Employee Job Satisfaction in Nigerian Tertiary Institution: A comparative study of Academic Staff in Public and Private Universities (Published)
The paper examines the difference that exists in the level of job satisfaction between academic staff in private and public tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Centred on detailed review of literature, the hypothesis formulated for research is whether academic staff in public universities are more satisfied with their jobs compared to academic staff in private universities. The variables with which job satisfaction was measured are recognition, pay and working condition. The sample of the study comprise 120 academic staff – 88 members of staff from a public university and 32 academic staff from a private university within Kwara state, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used as the instrument with which primary data was collected. Independent ‘’t’’ test was performed to obtain the difference in job satisfaction between both sectors of tertiary institution. Also, oral interviews were arbitrarily conducted with 8 academic staff from both universities. The findings of the research indicate that a significant difference in job satisfaction exists between academic staff in private and public universities in Nigeria. The result also showed the following: 1. Academic staff in private universities have better working conditions 2. Academic staff in public universities have better payment package 3. Academic staff in private universities are more recognised for their job. Recommendations were offered by researcher to cater for the short-falls identified from the dichotomy in job satisfaction from both sectors 1. private-public interaction 2.To enhance job satisfaction of academic staff in private universities, Government should formulate policies that will cater for other incentives, such as enjoyed by academic staff in public universities.
Correlates of Dyscalculia and Learning Outcome in Mathematics among SSII Students in Obudu, Cross River State-Nigeria (Published)
Dyscalculia brings about different types of learning disorder which affects individuals (students) at various levels of learning. It enables the students, educators and guidance to determine inabilities, phobia, anxiety and develop compensatory mechanism for under developed areas. This paper deals with correlates of dyscalculia and learning outcome in Mathematics among SSII students in Obudu, C.R.S- Nigeria. Types of dyscalculia like; sequential, verbal, practognostic and operational dyscalculia are discussed. Tips on how to reduce dyscalculia are listed in the work. The survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample of 200 students was randomly drawn for the study. Data generated were subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson product moment correlation analysis at 0.05 level of significant. Results obtained show among others that dyscalculia significantly correlates with students learning in mathematics. Based on this it was recommended among others that students should engage in practice, extra-time, graphicalized their work and evaluate their work.
Organisational Commitment and Job Involvement among Casual Workers: The Role of Organisational Justice (Published)
The study investigated the role of organisational justice, age and gender on organisational commitment and job involvement among casual workers from two oil servicing companies in Omoku, Rivers State, Nigeria. The convenience sampling technique was used to select 399 participants made up of 251 males and 148 females. Participants’ ages ranged between 24-52 years (M = 37.94, SD = 7.35). The design adopted was cross-sectional survey design while the One-Way Multivariate Analysis of Variance was utilized to analyze data collected. The findings showed that casual workers who reported the presence of organisational justice had higher levels of commitment and were more involved in their jobs. However, age and gender showed no significant influences on organisational commitment and job involvement among casual workers. The study reaffirmed the need for managers in organisations to infuse policies geared towards enhancing organisational justice in their work places as this could improve work commitment and job involvement.
Le terme “politique” dans l’expression politique linguistique nous informe que dans ce domaine il ya des décisions politiques prises en vue de régler des problèmes linguistiques dans un espace donné. On peut citer des problèmes comme le statut des langues dans le cadre national, le corpus de langue, l’enseignement et la didactique des langues à l’école. Lorsqu’on élabore une politique linguistique, on vise à intervenir dans le devenir d’une langue ou des langues utilisées dans un certain pays ou une certaine région. Il peut s’agit de promouvoir une langue en lui donnant un statut officiel, ou encourager la complémentarité entre deux langues officielles, etc. La politique linguistique idéale est difficile à formuler, mais ce qui est à chercher c’est une solution consensuelle qui garantirait au mieux le développement individuel et collectif d’une ou des langues. Il ne s’agit pas à sauver toutes des langues au sein d’un Etat mais de promouvoir les langues qui favorisent l’accès à la modernité et à la mondialisation. En considérant la position sociopolitique du Nigeria par rapport à ses voisins francophones, sa position primordiale dans la sous-région, particulièrement au sein de la CEDEAO, et face aux défis de la mondialisation, on constate que la politique linguistique nigériane a négligé l’importance du français comme langue de grande communication de la sous-région. Nos propositions concernant la politique linguistique de la langue française visent à donner des suggestions qui pourront aboutir à la formulation des décisions concrètes par le gouvernement nigérian.
