Resource-Use Efficiency of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfariaoccidentalis) Production as Aid To Poverty Alleviation in South-South Part Of Nigeria (Published)
The rural areas in Nigeria are worse hit by poverty which is a ban on the standard of living on the people. Fluted Pumpkin (TelfariaOccidentalis) is a crop produced for the economic importance of its leaves, fruits, seeds to the citizenry. This study therefore sought to examine the Resource-Use Efficiency of Fluted Pumpkin (TelfariaOccidentalis) Production as aid to poverty alleviation in Isoko South Local Government Area, South-South part of Nigeria. Cross-sectional data were obtained through well structure questionnaire administered to 60 fluted pumpkin farmers drawn using simple random sampling technique from the study area during the 2015 production season. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, poverty line analysis, efficiency ratio analysis, and a 3-Point Likert Scale Rating. Results showed that majority (40%) of the respondents were within the age bracket of 31>40 years, with mean age of 38.9years while 66.7% of the respondents were females. 53.3% had farming experience of 1-5years, with mean value of 4.88years. 58.3% had 1-4 persons in their household size, with mean value of 4 persons. The efficiency ratio of hired labour (0.683), quantity of seed used (0.167), quantity of herbicide used (0.109), portrayed that these resources were over-utilized. Also the efficiency ratio of family labour (1.474 ) and quantity of fertilizers used (6.087 ), showed that the farmers were inefficient in the use of these resources.The poverty level analysis indicated that 20% of the studied population was within the extremely poor group while 70% were within the moderately poor group and only 10% fell within the group of non-poor. The results also revealed the major constraints faced by farmers to include: lack of access to credit facilities, high cost of transportation, lack of storage facilities, and scarcity of viable seeds; it is therefore recommended that the government and financial institutions should provide credit facilities to the farmers for improved yields and efficient resource-use of inputs in the production of fluted pumpkin in the study area.
Human Resources and Strategic Management for Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Akwa Ibom State Experience (Published)
Human resource and strategic management is one of the most important requirements for the sustenance of an economy, whether at micro or macro levels. It is a must for any society, country or even enterprise that wishes to survive under complex challenges of a dynamic as well as globalized world. The objective of this study was to examine human resources and strategic management for sustainable development in Nigeria drawing specifically from Akwa Ibom State experience. The study adopted a historical and descriptive research drawing data mostly from secondary sources. The study revealed that Akwa Ibom state government is committed to training its workforce in the critical areas of need such as science, technology and engineering as a core area for sustainable development. The study further revealed that where human resources capital are not strategically managed, it would stalled any meaningful development in the state. The study therefore recommended that the training and retraining of workforce in the state should be focus mostly on the critical areas of science, technology and engineering as against the present emphasis on general administration. Also, the workforce so train should be strategically managed to enhance sustainable development in the state.
Research and Innovation Strategies for Economic Competitiveness and Industrial Growth: Lessons for Nigeria (Published)
One of the leading unrealized opportunities in Nigerian industrial organizations is the full influence of research ideas and knowledge to transform business products and processes into long-term innovation. Business research and innovation contribute significantly to improvement in enterprise productivity and quality and in the integral components of business strategy and success. Drawing heavily from published literature, this paper highlights the enormous benefits of continual research and innovation on national economies, and proffers recommendations on how Nigeria could key into this concept to promote its economic competitiveness at the global level.
Green Building for Nigeria Public Institutions towards Effective Administration of Public Properties: A Case Study of Military Barracks and Police Stations in Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)
Despite the huge environmental and energy problem in Nigeria/designers have not seen the need for a shift from their traditional method of designing buildings. This study proposes the adoption of green building concept for Nigeria public institutions as a way of enhancing effective administration of public properties, with reference to military barracks and police stations in Nigeria. observations as a primary source of data was used to gather information’s because of the military and police headquarters in Anambra state refused to grant interviews. Secondary data sources was also used. Findings/observations made from the study showed that the barrack buildings and premises including some part of the premises need renovation urgently. It was also found out that due to poor electricity supply, households of police officers and their offices resort to informal power supply which contributes to global warming. The paper recommends that there is need for a holistic adoption of green design either in new or old building as lack of it has been observed to be adverse to efficiency in buildings and environmental sustainability in Nigeria, most especially public institutions.
