The main crux of this paper is to draw the attention of all social studies practitioners, researchers, students of our discipline – social studies and others, to the fact that social studies in Nigeria’s education system is not the preserve of the Universal Basic Education level schools. This is undoubtedly an integral part of it. However, there is more to it than is ordinarily perceived.
Institutional Impediments to International Remittance: Transmission-Cost Issues in Nigeria (Published)
This study investigates the institutional impediments of remittances with reference to the cost of transmission in Nigeria. The study is motivated by the increasing inflows of remittances through informal channels that would have been directed into the financial system to improve savings and enhance financial deepening if they were accounted for. The study therefore investigates whether the use of informal channels is caused by the increasing costs of collecting remittances that is partly induced by financial institutions. The study uses a bank exit survey data and a household survey data collected by the Center for Demographic and Allied Research (CDAR). T-test analysis and logit regressions were employed to achieve the objectives of the research. The findings show that there is no significant difference in the frequency of receipt for the formal and informal channels, transaction cost negatively and significantly determinants the use of formal channels flows, and finally there exist a significant difference between the transaction costs of using formal and informal channels of remittances. Financial institutions should therefore checkmate the charge of remittance receipt to encourage the use of formal channels and increase the frequency of flows
The Association between Audit Quality and Earnings Management by Listed Firms in Nigeria (Published)
This study examines the association between audit quality and earnings management by listed firms in Nigeria. The study measures audit quality by audit firm size and earnings management by the absolute abnormal discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. The study was carried out in two parts, the first part is the comparative study using independent sample t-test and the Wilcoxon signed ranked test. The second part is the multivariate analysis where the association between audit quality and earnings management was examined. Based on our analysis, we found that auditor size has restrained earnings management but the decrease is not statistically significant. The implication of this finding is that users should not blindly assume that high audit quality proxy by the big 4 auditor is a symbol of earnings quality.
Use of Electronic Information Resource Databases among Lecturers and Postgraduate Students in University Libraries in South-South Nigeria (Published)
The purpose of this study is to find out the utilization of electronic information resource databases in University libraries in South-South, Nigeria. 6 (six) research questions and 4 (four) hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The survey design was employed. The population of the study was made up of 1,421 lecturers and 922 postgraduate students. Data collection was done through the use of questionnaire titled Utilization of Electronic Information Resource Databases in University Libraries (UEIRDUL).The research questions were analyzed using percentages, while z-test proportion of difference of significance was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. It was found that lecturers and postgraduate students in the federal and state university libraries use different types of EIR database. The level of usage of EIR databases by lecturers and postgraduate students in the federal and state university libraries in South-South, Nigeria was generally high as most of them indicated that they use these resources frequently for their academic activities. The proportion of lecturers and postgraduate students in the federal and state universities that use the EIR databases for different purposes do not differ significantly. It was recommended among others that librarians in both universities should identify non users of the EIR databases and effective steps should be taken to encourage them to use the databases.
Slaughtered Cattle and Reasons for Slaughtering Cows in Ember Months at Lafenwa Abattoir in Abeokuta, Nigeria (Published)
High incidence of slaughtering of gravid cows has damnable effects on productivity of animal protein to the ever-increasing population in Nigeria. This study was conducted to evaluate the foetal losses from the slaughtering of pregnant cows at Lafenwa abattoir –Abeokuta, Ogun state. Information on demographical pattern of the butchers, herd size and composition of slaughtered animals as well as the reasons for slaughtering were assessed through the use of a structured questionnaire. Most of the butchers fell within the active age (31-40 years), married (83.3%) and having formal education at various levels. It was found that a total of 15112 cattle were slaughtered of which 76.7% were cows. The percentage of foetal wastage was 10.7%, while one foetus was lost for every nine cattle and seven cows slaughtered. Pregnant cows were mostly slaughtered for ceremonies and festivals while sometimes, it was due to poverty or disease condition of the animal. Control of foetal wastage in abattoirs will go a long way in increasing the population of livestock in Nigeria. Knowledge of the magnitude of bovine foetal wastage in abattoirs is necessary to forestall further occurrences.