The New Trends In Government- Labour Relations In The Downstream Of The Oil And Gas Industry In Nigerian Fourth Republic (Published)
Government -Labour relations particularly in the downstream of the oil and gas industry in Nigeria has not been short of conflicts. In the time past, the conflicts were largely between employers and employees. However, since the Fourth Republic a new trend has emerged that involves state governments and labour union in the industry. It must be said that the conflicts were a product of the reaction of the union against social, economic and political policies of the government. This new trend is best demonstrated in Lagos state, where the attempt by the state government to manage traffic led to clashes of interest between the state government and member of the National Union of Petroleum and Natural Gas Workers (NUPENG). The work examines the nature of conflict between Lagos state government and National of Union of Petroleum and Natural Gas Workers. The work discussed the nature of the conflict, elaborated on the institutional process for industrial conflict resolution, explored how the conflict was managed, examined the role of bad governance in the conflict, discussed the impact and implication of the conflict and offers suggestion on how to improve conflict management in this particular case and in general. The work interviewed relevant authorities and individuals in the conflict: the officials of the Lagos state ministry of transport and its agency- the Lagos state transport management authority (LASTMA) and their counter part in NUPENG. Publications such as a newspapers, journals and books were also consulted. The collected data from the respondents and publications were analysed descriptively. The work argues that bad governance is the root of the conflict as successive government abandoned the infrastructural need of the nation in the sector which culminated in the dependency on imported refined crude oil products. This created it own problem of managing traffic as the major importation outlet is in Lagos and there is lack of parking lots to accommodate the inflows of unprecedented tanker vehicles. The work further argues that, the attitude of members of NUPENG also contributed to the conflict. Also, lack of communication which brews mistrust, lack of confidence and end up in conflict played a part
The law-making power is traditionally assigned to the Legislature. However, the increasing involvement of Presidents in law-making has generated much interest and controversies among scholars, in recent times. This paper examines the extent of the President’s law-making power both in Nigeria and the United States of America. It is argued that the increasing exercise of legislative power by Presidents, arising from delegation of such power by the Legislature, legislative abdication of power or executive usurpation of power, has virtually turned Presidents into supermen, exercising all powers of government. The paper, however concludes that if presidential legislative power is properly utilized and controlled, it could become a useful instrument for the attainment of sustainable constitutional democracy.
Personality Traits as Predictors of Organizational Commitment among Public and Private Sector Employees in Enugu, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated five personality dimensions – openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism as predictors of organisational commitment among selected employees in Enugu. Using convenience sampling technique, 200 employees were selected from four public and private sector employees in Enugu metropolis. The participants comprised of 115 males and 85 females with ages ranging from 22 – 50 years and a mean age of 36.00 years. Participants were administered with the Big Five Personality Inventory by John and Srivastava (1999) and the Organisational Commitment Scale by Buchanan (1974). Five hypotheses were postulated and tested using cross sectional survey design and multiple regression analyses. Result showed that only openness to experience significantly predicted employees’ organisational commitment. Conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism were not significant predictors of employees’ organisational commitment. Based on the findings, it is recommended that employers apply personality tests in assessing potential employees.
Poverty Decomposition For High And Low Users of Climate Smart Agricultural Techniques in Northwest Nigeria (Published)
Climate change projections estimate that developing countries who are least prepared for the changes in climate will be the most affected. Meanwhile, the already existing poverty in Nigeria is alarming and climate change threatens food security and poverty to a large extent. It was on this note that the study measured poverty levels for high and low users of climate smart agricultural practices of small holder farming households in North-West Nigeria. The study employed primary data using questionnaire instruments and focus group discussion in the North West region of Nigeria. The FGT Index model, Equally Distributed Equivalent (EDE) FGT, watts index, Sen, Shorrocks and Thon index were employed to decompose the monetary dimensions of poverty while Chakravarty et al (1998) technique, extended watts, extended FGT and Alkire and Foster were employed to decompose the non-monetary dimension. The findings show that poverty rate was higher for low-users of climate smart agricultural practices than for high-users for all dimensions under consideration and for all the decomposition techniques. This implies that farmers should make conscious efforts to practice climate smart agriculture regardless of their poverty status due to the fact that poverty resides more with low-users. It could be as a result of the fact that high-users make their production sustainable by practicing CSA and consequently high yields that might in turn reduce their poverty status. There is need for significant empowerment of the farmers, given that some of the climate smart agricultural practices have cost implications and require extra money to fund.
The main crux of this paper is to draw the attention of all social studies practitioners, researchers, students of our discipline – social studies and others, to the fact that social studies in Nigeria’s education system is not the preserve of the Universal Basic Education level schools. This is undoubtedly an integral part of it. However, there is more to it than is ordinarily perceived.