Application of a Stochastic Frontier Production Function to the Measurement of Technical Efficiency of Commercial Poultry Egg Production in Nigeria (Published)
Some studies on poultry production in Nigeria focused on problems and prospects of poultry production, part time commercial poultry farming, technical efficiency of small scale poultry-egg production and none on the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Nigeria This study therefore examined the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using a set of well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the study. First, five (5) major towns were randomly selected from the nine (9) major towns in the Local Government Area. Secondly, six (6) commercial poultry egg farmers were randomly selected from each of the five (5) major towns to make a total sample size of 30 farmers for the 2011 production cycle. Data collected were presented and analyzed using tables, frequency count, percentages and stochastic frontier production function. The stochastic frontier production function was specified and estimated, using maximum likelihood estimation. The results showed that majority of the respondents were found to be between the age range of 31-50 years old (60%), 56% of them were males, 50% of them had first leaving school certificates and 50% of them had 5-6 family members, 60% had 3-5 years of poultry rearing experience and 53% of them used hired labour for their operations; 60% of the respondents adopted the deep litter system of management. The results also revealed that the coefficients of expenditure on flock size (0.755), expenses on feed intake (0.851), expenses on medication and vaccination (0.220), expenses on labour (0.201), and cost of capital (0.562) were significant determinants of output of commercial egg production at 5% level of significance in the study area. The mean technical efficiency was 58% and ranges between 0.559 and 0.909. The sigma squared (σ2) of 0.65 for the commercial poultry farmers were statistically significant and different from zero at 5% level of significance. The variance ratio (gamma) was estimated as 0.52 for the farmers and were also significant at 5% level which implied that about 52% variations in the output of the farmers were due to the inefficiency of inputs. The study revealed that a national policy and programme to strengthen the commercial poultry production is required in the area of finance and inputs. It can therefore be recommended that capital should be channelled to commercial poultry production through the provision of macro-credits and formulation of policies and programmes by the Government to direct financial institutions to grant a definite and a reasonable proportion of loan-able funds to commercial poultry farmers. Programmes on economic production of major poultry feed ingredients like maize and soya-beans be instituted for least cost poultry feed production. Potent medicine and vaccine should be provided in sufficient quantities, easily accessible and enlightenment programme on mode of administration be embarked upon by the government to commercial poultry farmers in the study area. Exotic poultry parent stocks and fertile eggs imported should be screened and certified to be of good quality at the point of entry into the country by controlling bodies. Poultry equipment manufacturers should be encouraged by the Government with provision of credit facilities and subsidies.
The Potentials of Electronic Libraries (E-Libraries) in Knowledge Management in Contemporary Libraries in Nigeria (Published)
This essay discusses e-library services and knowledge management and its application in the contemporary library. It is further broken down into the definitions and concepts of e-library and knowledge management, their respective roles in the libraries, role of the librarian, the inherent problems and challenges faced in using the e-library and some strategies and recommendations in which the problems can be tackled. Traditionally, libraries used to process, store, preserve and disseminate information and information sources through the traditional form of library use, but the application of computers and knowledge management has brought a change to the way librarians and the library operations are been carried out. Introduction of e-services and knowledge management in the library has made it very easy for the end user to access information, and also for the librarian to be able to source information to his users. With e-services in the library, one can easily have access to library resources without visiting the library.
Assessment and Control Measures of Flood Risk in Ajibode Area of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)
Flood is one of the major factors that prevent Africa’s population from escaping poverty level. The most hit by flood are usually urban poor who have less choice, but to end up living in flood prone areas. Ravaging flood events in Nigeria can be dated back to 1963 in Ibadan city, when Ogunpa River was over-flown causing loss of lives and properties. Many factors have been attributed as the resultant factors leading to floods in literature. This study thus assesses flood risk and its control measures in Ajibode area of Ibadan, Oyo state, while appropriate recommendations are made in order to reduce flood risk in the study area. In order to achieve this, questionnaires were administered through random systematic sampling technique to the household heads of 216 buildings from 720 buildings as the sampling frame of the study. Chi-square test reveals significant relationships between annual house rent and monthly income of the respondents with their vulnerability to flood with p-values of 0.00 and 0.04 respectively.
