Tag Archives: Language

Language and Culture as Conflict Resolution Tools: Rethinking English as Lingua Franca (Published)

Language as a structure of meaning giving and reality creation is composed of words, phrases and sentences. Humans’ communications are based on these features to describe an event, explain one’s emotions, needs, interests and fears etc. Language is used to resolve or escalate dispute. People from different culture and social units perceive the world through the lens provided by their distinctive languages. Meaning that language provides repertoire of words that name the categories into which the language users have divided their world. In fact, definitions of words are linguistically, culturally and contextually bound. This is because words carry meanings that make sense to members of a shared social environment. Dispute resolution relies heavily on words (language). However, there is an underlying assumption in Nigeria that all these words should be in English – the second language. The researcher posits that if English is to be a conflict resolution tool in Nigeria. It must accommodate the diversity of culture and language usage. The paper therefore explores the challenges of English language in intercultural conflict resolution, and emphasizes the need to consider the different uses of the language in national and transnational conflict resolution.

Keywords: Conflict Resolution, Culture, English, Language, Lingua Franca

A Comparative Study on the Aesthetics of Language and Structure in T.S. Eliot and Mahmoud Darwish’s Poetry (Published)

This paper explores the insights and inspirations Mahmoud Darwish has received from other poets. The thematic and structural analysis the study conducts on T. S. Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and Mahmoud Darwish’s “A Truce with the Mongols in the Forest of Oak” indicates that the two poems are narrated using a fragmented, ironic and symbolic language. Likewise, both purposefully repeat lexical items and syntactic structures, and abound with imageries and figures of speech.  

Keywords: Eloit, Forest of Oak, Language, Mahmoud, Poem, Poetry, Speech

Speech Acts and Welfarist Ideology in Governor Aregbesola’s May 1, 2013 address (Published)

Politicians make use of language for the purpose of achieving desired goals. In political utterances, many acts are performed as politicians through their speeches try to manipulate the listeners by the way they use language. This study investigates the deployment of speech acts and welfarist ideology in Governor Aregbesola’s address to the Osun State workers in commemoration of year 2013 “Workers’ Day”. The speech is selected for analysis to bring out Aregbesola’s language use and to highlight the welfarist ideology of the government of Osun State of Nigeria. The speech titled “Productivity is the key to Wealth” is analysed within the framework of J.R. Searle’s Speech Acts to bring out the illocutionary force in it. The analysis reveals Aregbesola’s language use in performing certain actions with a view to changing the attitudes of workers and also to project the government as welfarist in its programmes.

Keywords: Labour, Language, Politics, Rauf Aregbesola., Speech Acts., Welfarist Ideology

Assessing the Academic Writing Proficiency of EFL Learners at Qassim University: Honing the Skills of Young Writers (Published)

Four language skills, academic writing is the one most at casualty at the post intermediate level in KSA. Syntax, organization of materials and expression, all are severely affected so far as the EFL learners are concerned. This paper proposes to evaluate the problem from the pedagogical perspective by comparing the current teaching practices in teaching EFL writing with world trends. It highlights recent studies in EFL apart from showcasing the teaching community’s viewpoint. Finally, it presents recommendations aimed at attaining the desired learning outcomes.

Keywords: Academic, Language, Proficiency, Skill, University, Writers

The Language of Science: A Lexical Study of Academic Writing in Computer Science (Published)

Language is a veritable tool for conveying knowledge and information. In the field of science and technology, it is indispensable in disseminating, concepts and facts. Ideas and novel thoughts cannot be formulated without the use of languages in the sciences. Thus, language is the means of understanding science and technology. In fact, language and science are so inextricably linked that learning science is analogous to studying language. However, some second language learners of English fail to realize the relevance of language in the study of science and technology.  Also scientific language expressing technical facts pose a lot of problems to second language learners in the field of computer science because the texts introduce the learners to many unfamiliar words. Therefore, this study examines and interprets some technical words in the field of computer science and shows its peculiar usage in the academic context. Excerpts culled from academic journals and texts in computer science are analyzed to explore some ordinary and technical words with specialized meanings. It is discovered that there is a significant number of technical jargons in computer science texts. A major implication of this study is that the second language learners of computer science need to understand and interpret the technical words for their studies and skills in professional communication.

