Tag Archives: Marketing

Post Hazard Market Recovery Strategy on Consumer Patronage of Bush Meat in Nigeria (Published)

This study sought to evaluate bush meat markets in the aftermath of epidemic out break of the Ebola in Nigeria. In course of epidemics, governments institute regimes of enlightenment campaigns to stop or minimize the consumption, handling and processing of wild animals whens studies show that major segments of the population of countries like Nigeria  are at risk of contracting diseases. Also post epidemic, bush meat consumption drops, thereby giving rise to the need to encourage consumption. The major objective of this research is to empirically study post hazard market recovery strategies on consumer patronage of bush meat in Nigeria. The study was descriptive, using random sampling method to sample 250 respondents in two states of the South-east and South-south regions of Nigeria, applying a five point Likert style questionnaire with 87.3% Cronbach’s alpha value.  Analyses were done using SPSS version 22. First hypothesis was tested with the aid of Pearsons Chi square test producing a significant result. Binary regression analysis was used to fashion out a model for coordinated marketing effort. Three conclusions were reached, in the event of outbreak of an epidemic, “hazard factors” have to be emphasized in the campaign communication, secondly, countering and removing warnings about consumption will significantly affect consumption in  post epidemic period and finally the messages must be clear, credible, and consistent in an effort  to  impact consumption.  Finally, policy reappraisal and modification of present strategies have to be embarked upon to restore normalcy to the market for bush meat.

Keywords: Bush meat, Consumption, Epidemics, Market recovery, Marketing

The Strategies Put In Place by Selected Private Universities in Kenya to Address the Issues of Financial Sustainability (Published)

Private universities have a great responsibility of managing financial sustainability and hence the need to explore different strategies that would enhance their financial sustainability. Kenya Vision 2030 requires institutions to develop strategies that will help in achieving its goals. Therefore, this paper explores the strategies administrators in private universities use to manage financial stability. Three major strategies were adopted by selected private universities to enhance their financial sustainability. These strategies include students’ recruitment strategies, internal and external funding strategies and program development, review and diversification. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy’s General System Theory (GST) originally developed in the 1940’s – which later came to be known as System Theory – was the conceptual framework that guided this study. Qualitative grounded theory design was used for collecting, analyzing, interpreting and reporting data. An interview guide was used to collect data for the two research questions that guided the study. Data was collected using self-developed interview schedule, and were digitally recorded and transcribed. The data was then organized manually and analyzed qualitatively through use of codes and formation of categories which eventually developed broader and tentative themes and patterns that brought meaning out of the information collected. Twenty respondents of this study were chosen purposefully from four out of the five universities in Kenya founded as theological colleges and had been chartered as private universities at the time of the study. Triangulation was used for data collection to increase the trustworthiness of the findings. The findings of this study indicate that the strategies that were put in place were not yielding sufficient income because of the many internal and external challenges being faced by these universities. Therefore this study recommends ways of developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams (input activities) that will generate adequate income to overcome the challenges in the system that are major impediments to implementation of activities (output) that would lead to establishment of a financial sustainable university.  

Keywords: Financial Sustainability, Marketing, Private University, Program development, Strategies., Student Recruitment, review and diversification

Marketing Tools for Sports Management and Development in Universities (Published)

The university system is a fertile ground for identification, management, and development of sports talents for sports industry. Every industry including sports industry produces and offers products and services to the society. Sports products and services are produced by sportspersons for sports consumers, and this contributes to the socio-economic, political, infrastructural and cultural development of sports in the university and society at large, if well managed and marketed. Sports in universities can be managed and developed using marketing tools such as sponsorship, advertising, sales promotion, publicity and public relations, packaging, branding, merchandising, labeling, personal selling, direct marketing and warranty. The relevance and applicability of these marketing tools to sports management and development have been highlighted. It was recommended that sports marketing tools should be employed by universities for their sports management and developmental efforts and programmes. Experts in sports marketing and management should be integrated into the running of sports in universities. There should be collaboration between practitioners of sports and marketing professions to see how best sports can be marketed to consumers using different marketing tools. Researches on marketing and promotional tools with the aim of discovering more marketing tools and their applicability to sports should be encouraged.