Adopting the systems and behavioural theories, this article examines the impact of military ethos and orientation on the principle of true federalism during the Obasanjo’s civilian administration in Nigeria. The paper argues that Obasanjo’s military ethos, orientation and behavior largely led to the distortion of the principle of true federalism during his tenure as Nigeria’s civilian president. Against the backdrop of what is contained in the existing literature which usually focus on the distortion of federalism by military rulers, the present work looks at the issue of distortion of federalism from the perspective of military orientation of civilian leaders who had consciously and unconsciously imbibed military behaviours, norms, attitudes, values and practices as a result of long association with military government. It submits that this trend adversely affected the practice of true federalism, a principle believed by the vast majority of Nigerian people as panacea for stability and peaceful co-existence. Thus, it calls for a proper re-orientation and the alteration of the mind-set of every civilian and all retired military men now in leadership positions in Nigeria to see themselves as civilians rather than military men in order to handle issues of national importance in line with federal rules and democratic principles
Workforce diversity management in general term has, become a crucial part of organizational competitiveness and effectiveness not just in Nigeria public service but in other large corporations globally. It is no doubt that diversity management is increasingly becoming a standard of human resources management in contemporary time. Socio-economic forces like globalization and the internationalization of public issues contribute to expand the flow of labour across ethnic and national boundaries and have facilitated the constant exchange of materials, as well as symbolic and human resource. To remain competitive and relevant, the Nigeria public service must acclimatize and manage these environmental socio-economic forces. But the new complexity of work operations demands more diverse functions and the use of more diverse talents. As the need for employee diversity increases, so do the demands, such as the need for effective interaction among diverse employees, this tendency is believed to have potential for conflict and schism among employees. Using the workforce management model this study attempts to highlight the salient feature of this process with a particular emphasis on the problems and prospects associated with workforce diversity management in Nigeria public service.
Operationalising Cost Sharing As A Sustainable Funding Model in Agricultural Extension Service: Farmers’ and Pubic Extension Agents’ Perception in Benue State, Nigeria (Published)
The study was carried out in Benue State, Nigeria to ascertain the perception of cost sharing as a sustainable funding model in agricultural extension processes among farmers and public extension agents (PEAs). Data were collected using interview schedule/questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were used for analyzing the data. A sample of 174 farmers and 42 PEAs were selected for the study using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Findings of the study indicate that majority of the farmers (62.1%) and all (100%) the public extension agents were males, married, middle aged and had formal education. Majority (56.3%) of the farmers and the PEAs (55.8%) had a high level of awareness on cost sharing. Both farmers (43.0%) and PEAs (42.9%) were of the opinion that cost-sharing is when all stakeholders contribute to facilitate the activities and maintained that it is when benefitting farmers and government pay for extension services. Majority (82.8%) of the farmers perceived a positive impact of cost-sharing on agricultural extension service delivery if adopted, while most (61.9%) of the PEAs were indifferent about the impacts, among others. However, farmers also preferred that cost-sharing should be in the area of input provision (53.4%), while PEAs preferred advisory services (77.5%) as an area of intervention in the implementation of cost-sharing practices. The study recommends that there should be a gradual commencement of the implementation of cost-sharing practice given the high interest demonstrated by farmers as this will help to achieve the objectives of agricultural extension service. Efforts are also highly needed in the area of provision of farm inputs and advisory services to farmers in order to facilitate the adoption of cost-sharing practices.
Determinants of the Technical Efficiency Performance of Privatized Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria: An Econometric Analysis (Published)
This work is designed to empirically evaluate the determinants of the technical efficiency of ten privatized manufacturing firms in Nigeria. The firms were selected from the numerous firms in the four geo political zones to represent the interest of the entire country due to their age long establishment, size and government equity investment in them. The study adopted Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and ordinary least square regression as the techniques of analysis and the period of analysis is five years before and five years after privatization. The efficiency scores generated from the first stage using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used as dependent variables in the second stage against a set of explanatory variables. The investigation revealed that concentration ratio, size and age of firms were considered as determinant of technically efficiency. It also shows that, concentration ratio will lead to higher monopoly power, with age firms gain experience and with size, firms gain more strength to control or have a larger share of the market. It is recommended that there should be market competition with liberalization of entry conditions, in order to terminate monopoly and allow for new entrants to make operations competitive for production. This will be in line with the industrialization policy.
The study was carried out to assess tourism potential of Onicha Igboeze community New Yam Festival. Six (6) villages, 12 key informants and 60 ordinary residents were selected for the study through multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. Primary data were collected through the use of semi-structured questionnaire, interview schedules and Focus Group Discussions. Secondary information was sourced from historic records and documentaries on the subject matter. Data were analyzed using mean scores from 4-point Likert-Type scale and Explanatory Factor Analysis. Historical and other descriptive information were presented in documentary form. Results showed that the interplay of the rural ambience of Onitcha Igboeze community, the recreational content and structure of her New Yam Festival, and the community’s positive socio-cultural values provide adequate response to recreational needs of a modern urbanized society. It was recommended that community leadership in conjunction with the State ministry of tourism should work to promote the festival as a premium tourism product.
Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Concentrations at Wood-Based Burnt Brick Sites in Selected Local Government Areas of Benue State, Nigeria (Published)
This study evaluated the concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, CH4 and NH3 at sixteen wood-based burnt brick sites selected from eight purposively sampled Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Benue State. The six greenhouse gases were monitored for two years, from 2012 to 2013, using CROWCON Gasman Digital Gas Meters. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in analyzing collected data. Results indicate that the concentrations of each of the greenhouse gases were significantly much higher during the dry season compared to their wet season concentrations (p<.0.5). There were also significant differences in the inter-local government concentrations of the assessed gases within the same period. The use of fuelwood to burn bricks is believed to have principally resulted in the observed significantly higher concentrations of the greenhouse gases during the dry season, from the months of November to March, and corresponds with the season of active wood-based burnt bricks production. The production of perforated bricks can reduce the volume of fuelwood used since the bricks are hollow and can be cured faster, and thus save energy cost as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Greener alternative energy sources (like solar, wind, liquefied hydrogen gas and hydro) should be used in firing bricks as this can reduce greenhouse gas emissions from burning wood at brick sites.
Solid Waste Management Trends in Nigeria (Published)
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current trends in solid waste management in Nigeria and to identify the major challenges inhibiting the attainment of sustainability in solid waste management in the country. The study relied on a desktop and descriptive approach; hence, data were obtained mainly from previous publications relevant to the current study, particularly from peer reviewed publications. Sources such as waste management agencies webpages and documents, journal articles, environmental organizations reports and books were used to obtained data. These data were then analysed using a descriptive approach. It was found that solid waste management is a major concern in the country. Inadequate environmental policies and legislation, low level of environmental awareness, poor funding and inappropriate technology, corruption and unplanned development were some of the challenges facing solid waste management in the country. As a result, the paper concludes that for waste management to work, various aspects of Government services such as engineering, urban planning, Geography, economics, public health and law among others must be brought together under a proper policy to deliver an effective waste management system.
The pressure for development, public finance and revenue concomitantly attract challenges impacting and impairing on businesses especially in building and construction sector of the economy. Mitigating these responsibilities by various levels of government is the concern for efficient and inclusive fiscal policies for streams of auspicious and sustainable revenue windows particularly taxation. This study therefore examined implication of tax and taxation on the construction sector in Nigeria with a view for industry operator’s decision making. Using extensive review of related literature as well as eliciting primary data through structured questionnaires administered on purposive but randomly selected 100 respondents, elicited data were analysed using descriptive and inferential tools. The result indicated that Value Added Tax and With Holding Tax are most identified , 85% of respondents are aware of the identified taxes while Multiplicity of taxes, corruption risk and lack of confidence in the tax and poor enforcement of tax laws and policies were ranked major inhibiting factors to tax payment. Yet, tax administration was found to have no insignificant effect on tax payment in Nigeria tax system. The study conclusion avail for long-run taxation behaviour on the building and construction sector of the economy and on investment decision, it recommended that appropriate guidance and understanding of tax system and policies required by operators/investors and tax authorities in order to attract tax compliance in the economy.
Compensation Issues in the Niger-Delta – A Case Study Of Boboroku, Jesse, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
It is common to find oil companies operating in the Niger Delta region acquiring expansive farmlands to facilitate their operations in the area while the natives of affected communities are generally left in precarious conditions arising from acquisition of their farm lands. The paper examines issues of compulsory acquisition, evaluating the quantum of compensation paid to natives of communities whose farmlands are acquired and issues that must be dealt with to provide adequate compensation to claimants. Using an oil well acquisition base in Boboroku, Jesse in Ethiope-West Local Government Area of Delta State as a case study, various compensation claims were examined vis-à-vis open market claims in compulsory acquisition. It was found that many claimants received N1000.00 or less as full compensation claims for their crops while families lucky to own lands received more reasonable payments. It was established that there was no statutory provision for disturbance losses from revocation of land interest. Also, the productivity of economic crops and trees was not considered nor was computation of claims based on market-values. The paper established that claims should be compensated on the basis of productivity value and lifespan of interests being acquired and not on arbitrary rates supplied by the acquiring authorities.