Gas Flaring In Nigeria: Problems and Prospects (Published)
The issue of gas flaring in Nigeria has become a topical one in view of the devastating effect gas flaring has in the socio-economic lives of the people in the affected areas. Historically, it is said that gas flaring is as old as oil production in Nigeria. Oil exploratory activities of oil companies in Nigeria have caused gas flaring resulting in loss of lives and properties in the affected communities where gas is flared. There is no specific legal framework that prohibits gas flaring in Nigeria inspite of the environmental problems associated with it. The existing law that appears to regulate gas flaring in Nigeria is not effective as it does not completely prohibit gas flaring but only provide monetary penalties for continued flaring of gas by oil companies in Nigeria. The Judiciary therefore appeared to have championed the cause for the abolition of gas flaring in Nigeria. This paper examines the legal framework for gas flaring in Nigeria and further identifies the problems and prospects associated with the flaring of gas in Nigeria and makes useful recommendations
Personnel’s Perception of Continued Relevance of Shorthand and Typewriting Skills to Office Management in Osun State Owned Tertiary Institutions, Nigeria. (Published)
Shorthand and Typewriting are two major skilled courses in Office Education Programme in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Acquisitions of skills in these two subjects were regarded as trade-in-stock for secretarial practitioners in managing offices. But with the current applications of Information and Communication Technology to manage in offices, the relevance of Typewriting and Shorthand skills became a subject of discourse. The main objective was to determine the continued relevance of the two subject’s skills to office management in Osun State owned tertiary institutions. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Five research questions and five hypotheses were raised for the study. The population comprised 171 executives with their individual secretaries, making 342 participants. The entire population was used as the sample size. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data and descriptive statistics to analyse. The findings among others revealed that Shorthand and Typewriting were still relevant to office management. Based on the findings, it is recommended that secretarial training institutions should intensify efforts towards the training of students in these “twin” subjects.
Towards A Critical Thinking-Based Curricular and Pedagogical Innovations for Sustaining Democracy in Nigeria (Published)
Democracy, in addition to being a political system is also a way of life that is so admired that it has become a global model. Unfortunately those ingredients and flavour that make democracy the global ideal are terribly lacking in Nigeria, in addition to democracy not having any stronghold in Nigeria. Using the philosophical method, the paper raises sign posts on how critical thinking based curricular and pedagogical innovations can be a relief in reinventing and sustaining democracy in Nigeria. The position of the paper is that there is no substitute to positive thinking and positive thinking especially at the evaluative, insightful and critical thinking levels, can proffer solutions for resolving the pessimism that surrounds democracy in Nigeria. The paper makes recommendations, part of which include developing learners’ curiosity for participation in the democratic processes, the development of learners autonomous moral thinking as well as identifying live problems that threaten democracy and making such the subjects of arguments, dialogues and deliberations
Investigating the Influence of Social Media on Sociability: A Study of University Students in Nigeria (Published)
This article investigates the influence of social media on the university students’ sociability in Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 250 students at BIU and 350 students at DELSU through heterogeneous samples in different faculties and departments of respective institution. The data derived were subjected to descriptive statistics with simple percentage, chi-square test and one-way ANOVA. Findings revealed that age, year of study, family income plays decisive role in respondents’ ability to exploit the benefit of social media utilization for sociability. Further, majority of the respondents were observed to use Facebook as major platform for friendship sociability, with mobile media (feature phone with internet connection and smartphone) as a medium of constructive sociability behaviour and respondents’ friendship size of above 200 demonstrate the strength of respondents’ sociability practice. The study also found that the respondents’ frequency of interaction with friendship groups cut across different time frame with communication relations and socio-pleasure as a means of strategic sociability fulfilment. Future research should focus on why university students use social media for romantic sociability since evidences are emerging on the relations of social media sociability and romantic behaviour of young people.
Role of Academic Libraries in Accreditation of Courses and Teaching Programs: A Case of Afe Babalola University Library, Ado – Ekiti (Published)
This study focused on the role of academic libraries in accreditation of courses and teaching programs in Nigeria taking a cursory look at Afe Babalola University, Ado – Ekiti (ABUAD) Library. It is worthy of note that no educational institution can perform its tripartite functions of teaching, learning and research without well – equipped library and other facilities. This study therefore analyzed the invaluable contribution of Afe Babalola University, Ado – Ekiti (ABUAD) library in courses accreditation and teaching programmes. The findings indicated that in Afe Babalola University, decentralized library system has enhanced specialized collections that are rich and in-depth for providing access to information in print and electronic media. Also, the systematic organizations of the collections have enhanced accessibility by users. This in turns have enhanced full accreditation of most of the courses that are being offered. Furthermore, the library has assisted in equipping students with the necessary skills needed for effective learning, reading skills, information literacy skills and the provision of relevant up – to – date information materials. Access to collections has also been enhanced through long opening hours including weekends.
Constraints to Participation in Women-in-Agriculture Programme in Aboh Mbaise local government area of Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
The study assessed the participation in women-in-agriculture programme in Aboh Mbaise local government area of Imo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 120 women. Data were collected with a set of structured questionnaire and were analyzed using mean and percentages. Results showed that all the WIA packages were available in the study area and the women participated in all of them. Major constraints to participation in WIA programme were inadequate capital (91.5%) and illiteracy (69.5%). It was recommended that the WIA programme should be sustained and upscaled and that credit facilities should be made available to the women.
