Bangladesh Railway sector requires huge reforms in every knock and corners of the sector. Presently, corruption, nepotism, politicisation, poor client service, mismanagement, lack of efficient and skilled employee are the main scenario of the Bangladesh railway system. To enhance the efficiency of the services huge reform in structure and administration of the service is required. This can be done by horizontal and vertical decentralisation. In addition, outsourcing and merit based recruitment, better incentives and result based budgeting for each sector will promote the efficient service of railways. However, corrupted management, trade and labour union and political parties may create resistance and delay the reform project implementation. The proposed reform may improve the management and structure of railway and ensure efficient service for the country
Customer Analysis within Balanced Scorecard (Published)
The paper considers theoretical aspects of the applied strategic customer analysis based on the on the balanced scorecard customer element developed by the author to be applied in the research process of the strategic organization distribution activity aspects and its sales management. The methodology of the research is the Balanced Scorecard concept (BSC) as well as the author’s applied strategic analysis concept. The applied strategic customer analysis is assumed to encompass comparative assessment, variances diagnostics and indicators forecast of the BSC customer element within the strategic customer goals. The author draws a conclusion that the applied strategic customer analysis is a new and sufficiently effective instrument to research strategic aspects of the organization distribution activity and to form an analytical support of the strategic sales management in the present-day environment.
Open innovation is a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly important for the theory and the practice in recent years. The reasons for this can be found in the new innovation cycles, industrial research and escalation of development costs and also the lack of resources. The phenomenon of open source has attracted researchers and practitioners of innovation. The era of open innovation starts when companies understand that if they want to commercialize their ideas, they should look for a way to bring them to the market of ideas. They need to deploy the roads outside the current businesses and to realize that their center, where the knowledge is created, does not always equal the innovations that need to be found within the company. The approach of open innovation enables innovations to move easily between the external environment and the internal process of innovation of the company. How often open innovation approach is put into practice and whether there are recognized patterns are issues that are examine by our empirical studies.
Strategic Management basically deals with discovery and description of the strategies that leaders/managers can take so as to realize improved competitive advantage and performance for their organization. Firm is said to have competitive advantage if its profitability is higher than the average profitability for all competing firms in the same line of business. The guiding philosophy in any strategic management procedure, either public or private sector, is all about understanding what changes are desirable, how to implement and manage these changes, and how to create a blueprint for sustaining improvements that lead to better performance. Strategic management provides overall direction to the enterprise and involves specifying the organization’s objectives, developing policies and plans designed to achieve these objectives, and then allocating resources to implement the plans. The objectives of this paper are to: Examine the degree to which government public policies impact positively on economic stability of Nigeria. Ascertain the extent to which strategic management of government public policies enhance economic development of Nigeria. Find out how strategic management of new government public policies enhances public confidence on the Nigerian leadership. This study engaged analytical and qualitative research methods as we did not test any model. Data was gathered from multiples sources, including internal documents, policy documents, and publications of research organizations, articles published in management and social sciences journals and the internet. The current Nigeria public policy have definitely started to reflect a shift from traditional management concepts about public management and organizational design, a coherent procedure for creating and sustaining enhanced performance that reflects changes in the internal and external environment is clearly deficient. Indication does suggest that change is affecting the Nigerian economy, and this change is manifesting in all sphere of structures and processes of many private and public organizations. The paper demonstrated that strategic management of government public policy is one of the basic tool for economic stability and development of Nigeria Economy. Findings also reveal that strategic management of new government public policies enhances public self-reliance on the Nigerian leadership particularly when there is growing understanding on the part of many that policies have to be formulated through the vigorous participation of the concerned communities. A learned anointed professional would do better than unlearned but do anointed, therefore expert that are knowledgeable about strategic management should be allowed to be at the forefront of strategic management of government public policies. This will certainly enhance economic development of any Nation.