Umbilical Cord Care and Management Outcome among Mothers in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State – Nigeria (Published)
In developing countries umbilical cord infections constitute a major cause of neonatal morbidity and pose significant risk for mortality Methods of caring for the umbilical cord vary greatly between communities depending on their cultural and religious beliefs, level of education and resources. The risk of cord infection is increased by unhygienic cutting of the cord and application of unclean substances. This study examined the cord management practices and management outcome among mothers in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional community-based study was conducted in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Calabar South is one of the two Local Government Areas that make up Calabar Metropolis with 11 wards. Women of child bearing age were used as population of the study. A sample size of 451 mothers was selected using the snowball method. A structured pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed descriptively using frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviation. All analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0 at 95% confidence interval. Results: Whereas most of the respondents 224(49.8%) used methylated spirit in cleaning the cord, others used dettol 88(19.6%), saliva and salt 44(9.8%), herbal preparations 44(9.8%). Most of the respondents 314 (69.8%) applied unhygienic substances at the base of the stump after cleaning the cord. Main reason for choice of materials includes to wade off evil spirits and hasten cord separation 270(55.9%). The outcome of cord management showed that majority of the umbilical cords were infected 338 (75.1 %.). Conclusion: Majority of the respondents applied harmful and contaminated materials/ substances to the umbilical cord. Good umbilical cord care practices can lead to improved newborn care while poor umbilical cord care practices may result in neonatal morbidity and mortality. Improving the standard of umbilical cord care among mothers can largely be achieved through health education and follow up visits by nurses after discharge from the health facility.
Corporate Board Size, Risk Management and Financial Performance of Listed Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (Published)
This study examined the effect of corporate board size, risk management on financial performance of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria for the period of 2011-2016. The population of the study is fifteen (15) listed deposit money banks in Nigeria out of which a sample of fourteen (14) were used for the study due to the accessibility and availability of data. Corporate board size and risk management as the independent variable was proxy with numbers of board of directors, liquidity risk, credit risk and operating risk, while the return on equity(ROE) and earnings per share (EPS) were used to proxy financial performance. Data were collected from secondary source through the annual report and account of the banks for the period under study and the data was analysed using multiple panel regression techniques. The findings reveal that board size, credit risk and operating risk are significant negative effect on return on equity (ROE) and earnings per share (EPS) respectively. The study also shows that liquidity risk is negative and insignificant effect on ROE and EPS of the study banks in Nigeria. It is recommended among others that the banks should regulate their risk management practices and ensure they minimize the non-performing loan as it has been found empirically to reduce the quality of the firm’s financial performance. They should also reduce their operational cost for better performance
Communications Feedback Mechanism: A Public Sphere Perspective of a State House of Assembly (Published)
Given its attendant implication to democracy, governments and their agencies are coming to terms with the need for increased citizen’s participation in governance. Yet this quest is impaired because government institutions and their publics under-utilize feedback mechanism. It is in the light of this notion that this study examined communications feedback mechanism and how its publics leverage on this feedback mechanism to foster public sphere discourse in a single state’s House of Assembly in Southern Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research method and its sample size was 400. Data were gathered using a questionnaire and analyzed with percentages and frequency distribution tables. Findings are among others revealed that respondents are not aware of any feedback mechanism and that constituents’ level of participation in public sphere discourses remains low. Against this backdrop, this study recommends that the House enact a legislation that will make it mandatory for the public to participate in all phases of law making, while submitting that public hearing be democratized to accommodate more constituents. Also recommended is that the House should synergize with Non-Governmental Organizations cultural/traditional and religious organizations to engage constituents in regular town hall meetings on issues that concern them. Conclusion and recommendations are reached.
Factors Influencing Medication Adherence among Patients With Diabetes Mellitus And Hypertension In Nigeria (Published)
Medication non-adherence results in increased morbidity, mortality and financial loss. Reasons for medication non-adherence are multifactorial. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of, and factors contributing to medication non-adherence among patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension attending some secondary and tertiary health care facilities in Lagos, Nigeria. Of the 100 patients, 32% were compliant with their medications. Most (39%) respondents were noncompliant because of lack of funds and cost of medication, 19% due to forgetfulness, 16% because they felt well, and 15% due to non-availability of drugs at the pharmacy. Other reasons for non-compliance include illnesses (9%), side effects of medications (1%) and misinterpretation of prescription (1%). Among the socio-demographic variables studied, only male gender was positively associated with medication compliance. Adherence to anti-diabetics and anti-hypertensives was low. Both health system and patients’ related issues contributed to poor compliance and these should be addressed to improve medication adherence.