Linguistic Politeness Forms in English among Igbo Bilinguals in Nigeria: The Case of Reprimand (Published)
The study examined Igbo perception and expression of reprimand speech act in line with politeness as a conversation strategy in the conversational English of Igbo native speakers which is unexplored. Through a purposive sampling process, 3 000 questionnaires in the form of Discourse Completion Task depicting ten scenarios of imagined role-play between interlocutors written in English were distributed to undergraduates of Igbo extraction at seven universities systematically selected from South-East and South-South zones in Nigeria. Results showed that reprimands were conversational norms of Igbo bilinguals and were evident in their English language conversations as participants engaged in reprimanding occasioned by forms of misconduct. Findings also revealed that to achieve the conversational demands of reprimand speech act across horizontal, vertical and diagonal relationships as the case may be, the Igbo culture reflected observance of context, social status, social distance and severity of offence variables a consideration of which at the instance of a conversation underlies the choice/use of a particular strategy or another. The study concluded that speech act is culture-bound hence the need to incorporate pragmatics in language teaching
Comparative Analysis of Business and Consumer Buying Behaviour and Decisions: Opportunities and Challenges in Nigeria (Published)
Business markets and consumer markets are alike in some key ways. For example, both include people in buying roles whose purchased decision is to satisfy needs. But business markets also differ in many ways from consumer markets. For one thing, the business market is enormous, far larger than the consumer market. Within Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries the business market includes more than 13 million organizations that annually, purchased trillions of Naira worth of goods and services. This paper also focused on the traditional tools and techniques employed in the marketing of goods and services to the business sector. Attempt was made to draw attention on the major differences between consumer and business markets – dissimilarities that, while using the same basic marketing tools and techniques, spelled the difference between success and failure in the contemporary business marketing environments.
Climate Change Implications for Agricultural Sustainability in Enugu in the Guinea Savanna Eco-Climatic Zone of Southeastern Nigeria: Input from Climate Change Proxies (Published)
Climate change poses debilitating effects for agriculture and food security in low technology countries such as sub-Saharan Africa. The trends and variations of some climatic variables that influence agriculture were analysed using integrated statistical techniques. The aim is to examine the possible effects of climate change on agricultural sustainability in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria using lessons drawn from trend analysis of historical time series of meteorological variables in monthly time step in the area. The area whose economy is largely agrigarian has continued to witness incidence of poor crop productivity. Significant long-term trends were identified in some of the variables and non-significant trends in others. Inferences were made with considerable support of evidence and high degree of confidence. The climate of the area is changing in a manner that concern for agricultural sustainability is on the front burner of the long-term resulting consequences. The need for pre-season and on-season climate information dissemination system is advocated to provide timely and accurate agro-meteorological information
This study examined the impact of money supply on inflation in Nigeria between 1980 and 2009, using Vector Error Correction Mode (VECM). The data for the variables were sourced from CBN statistical Bulletin. The results of the test established a significant long run positive relationship between money supply and inflation in Nigeria. Based on this finding, the study recommended that, government intensify the effort to combat inflation by encouraging the monetary authority to put in place policies measures that are gear toward reducing the volume of money in circulation in Nigeria.
This paper provides empirical evidence linking exports and foreign aid to international reserve accumulation. Country-specific data spanning from 1981-2015 on oil and non-oil exports and foreign aid in Nigeria were sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and analyzed using error correction mechanism (ECM) in addition to unit root and cointegration tests. As observed from the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test unit root, the variables are mixed integrated. Long run relationship was established amongst the series from the Johansen cointegration test result. The parsimonious ECM that lagged values of oil exports impact positively on foreign reserve holding. 1 percent increase in lag two of oil exports leads to 0.367 percent in the external reserve. Similarly, the first lag of non-oil exports is positively linked to external reserve. With 1 percent increase in non-oil exports, international reserve increases by 0.499 percent. The error correction estimate (-0.5099) indicates that the model is well behaved as any short run disequilibrium in the system is reconciled at the speed of 50.9 percent to achieve long run equilibrium position. On the basis of the findings, it is concluded that exports are helpful in boosting the foreign reserve holding in Nigeria. Thus, this paper recommends for the diversification of the export base in order to keep the foreign reserve holding on the path of rapid and sustainable growth.