This paper addresses the issue of terrorism in Nigeria, particularly in connection with the Boko Haram Islamist Sect. Terrorism, as a global phenomenon, is an ill-wind that blows no one any good. Recently, it has extended its ugly tentacles to Nigeria, precisely after the Presidential Election of April, 2011. Since then, Nigerian citizens have been on the defensive because of the great onslaught of man by the Boko Haram boys. The rampage has been on the increase and the attempt by the government to stop it has proved abortive. This has become of great concern to most Nigerians and the writer; hence, the emergence of this topic. The aims of this work are to highlight some of these religious riots encouraged by Boko Haram, to examine the root causes of the riots and to know their goals, organisational structure and sources of funding, and to proffer possible solutions that will make for the effective management of the crises.
Effect Of Management Of Receivables Ratio on Corporate Profitability of Industrial/Domestic Products in Nigeria (Published)
This study examines the effect of the management of accounts receivable ratio on the profitability of industrial/Domestic products manufacturing firms in Nigeria.The variables of this study include accounts receivable ratio, debt ratio and sales growth rate. Only secondary sources of data were used for the period 2000-2011. The hypotheses were tested using the multiple regression technique. The results show that accounts receivable ratio, debt ratio and sales growth rate had positive and significant relationship with the profitability of the firms under study
Challenges Facing Higher Education in Management of Privately Sponsored Student Programmes PSSP in Kenya (Published)
Massification or the exponential growth experienced by universities in Kenya for the last one and ahalf decades has negatively impacted on the quality of education being offered by these universities.In their attempt to cater for the large increase in student numbers has come with many challenges caused by overcrowding, crumbling infrastructure, inadequate human and financial resources and declining quality of the professional courses on offer. This paper sought to identify the challenges faced in the management of Privately Sponsored Students Programmes (PSSP) especially given the continuing expansion in public universities in Kenya. The study was carried out at Moi University, situated in Eldoret, and six of its satellite campuses. Ex post facto design and a mixed method approach study design was used. The target population consisted of all the PSSP students (11,185) enrolled in the academic year 2009/2010 in all the schools that have these programmes and all staff. One hundred and forty (140) teaching and none-teaching staffs were interviewed while 460 students were had questionnaires administered for data collection. Data was analyzed qualitatively. Unclear university policy for PSSP administration, poor management shrouded by corruption and, inadequate and unqualified teaching staff were among others some of the challenges identified. Public universities need to be open and transparent in management of funds from PSSP Programmes while investing part of the earnings in relevant infrastructure that supports learning in the university.
Principal’s Application of Management by Objective in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)
The study examined principals’ application of management by objective in the administration of schools in Nigeria. Six research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The study sample comprised 204 principals. Data were collected using a questionnaire titled application of Management by Objective schools. Data collected were analyzed using mean (x) and standard deviation while t-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings between the male and female principals in the application of management by objective in schools. Secondly, there was a significant difference between the mean ratings of urban and rural principals in favor of the urban principals. The study recommended that Secondary Education Board should on regular basis organize seminar workshops for serving principals highlighting the place of MBO in school administration.
Efficiency and Accountability of Public Sector Revenue and Expenditure in Nigeria (1970-2014) (Published)
Nigeria is the sixth largest producer of oil and gas in the world, but the average Nigerian on the street is poor and there is poor infrastructure like power supply, roads, hospitals etc. This study examines the efficiency and accountability of public sector revenue and expenditure in Nigeria (1970-2014). Data on total federal government revenue and expenditure, state governments’ revenue and expenditure were collected from Statistical bulletin from the Central Bank of Nigeria from 1970-2014. The results were analysed using relevant statistical tools. The findings reveals that the level of accountability is very poor in Nigeria because the attributes of accessibility, comprehensiveness, relevance, quality, reliability and timely disclosure of financial information, social and political information about government activities are completely non available or partially available for the citizens to assess the performance of public officers mostly the political office holders. Conclusively and evidently the study has revealed that there is significant relationship between efficiency of public sector expenditure, recurrent expenditure and capital expenditure in Nigeria from 1970-2014. On the basis of these, the paper recommends among others that for accountability to be successful in the management of public funds in Nigeria there must be a reduction in the level of corruption, improving public sector accounting and auditing standards, legislators as champions of accountability and restructure the public accounts committees and the value of money must be applied in the conduct of government business.
