Jenkins methodology to develop Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model to predict peak time inflation in Nigeria’s inflation time series from January 2001 to December 2015 obtained from National Bureau of Statistics, Abuja. A test of parameter estimates was performed on the suggested models and, using the AIC and BIC criteria, SARIMA(1,1,2)(2,0,1)12 model was identified as the most fitted model. The diagnostic test of the residuals using ACF and PACF of residual plots showed that they follow white noise process. The result of the monthly forecast indicated that Nigeria will experience high (double digit) inflation rates which will be at its peak in the months of August and September and its lowest rate occurs in January of the year. The information contained here can be useful to ensure monetary and fiscal policies that will stabilize the economy.
Physical, petrographical and geochemical data are used to constrain the mode of formation of low grade marble occurring in Nsofang and environs, in Ikom area of southeastern Nigeria. The presence of lamination, vug and cavernous structures as part of the physical features of the marble suggest possible formation at T < 100 °C under biological controls, induced during microbial metabolic activity. However, it appears this mode of formation is insignificant as the modal mineralogy of the rock frequently follow the trend: dolomite (90%) + calcite (5%) + quartz (<1%) + talc (<1%) ± phlogopite (<1%) ± Opaque mineral(s) (1%), reflecting impact of low grade metamorphism. The strong linear correlation existing between Mg/Ca and Mn/Sr components supports the participation of metamorphic dolomitization in the formation of the marble. Other elemental geochemical data revealed progressive replacement – type dolomitization as a component applicable mechanism. The intense volcanism associated with the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) most likely drove the hydrothermal system and metamorphism that produced the dolomitization of precursor limestones. It appears the Cenozoic timing of the CVL coincided with the time of dolomitization, while the extrusive activities provided a source of heat and additional ions for the circulating seawater that drove the calcite-dolomite reactions of the replacement-type dolomitization model.
An Appraisal of Nigeria’s Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMES): Growth, Challenges and Prospects (Published)
This paper took a critical appraisal of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in Nigeria. The major focus of this work was to expatiate on the growth, challenges and prospects of the MSMEs in the country. While attempting to give an appropriate definition for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises using employment strength and asset base criteria, the work revealed that SMEs contribute significantly to economic development in the provision of goods and services, creation of employment and contribute to a high standard of living. There are some setbacks facing the over 17,284,671 Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Nigeria. These setbacks include; limited financing, lack of action plan to deal with eventualities, lack of managerial and marketing skill, and lack of research appreciation and technical expertise. The study concluded that entrepreneurship is regarded as the catalyst in most developing economies and that it is very crucial to the economic growth and development of Nigeria. As such, it was recommended that government policies should support the establishment, nurturing and growth of SMEs by curtailing or banning importation of certain products, training of young entrepreneurs, establishment of Centers for Entrepreneurial Development and promoting entrepreneurial spirit through the provision of conducive entrepreneurial environment, funding and empowerment programmes. This will facilitate the training and retraining of entrepreneurs and also help Nigerian youths to develop interest in entrepreneurship.
Preliminary Investigation of Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Periwinkle (Tympanotonus Fuscatus, Linnaeus 1758) From Okrika Estuary, Niger-Delta Area of Nigeria (Published)
Assessment of length-weight relationship and condition factor of a commercially important mollusc species, Periwinkle, Tympanotonus fuscatus, from Okrika estuary was conducted from October, 2015 to February, 2016. A total of 120 samples of the species were hand-picked from the mangrove ecosystem of Okrika. The results obtained showed that the gastropod species had negative allometric growth patterns with a growth exponent, b value of 2.18. This value was confirmed as negative allometric, because it was significantly different (p<0.05) from 3 when a t-test was carried out. The mean condition factor, K of the species was 18.9, which indicated that they were in good condition during the sampling period. This study recommends that further research needs to be conducted because the sampling duration was one-third of a year (4 months). Also efforts should be taken to reduce the pollution load in order to safe-guard this valuable resource for the local population.
The human modification and interference with landscape globally has increased incidence of hazards and disaster most especially in the coastal areas with particular reference to Nigeria. The aim of this study and how it trigger occurrence of hazards at the coastal areas of Nigeria between 2005 to 2015, using landsat 7 thermatic mapper from 1995 to 2005 and landsat 8 enhanced thematic mapper data from 2005 to 2015. From the study bare land and mangrove vegetation shrinked while coastal mud and water (ocean) increased in size. The study recommends mapping of hazard prone areas along the coast of Nigeria the coastal with a view to reduce human inference with Nigeria coastal landscape
Education Policy in Nigeria and the Genesis of Universal Basic Education (Ube), 1999-2018 (Published)
The Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Nigeria was introduced in 1999 to improve the educational system in the country. The policy was aimed at primary education and junior secondary schools which are the foundations of education worldwide. The paper discussed the UBE Act, 2004 and the statement of the problem outlined. The methodology applied is qualitative technique while cognitive development theory is considered relevant to the work. The Genesis of Education in Nigeria from primary, secondary school and higher education institutions were also analysed. The importance of primary education in a child’s overall development and the relevance of Universal Basic Education in Nigeria were emphasized. The paper suggested the way forward and made some recommendations.