Building Institutional Repository: Knowledge Management, Content, Understanding of Key Issues and the Librarians Role (Published)
Institutional Repositories (IRs) are increasingly becoming crucial library resources, and more use of digitized material is fundamental in building sustainable IRs. With a series of universities and research sites distributed throughout the continent, a lot of researchwhich requires preservation is obviously carried out in the institutions. However, a majority of the research generated from these institutions ends up in various libraries which are hardly accessed by learners. As such, many African scholars rely greatly on information from developed nations and reduce Africa to just a consumer of information, rather than a source, hence building an accessible IR allows the display of the works of scholars to the broader community and considerably assists in the advancement of an institution and its outreach. The successful establishment of an institutional repository needs careful arrangements and enthusiasm from the entire institutional community such as students, faculty members and academic staff. Critical decisions have to be made before making any designs and redesigns on IRs such as the funds, staff, technology, metadata, content, building operations and successful management and running of the IRs. This paper explores knowledge management in terms of software and the evolution of how knowledge is managed, the inclusion process of content through structured content organization and modular content publishing, issues of IRs in Nigerian Universities, and the roles of the librarian in building institutional repositories.
Producing oil from deep offshore fields poses serious risk especially due to peculiar pressure and temperature regimes characterizing the fields. These variables affects the bubble point of the produced hydrocarbon in such fields. The significance of Bubble point pressure and gas solubility has led researchers to continually develop correlations to accurately predict these reservoir oil properties. In this work, measured bubble point pressure is first evaluated and a new correlation is established to estimate crude oil bubble point pressure for deep offshore region of West Africa. Nonlinear Multiple Regression analysis was utilized. The correlation applies to API crude oils ranging from 38 to 56. Comparison with other published ones of this new correlation indicates that it is much more precise than the others. The developed correlation’s Average Absolute Percent Error (percentage) is 4.8 percent. The result is indicative of an agreement between the measured and estimated data.
This paper aims to examine the relationship between organisational change and exit, voice, loyalty and neglect (EVLN) behaviours of employees in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. By adopting a quantitative approach, the tools employed in analysing data collected through the use of questionnaires from 322 employees are factor analysis from the Analysis of Moments of Structure (AMOS 22.0) for windows. The study statistically revealed that organisational change is positively and insignificantly correlated to the Nigerian oil and gas employees’ exit, voice, loyalty and neglect behaviour. These findings reveal the type of sector employees’ work for and the role of trade unions in times of change. This study is intended to support managers and practitioners in assessing and evaluating organisational change programmes, particularly in the context of a developing country like Nigeria that is heavily dependent on revenues from the oil and gas sector.
Challenges and Prospects of Monitoring of Adult Education Projects and Programmes For Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)
The focus of the paper is on identification of the challenges and prospects of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. Inadequacy of data, challenge of appropriate interpretation of data, poor utilization of feedback from monitoring, poor funding of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes among others were identified in the paper as the challenges of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper equally identified provision of good information, control of the cost of projects and programmes as well as maintaining the use of good standard as the prospects of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper recommends the need for relevant stakeholders in adult education projects and programmes to understand the efficacy of utilization of feedback from monitoring, the need for many task-team members to have adequate technical knowledge and skills among others for effective monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria.
The period we are in Nigeria is a unique time in history as a nation. The country has in recent times, witnessed an unprecedented magnitude of violence that has shaken the unity of Nigeria. The study therefore examined the challenges to peace building in Nigeria. . The study had adopted descriptive perspective in its analysis of the secondary data obtained for the study. The data obtained indicated that violent conflict from the ramous region and tribes of Nigeria is rooted in the conflict diversity of the citizens and bad governance structure. The study concluded that gives the present political and economic structure, the prospects of achieving peace are less probable, unless, the government of Nigeria would generate political will to address huge human capital development afflict, invest In infrastructure, and re-engineer political consensus on socio-economic and political development in the country.
The study examined the impact of monetary policy on economic growth in Nigeria; for the period 1990-2017. Secondary data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study used Gross Domestic Product as proxy for economic growth and employed as the dependent variable; whereas, monetary policy rate, liquidity rate and Treasury Bills respectively were used as the explanatory variables to measure monetary policy. Hypotheses formulated were tested using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) techniques. The study revealed a significant impact of Treasury Bills on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Liquidity ratio had a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Monetary policy rate had a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. The coefficient of determination indicated that about 62% of the variations in private sector of the economy can be explained by changes in monetary policy variables. The study concluded that monetary policy had impacted significantly on private sector growth in Nigeria. The study recommended that policy makers should strong economic policies that will maintain and stabilize the economy. CBN should lay down strict prudential guidelines to stabilize and strengthen the economy. The CBN should review the Monetary Policy Rate downwards so as to reduce the cost of credit and increase the flow of investible funds to the economy.