An Analysis of Speech Communication Skills Strategies of Effective Public Relations Management for Organizational Growth in Nigeria (Published)
The papers stands to advocates that effective knowledge of speech communication is necessary in discharge of public relations functions or duties, and is very vital for a public relations practitioner to be conversant with the principles of effective speech communication skills and strategies, as its job is based on establishing mutual line of communication between the organization and its publics for organizational growth and national development. The paper also poses that the key to successful employer and employees relation `is based on adequate information which can only be achieved through public relations effective two-way communication for harmonious existence and mutual understanding. Furthermore, it employs purposive sampling technique, and structured interview guide as a research instrument to elicit information from 65 final students of Public Relations and Advertising in Babcock University. The finding authenticates that effective communication is an anchor for any organizational harmony and development. And recommended that all sphere of life require effective communication to exist, survive and to grow.
The wave of globalization and industrialization trends experienced all over the world has resulted in the emergence of large corporations as well as conglomerates. These large corporations contribute immensely to the social, economic development of their host nations. This paper explores the concept of corporate governance as well as the need for corporate governance. Also examined are the basic principles of corporate governance. The focus of this paper is on the external group of individuals (stakeholders) to the organization. This paper defines them as well as their roles in ensuring corporate governance and wealth creation for the business organization. It concludes by making recommendations on how businesses can strike a balance between achieving organizational goals and stakeholder needs.
The Use of School Services in the Management of Technical Colleges in North-East Geo-Political Zone of Nigeria (Published)
A fundamental problem that affected the management of technical colleges in the North-East Geo-political Zone of Nigeria was that school services such as students’ health services, feeding programme and extra-curricular activities were ineffective as in several technical colleges, the school services were either non-existent or were operated skeletally. The study therefore examined the effectiveness of school services in the technical colleges. The study answered one research question and tested one hypothesis. As a descriptive survey research design, a 15-item structured questioned, designed by the research based on available literature, collected data from respondents. The instrument was validated by experts in Industrial Technology Education and Educational Management. It was administered on 597 respondents, after it was trial tested on 20 respondents from a technical college outside the study area. The test re-test method estimated the coefficient of stability of the instrument which stood at 0.81. At the end of the administration of the instrument which took a space of six weeks, a total of 390 valid copies were obtained, made of 75 administrators, 180 teachers and 180 students. The analysis of the results was carried out on the 390 valid copies of the questionnaire. Finding showed that school services such as health services, computer services, advisory services, library services, tailoring services and careers day in technical colleges in the North-East Geo-political Zone of Nigeria were moderately effective. Similarly, finding showed that there was a significant difference in the mean scores of administrators, teachers and students on the effectiveness of school services in technical college management. The result of a post hoc Scheffe test revealed that administrators were responsible for the significant difference in the mean scores of respondents. The findings of the study implied that administrators of the technical colleges need to put in more effort to improve school services in the colleges. This is necessary so as to forestall any breakdown of law and order, arising mainly from the absence of the services. Consequently, the study recommended that in order to improve the effectiveness of the management of the technical colleges, they need to adopt appropriate strategies such as providing effective health services, library services, extra-curricula activities, careers day, information services and utilities services.