The interactions between man and environment determine both the quality of environment and as well as the quality of life that man lives. The feedback mechanisms of the interactions between man and environment are directly proportional. The increase in the number of urban dwellers is no more novel as over 50% of the world population resides in urban centers. This continuous and accidental increase in the number of urban dwellers with respect to their actions in the environment has played significant roles in the depletion of the quality of the environment. Since human health or wellbeing depends on the quality of his immediate environment, the focus on environmental quality emerged as a key area for research in urban and regional planning. This paper appraises the quality of the built environment in a steadily urbanizing traditional settlement in Ogbomoso North Local Government, Nigeria using selected environmental quality indicators while necessary recommendations are put forward to rejuvenate sickening built environment.
Financial Reporting Quality and Its Effect on Investment Decisions by Nigerian Deposit Money Banks (Published)
The study investigated the effects of financial reporting quality on investment decision making by Deposit Money Banks in reference to Zenith Bank Plc, Nigeria. Data obtained from the audited annual reports of Zenith Bank Plc that covered period of 2009 – 2016.The study utilised both Descriptive and Ordinary Least Square Regression method with the aid of using E-view 9 to analyse the data. The findings showed that, there was a significant effect of variables of (Financial Reporting Quality FRQ measures as profit after tax, cash used in/ from investing and cash and cash equivalent) on investment. The result also shows that, Financial Reporting Quality has significantly influenced on investment of Deposit Money Banks with (R2 = 0.98; P <0.05). The study concluded that, higher financial reporting quality increases investment decision by Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria.
Level of Availability and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology Facilities by Students: A Case Study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri, Imo State Nigeria (Published)
This paper is an attempt to evaluate the availability and utilization of Information and Communication (ICT) facilities by students in Federal Polytechnic Library, and also challenges the academic library faces in the area of adoption and utilization of ICT in their service delivery. Questionnaire survey approach was adopted. Primary data were collected with the aid of a four point likert scale questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to Students of the study area. The Population for the Students at Federal Polytechnic Nekede is 870 which was obtained from the Universities’ Information and Communication Technology block (ICT, 2017). The sample size is 290. The sampling technique used here is stratified simple random. To guarantee the reliability of the instrument, it was administered on ten(10)participants out of the envisaged population of the study. A test-retest reliability method of two weeks interval was conducted, response obtained were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation method and a reliability co-efficient of 0.78 was obtained. To analyze data on the research questions of the study the researcher used descriptive statistical mean. The hypothesis was tested using the chi-square (x2) which is a statistical tool to test hypothesis about the relationship between means of groups. It was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study found that scanning machines, printer, CD-ROM, Computer, Flash Drives, Land Area Network (LAN) and Inverter were available but few. Also the majority of the students indicated that they use ICT to retrieve information (3.1), make research(3.1), disseminate information (3.0) chat with friends (3.1) and download files (3.0). Challenges such as unreliable telecommunication network (3.3) insecurity in the library (3.3) epileptic power supply (3.3) unreliable internet (3.0) and high cost of ICT hardware/software were identified as major challenges of availability and utilization of ICT in the school’s academic library. It was recommended however that these challenges be looked into both by the institution and government in order to address the challenges.
Availability and Utilization of Information Resources and Services in the Special Education Centre Libraries in South-East, Nigeria (Published)
The study focused on ascertaining the availability and utilization of information resources and services in the special education centre libraries in South-East, Nigeria. The study was prompted due to the problems encountered by physically challenged student in the use of normal library services. Six research questions were posed to guide the study, while two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted survey research design, and used observational checklist and rating scale as data collection instruments. The sample size for the study was 430 comprising five special education staff and 425 special education pupils/students. Two-stage sampling simple random sampling was made. Cronbach Alpha technique was used to ascertain reliability coefficient of .85. Frequency count, standard deviation and mean score were used to address the research questions while the hypotheses were tested using t-test of difference. Results revealed that the number of available information resources for the blind and partially sighted is significantly less than expected in this context. That the number of available information resources for the deaf and hard of hearing is also significantly less than expected. The study also revealed that the available information services for the blind and partially sighted is significantly less than expected, the available information services for the deaf and hard of hearing is also significantly less than expected. The available information resources for the blind and partially sighted are not fully utilized, and the available information resources for the deaf and hard of hearing are not fully utilized. The study concluded that the provision of information resources and services is less than expected. Also the available information resources and services are not fully utilized by the physically challenged groups studied for any significant impact in learning. It `was recommended that, there should be provision of information resources, such as Braille resources; tactile or raised surface; sign language books; adaptive or electronic devices. Services like: on-sight support; guided tours; facilities, etc. Every such library should employ librarians who are clearly aware of the nature of work they do. Adequate funding for proper management of the special education centre libraries in Nigeria in such a way as to meet the present day educational demand for these classes of /pupils/students studied, among others. Suggestions for further studies were also made.