Keywords: Marketing, Sports Development, Sports Management, University

Recommendations Enhancing the Effectiveness of Marketing Plan at NHA Be Garment Corporation (Published)

Marketing plays an important role in establishing relationships between customers and the enterprises offering to the market… The marketing function is also tasked with branding of the enterprises, participation in publicity activities, advertising and customer interaction through feedback collection. Marketing is a vital business function that is necessary in nearly all industries whether the organization operates as a for-profit or as a not-for-profit. For the for-profit garment corporation, marketing is responsible for most tasks that bring revenue and, hopefully, profits to an organization. In this paper, the process of implementation of paper researcher also performed a SWOT analysis. Based on the two engines on research results and researcher has suggested recommendations of marketing plan for Nha Be Garment Corporation. This paper had been conducting a rigorous SWOT analysis with the objective of realizing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, in comparison with the competitors’. Also, this paper had been analyzed the political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, natural, and demographic factors, to better understand the environment in which the business operates. Both analyses are essential to successful marketing planning.

Keywords: Customers, Marketing, Marketing plan, SWOT

Use of Gemification in Marketing (Published)

In this paper we deal with the application of gemification in the field of Internet marketing. We suggest the use of gemification to increase website traffic, increase the time spent on the website, and to increase the customer satisfaction with our product.

Keywords: Game Based Marketing, Gemification, Marketing, Social Networking

Gaps in Marketing: Challenges for Business Education in the West African Senior Secondary School Commerce Curriculum (Review Completed - Accepted)

This study evaluated the concepts of commerce and marketing, the bases of, and dynamic phases of marketing and advanced rationale for integrating additional contents of marketing in the West African senior secondary school commerce curriculum. Topical elements in the existing West African senior secondary school commerce curriculum were identified for the proposed integration as a way of renewal of the curriculum to meet new challenges facing the learners in the emerging business economy of West Africa. Hence in the light of the existing relationship between commerce and marketing and the changes in the relatively new business worlds, it has become imperative to inject some additional contents of marketing into the existing commerce curriculum in the West African Senior Secondary Schools (WASSS). However, marketing as a discipline is needed to be accorded the right recognition and approved as a stand-alone subject in the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE).

Keywords: : Business Economy, Business Education, Commerce curriculum, Marketing, West Africa

Commerce and Marketing: Challenges for Business Education in the West African Senior Secondary School Commerce Curriculum (Published)

This study evaluated the concepts of commerce and marketing, the bases of, and dynamic phases of marketing and advanced rationale for integrating additional contents of marketing in the West African senior secondary school commerce curriculum. Topical elements in the existing West African senior secondary school commerce curriculum were identified for the proposed integration as a way of renewal of the curriculum to meet new challenges facing the learners in the emerging business economy of West Africa

Keywords: : Business Economy, Business Education, Commerce curriculum, Marketing, West Africa

Marketing Activities and Perceptions towards Domestic Tourism and Domestic Tourists (A Case Of Accommodation Providers In Sāmoa) (Published)

Effective Marketing strategies and techniques have contributed to the competitive survival and development of many tourism operators worldwide. Given Sāmoa’s geographic isolation as a holiday destination, marketing activities should aim to target both international and domestic tourists. However, the Sāmoan Government tends to focus predominantly on the promotion of international tourism. Domestic tourism and travel by local tourists is an area neglected by some tourism operators and domestic marketing and promotional activities are limited. This paper presents the results of a small scale study designed to investigate marketing activities, perceptions towards domestic tourism and the idea of locals as tourists from the view point of operators in the Accommodation Sector. Convenience Sampling identified a sample of 50 Accommodation providers for the study. The percentage method analysis confirms the existence of marketing activities. In spite of this, existing marketing activities are primarily designed to target international tourists. Talanoa Research Method (TRM) was used to conduct in-depth interviews. Thematic Analysis highlighted some interest among operators to invest in marketing activities however financial constraints, high preference for international tourists and personal motives limited interest and investment in marketing activities to target local tourists

Keywords: Accommodation Providers., Domestic tourism, Marketing, Sāmoa., Tourism

Marketing Strategy and Innovation at Michelin (Published)

The great management guru, Peter F. Drucker, once made a very profound observation that, “Because the purpose of business is to create customers, a business enterprise has two and only two basic functions – marketing and innovation. Marketing and innovation produce results; all the rest are costs” (Drucker, 1995). In this paper, we focus on the marketing strategies and innovation strengths at the France based company, Michelin. The company simply produces tires made of rubber, but still has a multi-billion dollar empire and is a leader in the tire industry, and continues to generate new plans for advancing its business. Indeed, Michelin has one of the most recognizable logo in the world (see above). We delve into the history of Michelin, its association with French culture, and seek to deduce what are the factors resulting in its marketing and innovation models that contribute to its huge success over the last 125+ years. The central scope of the paper is to understand the marketing strategy of Michelin in the global marketplace, and, at the same time, to analyze how Michelin has been successful in being able to innovate and maintain a stronghold in this sector in terms of market share. With respect to innovation, we note key disruptions that Michelin has been producing in its research labs and with respect to its marketing. We dig deeply into the strategic-branding approach at Michelin and analyze topics such as brand positioning, brand image and equity, advertising, market segmentation, and targeting, all in the aforementioned global setting.