Institutional Impediments to International Remittance: Transmission-Cost Issues in Nigeria (Published)
This study investigates the institutional impediments of remittances with reference to the cost of transmission in Nigeria. The study is motivated by the increasing inflows of remittances through informal channels that would have been directed into the financial system to improve savings and enhance financial deepening if they were accounted for. The study therefore investigates whether the use of informal channels is caused by the increasing costs of collecting remittances that is partly induced by financial institutions. The study uses a bank exit survey data and a household survey data collected by the Center for Demographic and Allied Research (CDAR). T-test analysis and logit regressions were employed to achieve the objectives of the research. The findings show that there is no significant difference in the frequency of receipt for the formal and informal channels, transaction cost negatively and significantly determinants the use of formal channels flows, and finally there exist a significant difference between the transaction costs of using formal and informal channels of remittances. Financial institutions should therefore checkmate the charge of remittance receipt to encourage the use of formal channels and increase the frequency of flows
The Association between Audit Quality and Earnings Management by Listed Firms in Nigeria (Published)
This study examines the association between audit quality and earnings management by listed firms in Nigeria. The study measures audit quality by audit firm size and earnings management by the absolute abnormal discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. The study was carried out in two parts, the first part is the comparative study using independent sample t-test and the Wilcoxon signed ranked test. The second part is the multivariate analysis where the association between audit quality and earnings management was examined. Based on our analysis, we found that auditor size has restrained earnings management but the decrease is not statistically significant. The implication of this finding is that users should not blindly assume that high audit quality proxy by the big 4 auditor is a symbol of earnings quality.
Use of Electronic Information Resource Databases among Lecturers and Postgraduate Students in University Libraries in South-South Nigeria (Published)
The purpose of this study is to find out the utilization of electronic information resource databases in University libraries in South-South, Nigeria. 6 (six) research questions and 4 (four) hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The survey design was employed. The population of the study was made up of 1,421 lecturers and 922 postgraduate students. Data collection was done through the use of questionnaire titled Utilization of Electronic Information Resource Databases in University Libraries (UEIRDUL).The research questions were analyzed using percentages, while z-test proportion of difference of significance was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. It was found that lecturers and postgraduate students in the federal and state university libraries use different types of EIR database. The level of usage of EIR databases by lecturers and postgraduate students in the federal and state university libraries in South-South, Nigeria was generally high as most of them indicated that they use these resources frequently for their academic activities. The proportion of lecturers and postgraduate students in the federal and state universities that use the EIR databases for different purposes do not differ significantly. It was recommended among others that librarians in both universities should identify non users of the EIR databases and effective steps should be taken to encourage them to use the databases.
Slaughtered Cattle and Reasons for Slaughtering Cows in Ember Months at Lafenwa Abattoir in Abeokuta, Nigeria (Published)
High incidence of slaughtering of gravid cows has damnable effects on productivity of animal protein to the ever-increasing population in Nigeria. This study was conducted to evaluate the foetal losses from the slaughtering of pregnant cows at Lafenwa abattoir –Abeokuta, Ogun state. Information on demographical pattern of the butchers, herd size and composition of slaughtered animals as well as the reasons for slaughtering were assessed through the use of a structured questionnaire. Most of the butchers fell within the active age (31-40 years), married (83.3%) and having formal education at various levels. It was found that a total of 15112 cattle were slaughtered of which 76.7% were cows. The percentage of foetal wastage was 10.7%, while one foetus was lost for every nine cattle and seven cows slaughtered. Pregnant cows were mostly slaughtered for ceremonies and festivals while sometimes, it was due to poverty or disease condition of the animal. Control of foetal wastage in abattoirs will go a long way in increasing the population of livestock in Nigeria. Knowledge of the magnitude of bovine foetal wastage in abattoirs is necessary to forestall further occurrences.
Gas Flaring In Nigeria: Problems and Prospects (Published)
The issue of gas flaring in Nigeria has become a topical one in view of the devastating effect gas flaring has in the socio-economic lives of the people in the affected areas. Historically, it is said that gas flaring is as old as oil production in Nigeria. Oil exploratory activities of oil companies in Nigeria have caused gas flaring resulting in loss of lives and properties in the affected communities where gas is flared. There is no specific legal framework that prohibits gas flaring in Nigeria inspite of the environmental problems associated with it. The existing law that appears to regulate gas flaring in Nigeria is not effective as it does not completely prohibit gas flaring but only provide monetary penalties for continued flaring of gas by oil companies in Nigeria. The Judiciary therefore appeared to have championed the cause for the abolition of gas flaring in Nigeria. This paper examines the legal framework for gas flaring in Nigeria and further identifies the problems and prospects associated with the flaring of gas in Nigeria and makes useful recommendations
Personnel’s Perception of Continued Relevance of Shorthand and Typewriting Skills to Office Management in Osun State Owned Tertiary Institutions, Nigeria. (Published)
Shorthand and Typewriting are two major skilled courses in Office Education Programme in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Acquisitions of skills in these two subjects were regarded as trade-in-stock for secretarial practitioners in managing offices. But with the current applications of Information and Communication Technology to manage in offices, the relevance of Typewriting and Shorthand skills became a subject of discourse. The main objective was to determine the continued relevance of the two subject’s skills to office management in Osun State owned tertiary institutions. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Five research questions and five hypotheses were raised for the study. The population comprised 171 executives with their individual secretaries, making 342 participants. The entire population was used as the sample size. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data and descriptive statistics to analyse. The findings among others revealed that Shorthand and Typewriting were still relevant to office management. Based on the findings, it is recommended that secretarial training institutions should intensify efforts towards the training of students in these “twin” subjects.