This study examines empirically the relationship between Trade openness and Economic growth in Nigeria. The study covered the period 1990 – 2015, using ARDL approach to cointegration. The ARDL result confirmed the existence of a long-run relationship between Economic Growth, Trade Openness, Foreign Direct Investment and Gross Capital Formation. It was found that Trade Openness and Gross Capital Formation had positive and negative impacts respectively on growth rate of GDP in the short run. Therefore, this study concludes by recommending that; (i) trade openness should be regulated by government; from our result an increase in trade openness caused a decrease in our GDP (ii) FDI should be encouraged as it was seen to have significantly improved economic growth in Nigeria.
This paper is a contribution to addressing the challenge of underdevelopment in Nigeria using the tool of education. The researcher looked at education for sustainable development in Nigeria as a developing country. In recent times, there has been a paradigm shift in defining development and the way it is practiced. This paradigm shift is what has resulted in the adoption of Sustainable Development (SD) as a concept. Sustainable Development was highlighted in the Brunttand Report, at the Stockholm Conference of 1972 and more recently, in Paris, France where over 169 countries adopted the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a working document. All over Nigeria, there are rumours and evidence of failed leadership characterized by dwindling educational, economic, social and political fortunes. All these problems are as a result of the inability of the leadership to plan successfully for development using appropriate educational tools. It is the opinion here that, Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) can function to educate, train and undertake research to contribute to the sustainable development of the Nigerian Society. For instance, such education can provide the citizens with skills, perspectives, values and knowledge to live sustainably in their communities. It can also produce leaders who manage the affairs of government and private sector industries to constitute the stake holders of sustainable development. To function properly in this regard, Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) should grow from a variety of sources and be delivered through casual, informal, non-formal and formal strategies. In order to achieve these therefore, the paper recommends among other things that there should be a reorientation of existing education at all levels to include principles, skills, perspectives and values of sustainable development. That formal, non-formal informal and casual education for knowledge, attitude and skills for poverty alleviation and human development be promoted.
Analysis of Poultry Eggs Marketing In South-South Part of Nigeria. A Case Study of Ika South Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
Poultry egg marketing is a common enterprise in Ika South Local Government Area, Delta State of Nigeria; but there are no documented research findings on the conduct of the market and profitability to authenticate the viability of this business. Thus, this study was targeted to analyze the performance of poultry egg marketing in Ika South Local Government Area, Delta State. The study was conducted in five purposively selected villages in Ika South L.G.A., Delta State. Twelve (12) respondents were then randomly selected from each of the five selected villages to give a total of sixty respondents. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, the profitability of poultry egg marketing was determined using gross profit margin analysis, net profit margin analysis and return on investment. Gini Coefficient was used to examine the market structure for poultry egg marketing. The results of the study showed that majority (40.00%) of the poultry egg marketers were within the age group of 30≥ 40 years, majority (71.70%) of the marketers were female, 50.00% were married, 35.00% had family size of 3 – 5 persons. 30.00% of them attained tertiary level of education, 41.67% had marketing experience of 1-5 years, 53.33% had egg marketing as their primary occupation, 65.00% were none members of co-operative societies. The gross profit margin was N772,200 while the net profit margin was N747,500 per marketer per annum and return on investment was 0.29, which showed that poultry egg marketing is profitable and viable in the study area. Gini Coefficient of 0.3054 showed that there was a moderate inequality in the distribution of incomes among the marketers hence some level of perfect competition of the market structure. The major constraints militating against poultry egg marketing in the study area included: inadequate capital, poor transportation, price fluctuations and exorbitant price of poultry eggs. The study therefore recommended that credit granting institutions should be established, effective transportation system and good road networks should be constructed in the study area for easy transportation, price control mechanism should be established to avoid fluctuation of price within the marketing system and the activities of trade union should be minimized to reduce the exorbitant price of poultry eggs to consumers.