Keywords: Advertising, Brand Image, Innovation, Marketing, Michelin, Strategy

Assessing the Efficiency of Soya Bean Marketing In the Ejura-Sekyedumasi and Nkoranza South Districts of Ghana (Published)

The study aimed at assessing the efficiencies of soya bean marketing channels in the Ejura-Sekyedumasi and Nkoranza South Districts, Ghana. The multi-stage sampling technique was employed in selecting thirty-seven soya bean farmers, two wholesalers, seven retailers, two small-scale processors and one large-scale processor of soya beans for the study. Gross Margin analysis was employed in determining the marketing costs and margins whereas the Shepherd’s Method was used in analyzing the efficiencies of the marketing channels. The study revealed that nine different channels existed through which soya bean was marketed in the study areas, with the simplest channel (Channel 1) being where farmers sell directly to consumers. Analysis of marketing cost and margins revealed that comparatively, Channel 1 had the least cost (GH2.40) and margins (GH10.50) since farmers dealt directly with consumers without any interference from market intermediaries, who usually increase transaction cost. From the study, Channel 1 was the most efficient channel with an Efficiency Index of 37.71. Thus, its marketing cost constituted a smaller proportion of the consumer price. The study recommends that farmers use Channel 1 where they sell directly to consumers to market their produce and also form co-operatives to protect them against price fluctuation and give them assurance of buyers. Moreso, the central government is directed to intervene in the form of road construction and improvement to help reduce the excessive transportation cost associated with the soya bean trade in Ghana

Keywords: Efficiency, Ghana, Marketing, Marketing Channel, Soya Bean

The Political Economy of Oil Marketing In Developing Countries: An Analysis of the Politics of Petroleum and Petroleum Politics in Ghana. (Published)

This article probed the politics of subsidy in developing countries.  In spite of the adoption of neoliberal policies of capitalism where production, distribution and exchange of goods and services are supposed to be in the realm of the private sphere, most developing economies are still ingrained unrepentantly in sacrificing scarce national resources meant for infrastructural development on subsidies while scavenging for loans from the International Financial Institutions for development.  This paper focuses on Ghana’s experience of the unbridled subsidies on petroleum products in spite of the striking parallels that exist between the state’s economic resources and the sustainability of petroleum subsidies. This paper argue that Ghana’s economic challenges in recent times, and its indebtedness to Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) are as a result of the unbridled subsidy and politicization of petroleum products since Ghana’s Fourth Republic.

Keywords: Deregulation, Marketing, Petroleum, Political Economy, Regulation, Subsidy

The Political Economy of Oil Marketing In Developing Countries: An Analysis of the Politics of Petroleum and Petroleum Politics in Ghana (Published)

This article probed the politics of subsidy in developing countries.  In spite of the adoption of neoliberal policies of capitalism where production, distribution and exchange of goods and services are supposed to be in the realm of the private sphere, most developing economies are still ingrained unrepentantly in sacrificing scarce national resources meant for infrastructural development on subsidies while scavenging for loans from the International Financial Institutions for development.  This paper focuses on Ghana’s experience of the unbridled subsidies on petroleum products in spite of the striking parallels that exist between the state’s economic resources and the sustainability of petroleum subsidies. This paper argue that Ghana’s economic challenges in recent times, and its indebtedness to Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) are as a result of the unbridled subsidy and politicization of petroleum products since Ghana’s Fourth Republic.

Keywords: Deregulation, Marketing, Petroleum, Political Economy, Regulation, Subsidy

Economics of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPS) Marketing in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria (Published)

Non-Timber Forest Products are capable of providing food, medicine and income to sustain livelihood. The study investigated the economics of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) marketing in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study identified the major NTFPs present in the study area; examined the marketing channel of NTFP; ascertained profitability of NTFP marketing as well as constraints faced by the NTFP traders. Forty NTFP traders were interviewed using structured questionnaire from two markets in Ikwuano Local Government Area.  Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Net Income and Profitability Index. Results showed that trade in NTFPs is profitable with Net Income of N180/2kg and N250/2kg from Ukazi leaf (Gnetum africanum) and oil bean seed (Pentachlethra macrophylla) traded. The profitability index was 0.18kobo and 0.16kobo respectively. There is need for support from research institutes and the government to harness the sustainable extraction and further processing of these NTFPs.