Determinants of Saving Behaviour of Rural Cocoa Farmers in Ikom Agricultural Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
The main concern of this study was to ascertain the determinants of saving behaviour of rural cocoa farmers in Ikom Agricultural Zone of Cross River State. The specific objectives of the study were to; ascertain the methods of saving used by rural cocoa farmers in the area; examine the effectiveness of the saving methods used and, ascertain the variables that determine rural cocoa farmers’ saving behaviour. The study adopted a survey design, the population of the study comprised all registered cocoa farmers in the area. Two extension blocks (Etung and Ikom) were purposively selected for the study, and from the blocks, six communities were selected from each blocks, and three (300) hundred respondents were randomly sampled for the study. The result of analysis revealed that, rural farmers save money using their homes, boxes, holes, clay pots, cooperative and keeping in bams and with relatives etc. it was also observed that investing in project, buying of assets, bams and cooperative etc. were the most effective saving methods used by the farmers. The study found that the saving behaviour of rural cocoa farmers was determined by their age, education, marital status and income among others. The study therefore, recommended among other things, robust rural banking reforms to improve rural farmers savings.
Of recent one of the most trending political concepts within the Nigerian political and social landscape has been the concept of restructure or its continuum (restructuring). Ironically, despite the prevalence in usage of this word in social and political discourses across the country and beyond, very little is conceptualized or agreed on by all class of people as what is the actual meaning or the scope of restructuring the country needs. To some the term means minor adjustments in the configuration of power relation between the federal and other composing units of governments. The term in the view of others stands for maximum severance of all form of relationships between the federating units. This severance may mean the decentralization of powers and responsibilities of the state in favour of the regional governments as against the federal level, therefore relationship can only be acknowledged in the form of loosed confederation. But what seems to be agreed on by all, is that the Nigerian federal structure has some fundamental defects that need urgent corrections, the extent of which is left in the imagination and belief of the advocates. This paper provides an insight into conceptual clarity of what is meant by restructure and the act of restructuring. The article is of the view that structural imbalance in the polity is grossly responsible for the high level of mistrust, ethnic and religious crises, lack of accelerated development, political schisms and other social vices amongst the ethnic nationalities that makeup the country. The paper underscores the need for further dissolutions of political and economic autonomy to regions as against the current enormous power currently wielded by the federal government. It also recommends reversal to true fiscal federalism and regional control of the natural resources within their localities as against the current position of federal government ownership and control. Adoption of the six geopolitical zones as regional governments as against the current proliferation of unviable states. Also recommended is the adoption of rotational presidency among the regions. This is to be enshrined in the constitution to address the issue and cry of marginalization in the polity. These recommendations amongst others will serve as panacea to addressing the instability and mistrust question within the polity.
An Evaluation of Emerging Trends in Written English among University Students in South-East Nigeria: The Teachers’ Perspective (Published)
The study investigated the degree to which students used emerging trends in their handwritten academic work. Through a three-stage random sampling, selected facilitators assessed students’ tasks in order to identify those “informal/emerging trends” used by students. Pretested questionnaire written in English was administered to facilitators at the Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Results showed that facilitators encountered emerging trends and at a high frequency while grading scripts. Findings revealed that the most likely causes of usage were poor learning in English, social media influence and keeping with the trend. Again, the study showed the consequences include grammar/spelling error, formation of incorrect/unacceptable structure, poor performance in examinations/use of English among others. Finally, the study demonstrated that facilitators were inclined to constant correction during teaching, giving more exercises involving essay writing as corrective measures to check the use and recommended that teachers must adopt a hands-on approach on the correctness of grammar.
This topic is borne out of the need to check an ugly trend which is now a cankerworm eating deeply into our health indices and progressively leading to the increasing mortality of our citizens even at a rate that may be far more than the activities of the terrorists. Shortly I shall be looking at the crack (conflicts and controversies) that have been created between Religion and Medical Science which unfortunately is widening by the day for no just cause.
Demystifying Women’s Apathy Towards Rural Community-Based Cooperative Societies in Nigeria: An Empirical Insight (Published)
The main thrust of this paper was to examine women’s apathy towards rural community-based cooperative societies in Nigeria. The study specifically examined the types of cooperatives in the study area, the reasons for women’s membership of cooperatives, reasons for women’s apathy towards cooperatives and the socioeconomic determinants of women’s involvement in cooperative societies in rural communities. The study was carried out in Cross River State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all rural women in the study area. The respondents consisted of 145 randomly selected rural women. Data were collected with the aid of a validated structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Data obtained were analyzed using mean, mean deviation, ranking and probit regression model. The result of analysis revealed that different cooperative societies exists in the area, women join cooperatives for various reasons such as access to loan/grants, to attract government support, access to farm input, access to educational opportunities, among others. It was also noted that women’s apathy towards cooperatives is associated with their lack of land ownership right, domestic responsibilities, and poverty etc. The age, marital status, level of education and occupation of women were significantly related to their participation in cooperatives. It was recommended among others that government should provide credit facilities to rural women to enhance their financial autonomy and participation in cooperative societies.