Job Stress among School Administrators and Teachers in Nigerian Secondary Schools and Technical Colleges (Published)
The paper examines stress, job or vocational and workplace stress. It views stress as the responses the body makes while striving to maintain equilibrium and deal with the demands of life. It is a psycho-physiological process which results from the interaction of the individual with the environment and results in disturbances caused to the physiological, psychological and social systems. Job or occupational stress refers to the mental and physical condition which affects an individual’s productivity at the workplace, as well as his effectiveness, personal health and quality of work. Role ambiguity, poor relations with boss, work overload, thwarted ambition and job insecurity as workplace sources of stress have been identified. Where teachers and school heads are under stress, there will be poor teaching quality, low students’ satisfaction and low turnover on the overall performance. The paper holds that teachers’ lives are often gravely affected by stress which leads to physical ill-health such as headache, stomach upset, aches and pains. Severe and unchecked stress leads to severe ill conditions like high blood pressure, diabetes, stroke and heart disease. In critical cases, stress can lead to death. The paper identifies wrong ways to deal with stress to include smoking, using pills or drugs to relax, too much drinking of alcohol and other intoxicating drinks, filling up every minute of the day with activities in order to avoid problems, oversleeping, and transferring one’s stressful condition on others. Appropriate strategies to deal with stress, especially for teachers and school heads include regular medical checkups, exercises like jogging, bicycling and muscle relaxation. In addition, proper time management, having a positive outlook on life and bothering less about things one has control over go a long way in assisting teachers and school heads to deal with stress.
Management Styles and Employees’ Performance in Small Scale Business Enterprises in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Published)
This study examined management styles and employees’ performance in small scale business enterprises in Akwa Ibom State. Six specific objectives, six research questions were formulated.The expost-facto design was adopted. The population of the study comprised 1632 employees of small scale business enterprises from which sample size of 373 was selected using Krejcie and Morgan formula. Management Styles Questionnaire(MSQ) and Employees Performance Questionnaire (EPQ) were used to collect data. These instruments were validated by three research experts and tested to be reliable using Cronbach Alpha, and a reliability coefficient of 0.90 was obtained. A total of 373 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and found useable. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to answer the research questions and also test the six null hypotheses. The result of the analysis of the research questions showed a positive relationship between management styles and employees’ performance small scale business enterprises, with the exception of autocratic and lasses-faire management styles whose results were negative. Result also showed that participative management style was more positively related with employees’ performance than other management styles. Hence, there is a need for operators of small scale business enterprises to involve their employees in decision making so as to improve their performance.
Supply Chain Management of Health Commodities and Logistics: Fundamental Components of Booming Medical Laboratory Services (Published)
The importance of quality laboratory services is unquestionable. The growth of programs for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), and malaria requires strong and supportive laboratory services. For antiretroviral therapy (ART) in particular, there has been a growing recognition of this importance, given the number of laboratory tests required to effectively and efficiently monitor treatment. Well functioning supply chain will enhance the availability of the commodities (commodity security) required to provide necessary laboratory services. In addition, an effective and efficient laboratory supply chain can promote common approaches on policy, laboratory procedures and information system.
The application of sophisticated technology in a laissez- faire economy to provide for the diverse needs of ever increasing population led to series of environmental stress and crises. The magnitude and complexity of these environmental problems evoked the raising of alarm from various quarters calling for urgent attention to the myriads of environmental problem issues, if man’s survival will be guaranteed. These alarms created the pressure that later gave rise to environmental management and control discipline and profession. In practical terms, environmental management and control is multi-disciplinary in scope and requires the training of crops of professionals that will be equipped with critical and analytical skills to provide both preventive and corrective measures to address all dimensions of environmental problems. Thus, the environmental and control education aims at training and producing competent personnel that will be intellectually equipped with sufficient and relevant theoretical and technical knowledge as well as skills for dealing with the problems caused by developmental projects and also who will possess the multi-disciplinary perspectives to team up with other professionals to achieve sustainable development in various aspects of human endeavours. Regrettably, it is only 30 out of 107 Universities and other 52 degree/HND/NCE awarding tertiary institutions in Nigeria that offer environmental management and control education. This is abysmally too low and poor which partly explains why environmental problems appear intractable in Nigeria. For sustainable development to become feasible and realizable in Nigeria, environmental education must be made compulsory in all tertiary levels of education as well as in pre-tertiary schools. Environmental management graduates are trained to work in the public and non-public establishments and as well as possess adequate skills to set up their private consultancy firms and become employers of labour.