The main objective of this study is to analysis tax revenue collection by the Federal government in Nigeria. The study adopted quantitative research design; the secondary data will be obtained from the FIRS in respect of the total tax revenue collected from the oil and non-oil taxes for the period of 2011-2015. The population of the study is made up of Federal Inland Revenue Services and the sample size is Planning, Reporting and Statistics Departments. The findings from the study revealed that Capital Gains Tax, Stamp Duty, Education Tax and Petroleum Profit Tax are positively significant at 1%, 5% and 10% respectively while Company Income Tax and Value Added Tax are not significant. However, Company income tax has more total collected revenue than all the remaining variables. Therefore, it is recommended that government should enhance the collection of tax revenue processes and ensure that any deviations from compliance with the laid down rules and regulations are severally dealt with and punished accordingly
Malaria Prevalence and Drug Management in Pregnant Women Attending Remotely Located Daura General Hospital, North West Nigeria (Published)
Health authorities in Nigeria have for many years promoted national malaria control measures such as the use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs), indoor residual spray of insecticides (IRS), intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for pregnant women and children and the use of artemisinin combined therapy (ACT) as first line of treatment to reduce the prevalence of the disease in the country. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these control measures, there is the need for continued disease monitoring and management across different zones of the country, especially among high risk cohorts such as children and pregnant women at remote locations. A 13 months study (July 2014 to July 2015) was carried out to establish the current prevalence of malaria among female patients attending Daura General Hospital in North West Nigeria, using standard laboratory procedures. Daura is a remotely located town that lies in the semi-arid zone of northern Nigeria at the intersection of roads from Katsina, Kano and Zinder in Niger Republic, with coordinates of 130 2’11’’ North, 80 19’4’’ East and 1,558 feet (474 meters) above sea level. Of the 8413 patients that tested positive for malaria parasite during the period, 1119 (13.30%) were children, 3721 (44.23%) were women, 2609 (30.99%) were men and 966 (11.48%) were the elderly. Among the infected women population, 2105 (56.57%) were pregnant (PGW), while 1616 (43.23%) were non-pregnant (NPW) women, indicating statistical significance in malaria prevalence between the two cohorts (p<0.05). Age related prevalence was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the 11 – 20 years group (32.68%) of the PGW and 21 – 30 years group (44.43%) of the NPW than the 25.89% recorded in the 21 – 30 years group and 21.05 and 20.38% recorded in the 31 – 40 years and 41 – 50 years groups of the PGW respectively. The highest seasonal prevalence rate was recorded during the late rainy season (LRS) months of July to September (10.86% for PGW and 8.83% for NPW) followed by the 7.73% recorded for PGW and 7.24% recorded for NPW during the early dry season (EDS) months of October to December. The lowest rates (5.67 and 5.46% for PGW and 6.50% for NPW) were recorded during the early rainy (ERS, April – June) and late dry season (LDS, January – March) months respectively. Monthly prevalence rates were highest during August (15.63%), September (15.11%) and October (11.26%) for the PGW, while corresponding prevalence figures for these months among the NPW were significantly lower (p<0.05) at 8.29, 9.22 and 7.80% respectively. Major drugs prescribed for the prevention of malaria during the second and third trimesters once foetal quickening is noticed include sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine given monthly, while for cure and treatment during all trimesters quinine SO4, arthessunate, α-β arteate and arthessunate/lumefantrim were prescribed. Analgesics, electrolytes and vitamins were also indicated. Malaria is a major cause of hospital visits pregnant women especially during the rainy season months, indicating the need to improve advocacy on intervention control measures among these groups in the study area.
Data clustering is a vital tool when it comes to understanding data items with similar characteristics in a data set for the sake of grouping. Clustering may be for understanding or utility. Clustering for understanding, which is the focus of this work deals with grouping items with common characteristics in order to better understand a dataset and to identify possible or pre-interest sub-groups that could be formed from such data. The HIV prevalence statistics in Nigeria is measured bi-annually across 36 states and FCT which were zoned under 6 geo-political zones happens to be a suitable data to implement this subject matter. Cluster Analysis was implemented through the general methods of Hierarchical (agglomerative nesting) and Partitioning methods (K-Means). These techniques where implemented on the platform of R (Statistical Computing Language) to cluster HIV prevalence rate in Nigeria so as to find out states that could be considered same category and to investigate the concentration of the disease in respect to geo-political zones. Relative type of validation was used for cluster validation (a mechanism for evaluating the correctness of clustering).