Towards A Critical Thinking-Based Curricular and Pedagogical Innovations for Sustaining Democracy in Nigeria (Published)
Democracy, in addition to being a political system is also a way of life that is so admired that it has become a global model. Unfortunately those ingredients and flavour that make democracy the global ideal are terribly lacking in Nigeria, in addition to democracy not having any stronghold in Nigeria. Using the philosophical method, the paper raises sign posts on how critical thinking based curricular and pedagogical innovations can be a relief in reinventing and sustaining democracy in Nigeria. The position of the paper is that there is no substitute to positive thinking and positive thinking especially at the evaluative, insightful and critical thinking levels, can proffer solutions for resolving the pessimism that surrounds democracy in Nigeria. The paper makes recommendations, part of which include developing learners’ curiosity for participation in the democratic processes, the development of learners autonomous moral thinking as well as identifying live problems that threaten democracy and making such the subjects of arguments, dialogues and deliberations
Investigating the Influence of Social Media on Sociability: A Study of University Students in Nigeria (Published)
This article investigates the influence of social media on the university students’ sociability in Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 250 students at BIU and 350 students at DELSU through heterogeneous samples in different faculties and departments of respective institution. The data derived were subjected to descriptive statistics with simple percentage, chi-square test and one-way ANOVA. Findings revealed that age, year of study, family income plays decisive role in respondents’ ability to exploit the benefit of social media utilization for sociability. Further, majority of the respondents were observed to use Facebook as major platform for friendship sociability, with mobile media (feature phone with internet connection and smartphone) as a medium of constructive sociability behaviour and respondents’ friendship size of above 200 demonstrate the strength of respondents’ sociability practice. The study also found that the respondents’ frequency of interaction with friendship groups cut across different time frame with communication relations and socio-pleasure as a means of strategic sociability fulfilment. Future research should focus on why university students use social media for romantic sociability since evidences are emerging on the relations of social media sociability and romantic behaviour of young people.
Role of Academic Libraries in Accreditation of Courses and Teaching Programs: A Case of Afe Babalola University Library, Ado – Ekiti (Published)
This study focused on the role of academic libraries in accreditation of courses and teaching programs in Nigeria taking a cursory look at Afe Babalola University, Ado – Ekiti (ABUAD) Library. It is worthy of note that no educational institution can perform its tripartite functions of teaching, learning and research without well – equipped library and other facilities. This study therefore analyzed the invaluable contribution of Afe Babalola University, Ado – Ekiti (ABUAD) library in courses accreditation and teaching programmes. The findings indicated that in Afe Babalola University, decentralized library system has enhanced specialized collections that are rich and in-depth for providing access to information in print and electronic media. Also, the systematic organizations of the collections have enhanced accessibility by users. This in turns have enhanced full accreditation of most of the courses that are being offered. Furthermore, the library has assisted in equipping students with the necessary skills needed for effective learning, reading skills, information literacy skills and the provision of relevant up – to – date information materials. Access to collections has also been enhanced through long opening hours including weekends.
Constraints to Participation in Women-in-Agriculture Programme in Aboh Mbaise local government area of Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
The study assessed the participation in women-in-agriculture programme in Aboh Mbaise local government area of Imo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 120 women. Data were collected with a set of structured questionnaire and were analyzed using mean and percentages. Results showed that all the WIA packages were available in the study area and the women participated in all of them. Major constraints to participation in WIA programme were inadequate capital (91.5%) and illiteracy (69.5%). It was recommended that the WIA programme should be sustained and upscaled and that credit facilities should be made available to the women.
The main objective of this study is to analysis tax revenue collection by the Federal government in Nigeria. The study adopted quantitative research design; the secondary data will be obtained from the FIRS in respect of the total tax revenue collected from the oil and non-oil taxes for the period of 2011-2015. The population of the study is made up of Federal Inland Revenue Services and the sample size is Planning, Reporting and Statistics Departments. The findings from the study revealed that Capital Gains Tax, Stamp Duty, Education Tax and Petroleum Profit Tax are positively significant at 1%, 5% and 10% respectively while Company Income Tax and Value Added Tax are not significant. However, Company income tax has more total collected revenue than all the remaining variables. Therefore, it is recommended that government should enhance the collection of tax revenue processes and ensure that any deviations from compliance with the laid down rules and regulations are severally dealt with and punished accordingly