With increasing pressure from the Breton woods and other international donor organizations for African states to move towards good governance, some of these countries including Cameroon are gradually attempting to institute reforms towards the attainment of these goals. Apart from instituting reforms that will grant free political participation, the government of Cameroon has also come up with the policy of regional balance that is intended to ensure a kind of equality in the distribution of what is commonly referred to as the National Cake. It is important to note that Cameroon is very diverse in terms of Ethnic nationalities and there is a gross disparity amongst these nationalities in terms of the natural distribution of resources. Some of the regions are naturally richer than others in terms of natural potentials and the government in her quest for good governance has come up with the theory of regional balance to guarantee fairness in the distribution of these resources. The paper is aimed at examining the perception of good governance in Cameroon and whether these perceptions actually match the practical implementation of this concept. The study equally looks at the instruments of good governance and the progress that has been attained since the introduction of the concept of good governance. The tenets of good governance, its features and the major obstacles to its application constitute the main trust of this research work. With regards to methodology, this study adopts a kind of inter-disciplinary design given that the study cuts across issues of geography, resource allocation and management, state policy and balanced development put in historical perspective. A qualitative instrument of analysis was adopted to give a critical insight to issues of governance in the society under study. In doing this a serious dichotomy is drawn between the perception of this policy and its practical application on ground.
Needs For Transportation Planning and Management In Nigeria Using Geographic Information System (Published)
Transportation is the act of transporting or the state of being transported; conveyance; often of people, goods, etc, while planning stands as the act of formulating of a course or courses of action, or of drawing up plans or programes for future events or activities. Geographic information system is a survey tool used to capture, store, query, analyze, manage and display geographic information/data (Kang-Tsung Chang, 2002). Geographic information system (GIS) technology has the ability to integrate common data base operations such as query and statistical analysis with unique visualization and geographic analysis. These abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems and make it valuable to a wide range of public and private enterprises for explaining events, predicting out comes and planning strategies. The objective of this article is to articulate the success of geographic information system applications in transportation planning. The methodology applied was the administration of questionnaires by stratified sampling to major stake-holders in GIS and transportation technology such as surveyors, traffic warden staff, road safety staff, police, some members of the national union of road transport workers, some staff of the Ministry of Transport (including the vehicle inspection officers), Staff of State Security services (SSS) and transportation planners. Secondary information were also obtained from books, journal articles and conference papers. The use of computer and some software made the research simpler. The results of the observations and analysis show that the centralized traffic control room can be made use of, to effectively manage the traffic. Information about the number of vehicles on each road, where there are jams and alternative roads can be displayed on electronic signboards installed at important traffic road junction. The discussions so far show that the use of GIS for transportation management is ideal and has come to stay universally, and so should be adopted in Nigeria.
Office Automation: A Tool for Quality Assurance in Work Delivery in Office Technology and Management (OTM) (Published)
This paper x-rayed how office automation has helped the Office Technology and Management graduates to increase productivity in their work. Two research questions guided the study. The paper examined critically the equipment found in an automated office and how it has actually assured the quality performance of the secretary. A total of 360 Office Technology and Management graduates selected from public and private organizations in Delta South Senatorial District formed the population of the study. The sample of this study consisted of 108 graduates of Office Technology and Management. The information collected from the respondents was grouped together for meaningful analysis of the data using simple percentages. Suggestions were made as to what the Office Technology and Management graduate must do in order to get the best out of an automated office. Based on the researcher’s findings, recommendations which includes that secretaries should not entertain fear that automated devices will displace them but rather to see it as something which has come to assist them to do their jobs in order to improve their efficiency and productivity are made to strengthen the Office Technology and Management graduates chances of being totally familiar with the modern equipment so that increased productivity can be guaranteed and quality assured.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of an internationalization strategy and its impact on success and business performance. To achieve this objective, data were collected through surveys using a structured questionnaire administered to 385 Polish small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that are involved in launching and developing their products in international markets. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement model, and the structural equation modeling technique was used to test the research model. The results of the study confirm that internationalization strategies of Polish SMEs are influenced by six factors that are: managerial expertise, dynamic capabilities, risk aversion, alliance capabilities, foreign market orientation and markets knowledge