Social Studies Pre- Service Teachers and their Lecturers Perception of Social Studies Apps in teaching Social Studies in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria (Published)
The aim of this descriptive study is to illustrate how University of Port Harcourt Social Studies Pre-Service teachers and their lecturers perceive the use of SOS App to enhance teaching and learning. The study made use of Social Studies Post National Certificate of Education (NCE), Master of Education (MEd) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Students of the University of Port Harcourt Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of the five PhD students of 2015/2017 set, fifteen MEd students of 2015/2016 and two hundred and three Post NCE students of 2014/2015 set, five Social Studies Lecturers, and five lecturers that also teach Social Studies courses. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of one hundred (101) post NCE students from the population, but the total population of PhD, MEd and lecturers were used. A questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. Information gathered from the field were decoded and tallied, and the frequency counts determined. Percentage scores were computed. Tables were constructed in respect of the demands of the respective research questions. The result of the study indicated the following among other thing; both students and teachers except the Post NCE students are aware of SOS Apps and its importance in enhancing Social Studies content, they have similar challenges of low level of knowledge and skill in technology. The researcher therefore recommended that both Social Studies teachers and preservice teachers should be encouraged to use technology in their classrooms through motivation, constant and consistent training.
Promoting peace and social stability through cultural values in Nigeria: the Social Studies perspective (Published)
Conflict, insurgency, terrorism and crime had become the prominent super war agents, waging dynamic war against Nigerian territorial integrity and economic boom. This study sought to examine how peace and social stability through cultural values in Nigeria from the social studies perspective. To achieve this, two research questions were raised to guide the study. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Data used for the study were generated through a questionnaire titled “Promoting Peace and Social Stability through Cultural Values Questionnaire” which was administered to 70 Social Studies Educators purposively selected from the study area. Their responses to the questionnaire were coded to identify recurrent themes and patterns and were tested using the simple percentages, means and statistical frequency. The result of the analysis showed that in respect to the first research question, a mean percentage ‘Yes’ responses 74.69% and ‘No’ responses of 25.31% Where as in respect to research question two a mean percentage ‘yes’ response of 78% against the mean percentage ‘no’ response of 22% was obtained. The implication of this is that cultural values significantly influence the promotion of peace and social stability in Nigeria. , it was therefore concluded that the peace and stability of the Nigerian society can be promoted if cultural values are revived, promoted, taught and applied in the country and recommended that administrative leadership of Nigeria should be broaden to include traditional leaders and priests in the governance of the Nation.
Information Retrieval tools and utilization of library resources by undergraduate students in Federal Universities in South-South Zone, Nigeria (Published)
The study investigated the influence of information retrieval tools on the utilization of library resources by undergraduate students in Federal Universities in South-South Zone, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised 952 registered library users from 3 selected universities in the zone during 2017/2018 academic session. Survey research design method was employed using a structured questionnaire to collect data. Data collected was analysis using mean and standard deviation. The hypothesis was tested using simple linear regression and multiple regression analysis respectively. The regression model produced a regression coefficient of R=.489 which revealed that there is a strong positive relationship between knowledge of information retrieval tools and utilization of library resource. The study equally revealed that knowledge of information retrieval tools is relatively low in the institutions studied. It was recommended that more attention should be paid to the teaching of the use of information retrieval tools in all library user education studies of the instructions.
Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Extension Workers’ Satisfaction With Job Condition in Kebbi State Agricultural And Rural Development Authority (Karda), Kebbi State – Nigeria (Published)
This study assessed the agricultural extension condition in Kebbi State Agricultural and Rural Development Authority (KARDA). Both the primary and secondary data were used for this study. The target population for this study is the extension workers and the farmers in Kebbi State Agricultural and rural development authority (KARDA). Multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to select 120 extension workers from 24 agricultural extension blocks (5 extension workers per block). The results of the study shows that majority (95.5%) of the extension workers were male and only 5.0% were female, were within the age group of 48 – 57 years, while only 1.7% were within the age group of 18 – 27 years, had Ordinary National Diploma (OND, had their household size ranging from 1 to 11 people, while 30.8% had household size ranging from 12 – 22 persons and had 21 to 30 years working experience, while 19.2% had 1 -10 years of working experience. Regarding the most frequently used methods in communicating new ideas, majority of the extension workers (96.7%) frequently used farm, home and office visits. The study also reveals that majority of the respondent (45.8%) organized visits for the farmers every two weeks as a strategy for educating and communicating of information towards enhancing agricultural productivity and skills. It was found that of the six (6) variables included in the model, only socio-economic characteristics such as education (X4), household size (X5) and experience (X6) had a significant relationship with their job satisfaction. The most pressing constraints, as perceived by the respondents, is that their remuneration was inadequate. The study recommends that the Kebbi State Government should improve the level of job satisfaction of the extension agents in Kebbi State Agricultural and Rural Development Authority (KARDA) through provision of funds, equipment, mobility and housing accommodation and should enhance the skills and make the extension staff equips with the latest technologies training programme should be organized for extension agents.