Keywords: Ikwuano, Marketing, Nigeria, Non Timber Forest Products

Vol 4, Issue 2, May 2016 ()

Keywords: Ikwuano, Marketing, Nigeria, Non Timber Forest Products

The Impact of Colonialism on the Development of Marketing in Nigeria: A Dyadic Analysis (Published)

For about a century, the British colonial masters took full control of the political, economic and even the social life of the people called Nigerians today. This paper traces the impact of colonialism on the development of marketing in Nigeria. It takes a look at the pre-colonial marketing practices of the nation-states and kingdoms and the development or otherwise of marketing during the era of colonialism in Nigeria. It points out that what the colonialists did or failed to do to develop marketing theory and practice in Nigeria. It adopts a theoretical review of related literature and also took a position on this topic that while the colonialists had set-up some institutions, they did very little to strengthen the institutions and develop human capital in the country. The article makes far-reaching recommendations that will help enrich marketing theory and practice, strengthen marketing institutions and contribute to the general well-being of the people and the nation as a whole.

Keywords: Colonialism, Development, Indirect rule, Marketing, Nigeria, Segregation.

The Influence of Legitimacy and Marketing in the Context of Accounting for the Environment in a Sub-Saharan African Country (Published)

Purpose – The paper intends to serve as a contribution to the requirements for organizations to account for and disclose the social and environmental (SE) consequences of their activities, aspects of the concept of sustainability accounting (SA). In particular, this research study investigates the current practices of environmental accounting (EA), whether it is influenced by the same values as that of society and is used as a marketing tool of the oil and gas sector in Uganda, a less developed country. Design/methodology/approach – The study involved 57 oil and petroleum supply chains. Major data collection methods included a review of 13 annual reports/statements by oil companies and both a structured and a semi-structured questionnaire involving 272 respondents, with a response rate of 57.0%. A mixed-methodological approach was employed to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data together. Findings – (1) There are no detailed archival records related to EA; (2) respondents’ (106) responses to the possible consequences of not accounting for the environment were almost indifferent on issues that influence marketing, indicated by the small differences in the mean (1.83 to 2.50) and standard deviations (0.504 to 0.925); (3) responses on the influence of legitimacy and marketing on accounting for the environment ranged from 8.3% to 90.0%, while the mean ranged from 1.92 to 3.90 and the standard deviations from 0.303 to 1.482; (4) we suggest that EA is currently not being done, which is an indicator of poor management of the environment; (5) the results support that a marketing tool is not a significant determining factor of accounting for the environment, despite having a social role to fulfill; and (6) the results do support the theory of legitimacy, because oil and petroleum products suppliers in the country respond to environmental laws, regulations and guidelines. Originality/value – The highlighted perspective on how organizations account for and disclose the environmental trends of their activities – an aspect of the concept of SA in Uganda, a country with a youthful population, open markets, abundant resources and significant unexploited oil and gas reserves – distinguishes this study from others on similar topics.

Keywords: Environment, Legitimacy., Marketing, oil and gas sector, sub-Saharan Africa, sustainability accounting

SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION PRACTICES IN AGRO FORESTRY SYSTEMS OF GEDIO ZONE, SNNPR, ETHIOPA (Published)

The study was conducted to describe sheep and goat production practices in three Agro-ecological Woredas of Gedio zone southern, Ethiopia. A set of semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 120 sheep and goat owners based on single-visit-interviews. 32.6% of them participate in crop production, 56.5% of them involved in both animal and crop production and 5% of them involved in crop production, animal production and off farm activity. Sheep flock in the study sites were significantly different; and 5.63 in wenago and 6.97 Walema sites and 3.4 kochera. Major feed resources were grazing (33.5%). The highest mortality rate occurred in suckling flock (16.24% lambs; 16.3 kids %), young flock (9.64 %lambs; 13.24% kids) and breeding females (ewes 12.06% and does 14.1%) in all study sites. Sheep and goat production in the studied areas was constrained by different problems; prioritized the major constraints as; availability and cost of feeds, limitation of land for the expansion of production and poor extension services. Integration of sheep and goat with other agricultural practices is the dominant systems in the area.