Teacher Quantity in Nigeria: What Quality (Published)
This paper focuses attention on Teacher Quality in Nigeria: What Quality? An historical portrait of teacher quantity in Nigeria is undertaken. This presentation gives an insight, into poor quality of prospective teacher trainees, poor quality of teachers of teachers, poor quality of training programmes/curriculum, poor implementation strategies of teacher education programmes, governments and society’s role in poor quality of teachers amongst others
Boosting Achievement Using Individulised And Demonstration Strategies In Biology: How Do Male And Female Students Behave In Nigeria? (Published)
This study determined the effectiveness of demonstration, individualized and conventional methods and Gender on the achievement of Secondary School Two students in biology. The study employed a multi stage sampling techniques; in the first stage, three schools were randomly selected out of the twenty Secondary Schools in Abeokuta South Local Government of the state. At the second stage, sample sizes of sixty students were randomly selected from the list of students and their gender. In the same manner, thirty students were male while the female constitute the same number. The study which lasted six weeks made use of two valid and reliable instruments: Biology Achievement Test (BAT) and Operational guide for instruction (OGI) Stimulus instrument. Students were exposed to different methods (Demonstration and Individualized) while those in the control were not exposed to any treatment but were rather taught in the Convectional way. Data analysis involved the use of Analysis of Covariance, Descriptive Statistics and t-test.The result indicated that the demonstration method is a more potent method of improving achievement in biology. (F (1.167) = 42.838; P < 0.05), (F (1.167) = 486.287; P < 0.05), F (2.167) = 90.389; P < 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant difference in the academic achievement of male and female students when exposed to the two experimental methods and control, hence female students performed better than their male counterparts. Arising from these findings, demonstration method and individualized method where recommended for teachers use in biology classrooms.
Traditionally, commercial banks lend money to large, credit-worthy corporations and avoid doing business with small and medium enterprises due to the associated risks and costs. These small and medium enterprises depend on microfinance banks to obtain loans for their businesses, but for some reasons, some of these businesses do not approach microfinance banks for loans. This research investigates reasons why some businesses do not apply for loans from microfinance banks even though they need funds for the efficient running of their business. Results show that lack of collateral, ignorance of businesses about the existence of microfinance banks, and high interest rates are the main reasons that are hindering businesses in applying for loans from microfinance banks. Microfinance banks need to reach out to economically active poor businesses that cannot obtain loans from commercial banks or other financial institution.
This paper sees corruption generally as a condemnable behaviour and particularly identifies corruption in the education industry as a practice that has multiple capabilities for undermining the national development of Nigeria. Corruption in the education industry terribly creates infrastructural deficits that result in poor instructional delivery and making many people not to have access to education which in addition to being a fundamental human right is a spring board for their empowerment and emancipation infrastructural deficits and inability of a people to have access to education systematically renders useless the ability of the people to engineer national development as generations of citizens are left frustrated, disgruntled and disenchanted in addition to manifesting terrible immorality in the forms of militancy and insurgency. Embrace of militancy and insurgency as a result of lack of access and infrastructure owe their sources to corruption, which disastrously has multiplier effects on the economy and the national development of the Nigerian state: potential human beings who ideally are great assets for the development of Nigeria are lost to actions/activities that are not investor and investment friendly. The paper recommends among other things the teaching of skills that can promote greater transparency and accountability in managing issues in education, stronger and implementable in managing issues in education, stronger and implementable social justice measures for the citizens to developing curricular and pedagogical measures for sensitizing citizens to rise up to kill corruption in Nigeria.
The study examines the effect of petroleum profit tax on economic growth of Nigeria. Income from petroleum taxes is the proxy for PPT while economic growth was measured using Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The research adopted expos-facto research as secondary data were used for the analysis. Data were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and the Federal Statistical Bureau. The study covered twelve year period (2004-2015). Time series data were analyzed using the simple linear regression. The results reveals that PPT had positive and significant effect on Nigerian GDP. The study recommends that the government should provide the necessary human and material infrastructures that are needed to support petroleum business so they can earn more income that will boost taxation.
Effect of Sustainability Accounting and Reporting on Financial Performance of Firms in Nigeria Brewery Sector (Published)
This paper evaluates the effect of sustainability accounting on the financial performance of listed manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Firms used for the study were chosen from the Nigerian brewery sector. Data were sourced from the financial statements of three sampled firms. Data were analysed using the ordinary linear regression. The study reveals that sustainability reporting has positive and significant effect on financial performance of firms studied. Following the findings, the study recommends that firms in Nigeria should invest reasonable amount of their earnings on sustainability activities while specific accounting templates be articulated by professional accounting regulating bodies to guide firms’ reportage on sustainability activities. The Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRC) and others alike should make sustainability reporting compulsory while adequate sanctions are spelt out and enforced on defaulting organizations to serve as a deterrent