Keywords: Feeding, Marketing, Mortality, Sheep, fattening, goat, grazing

CONTRIBUTION OF BRANDING IN ENHANCING PERFORMANCE OF TOURISM SECTOR IN RWANDA (Published)

Strong branding has become a very important factor that influences consumer’s perceptions of a brand. Success in branding can enhance the performance of Tourism. This arises from understanding and managing the brand correctly to produce strong attributes that influence consumers when making their choices. Considering the increasing competition in the tourism industry, more governments have realized that branding can enhance Tourism and become a powerful tool to differentiate their countries and obtain competitive advantages by improving their image in tourism. The results have shown that the branding campaign in tourism is generally well developed and the image promoted corresponds in great measure with the one perceived by consumers. The value of this research concentrates on the fact that branding can enhance the performance of tourism in any Country. As a relatively new concept, branding still lacks empirical academic research. This study offers an original insight into branding as a tool in enhancing Tourism performance through image analysis. This research focuses on the importance of these dimensions (brand awareness, Tourism brand loyalty, Tourism brand image and perceived quality in enhancing the performance of the tourism sector in Rwanda ) of customer-based brand equity on consumer’s perceptions of a Tourism brand. This is based on the assumption that all these dimensions of customer based-Tourism brand equity have had influence on consumer’s perceptions of the Tourism brand. However, this project aimed to find out which among these three dimensions (brand image, brand loyalty and perceived quality) appears to have the least brand equity in Tourism with respect to Tourism brand awareness, Tourism brand image, and perceived quality and Tourism brand loyalty. A structured questionnaire was constructed to provide answers to research questions. In this study, over fifty questionnaires were distributed, and all of the questionnaires were realized. Despite the academic attention to branding in Tourism, there seems to be no clear path for authorities to follow in establishing their destinations as distinctive and strategic brands, A comprehensive research framework with both qualitative and quantitative methods was used to suggest and assess these brand elements, meanings, and assets for both supply and demand sides of the market.

Keywords: Branding, Development, Marketing, Performance, Tourism

CONTRIBUTION OF BRANDING IN ENHANCING PERFORMANCE OF TOURISM SECTOR IN RWANDA (Published)

Strong branding has become a very important factor that influences consumer’s perceptions of a brand. Success in branding can enhance the performance of Tourism. This arises from understanding and managing the brand correctly to produce strong attributes that influence consumers when making their choices. Considering the increasing competition in the tourism industry, more governments have realized that branding can enhance Tourism and become a powerful tool to differentiate their countries and obtain competitive advantages by improving their image in tourism. The results have shown that the branding campaign in tourism is generally well developed and the image promoted corresponds in great measure with the one perceived by consumers. The value of this research concentrates on the fact that branding can enhance the performance of tourism in any Country. As a relatively new concept, branding still lacks empirical academic research. This study offers an original insight into branding as a tool in enhancing Tourism performance through image analysis. This research focuses on the importance of these dimensions (brand awareness, Tourism brand loyalty, Tourism brand image and perceived quality in enhancing the performance of the tourism sector in Rwanda ) of customer-based brand equity on consumer’s perceptions of a Tourism brand. This is based on the assumption that all these dimensions of customer based-Tourism brand equity have had influence on consumer’s perceptions of the Tourism brand. However, this project aimed to find out which among these three dimensions (brand image, brand loyalty and perceived quality) appears to have the least brand equity in Tourism with respect to Tourism brand awareness, Tourism brand image, and perceived quality and Tourism brand loyalty. A structured questionnaire was constructed to provide answers to research questions. In this study, over fifty questionnaires were distributed, and all of the questionnaires were realized. Despite the academic attention to branding in Tourism, there seems to be no clear path for authorities to follow in establishing their destinations as distinctive and strategic brands, A comprehensive research framework with both qualitative and quantitative methods was used to suggest and assess these brand elements, meanings, and assets for both supply and demand sides of the market.

Keywords: Branding, Development, Marketing, Performance, Tourism

MOTIVATION OF TOURISTS THROUGH MARKETING STRATEGIES OF OLUMO ROCK TOURIST COMPLEX (Published)

In Nigeria, Travel and Tourism had contributed immensely to the growth of GDP and also to employment. Tourism marketing in destination must take into consideration the behaviour of visitors for effective campaign design. The study investigates how visitors got information about the Complex and major motivating factors that attract visitors to the Complex. Structured questionnaire was employed to obtain information on the major objectives of the study. Majority of the visitors to the complex are youths. Visitors preferred use of brochures, travel guides and social media as marketing strategies. Push factors are observed to motivate tourists more for fun, excitement, relaxation and sightseeing. Tourists’ sources of awareness to the Complex are not different in respect to their demographics; also visitors who organise visits for themselves complain less about challenges of the Complex. Management of the Complex must endeavour to improve on infrastructure and recreational facilities for fun, sightseeing, relaxation and excitement.

Keywords: Information, Marketing, Motivation, Olumo Rock Tourist Complex, Tourists

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