Keywords: Academic Writing, Computer Science, Language, Lexical Study

Gender-Based Phonological Analysis in Non- Native Selected Tennis Players’ Speeches (Published)

This study is a phonological analysis of a kind of spoken discourse. It sheds light on English speeches of tennis players who are from different nationalities, but they speak English as their second or third language. This speech event is important in that a speech is given in a formal setting for a huge number of audience and it is characterized as being unplanned. Immediately after the final game, the two players; the winner of the match and his opponent, are to deliver a short speech. The study aims to examine, phonologically, the speeches of those nonnative players against the BBC accent. It focuses on whether male and female speeches are different or not and to what extent. It is hypothesized that the mismatch lies mainly in allophonic variations, let alone accent and intonation. It analyzes two spoken texts given on the court in the final game. The data are videos taken from “You tube” and they include the final part of championships when the trophies are presented to both players. They deliver a speech to express their feelings and viewpoints. This study is of interest to those interested in second language phonology, gender-based phonological differences and spoken discourse analysts.

Keywords: English Speech, Gender, Language, Phonological, Tennis Player

The Impact of the National Policy on Education (NPE) On Multilingual Proficiency in Nigeria (Published)

About 450 languages are spoken in Nigeria with Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba as the major languages. In order to assign functional roles to the multiplicity of languages, the Federal Government promulgated the National Policy on Education (henceforth NPE) in 1977 stipulated that every Nigerian child must be proficient in his mother tongue and in a major Nigerian language. At the secondary level, it is expected that every child should be bilingual in two Nigerian languages. Thirty six years later, the impact of the policy on the language education of Nigerian pupils was assessed. Data were collected using questionnaire and interview methods. Findings revealed that the primary aim of the NPE has not been achieved. Based on the findings, the recommendation made include the organization of intensive workshop sessions for language teachers to expose them to the modern techniques for attaining bilingualism through effective training.

Keywords: Education, Language, National Policy, Nigeria

Language Use in Arrow of God: A Socio-Linguistic Dimension (Published)

This paper examines the lexis structure and other linguistic features that coalesce to convey the intended message in Achebe’s Arrow of God. It highlights Achebe’s adaptive use of the English language to capture peculiar cultural ideals in the Igbo traditional society. The study analyses the corpus of the novel. Arrow of God and portrays the vocabulary, syntax and expressions that depict the socio-cultural Igbo norms and setting. The analysis explores how Achebe employs lexical and syntactic formations to realize the central message of conflict in Arrow of God. Linguistics styles such as proverbs, transliteration, focalization, lexical borrowings, sentential code-mixing, imageries are discovered. It is these unique that make the novel a master piece in the Nigeria context.

Keywords: Achebe, Arrow of God, Language, Socio-Linguistic, Vocabulary

Improving Language Proficiency and General Knowledge: A Case for Free Voluntary Reading. (Published)

Free voluntary reading is just as its name states. It is free reading; free in the sense that students chooses what material they want to read, choose to read or not to read and to report in class on the reading they have done or not. It is purely reading with no strings attached. This is a strategy voiced by Stephen Krashen and quite a good number of language educators have decided it is worth a short. Research reports support the assertion that those who read more do better in a wide variety of tests. They become better users of language and have a wider horizon of life. They are also reported to have a greater general knowledge. It is in view of these that this paper recommends FVR as a probable solution to the lamentably poor standard of English in schools and the general poor academic outcomes.

Keywords: Academic Outcomes, English, Free Reading, Language, Literature, Student

Language Use And Lexical Attrition: Do They Change Over Time (Published)

The issue of language use has already been assumed to be an important predicting factor for language attrition. Intuitively, it makes perfect sense that second or foreign language learners who make little use of a language experience more attrition than ones who use the language more frequently. Therefore, the availability or the lack of opportunities to use the language could influence the amount of language attrition, let alone an essential variable like vocabulary knowledge. Such language use factors must be considered in any model concerned with explaining FL attrition, and the primary purpose of the present study is to provide evidence about this. It attempts to examine a population of college acquired English among college leavers who vary in the extent to which they have been able to maintain contact with the target language over time. The findings demonstrated that participants rated many of their patterns of contact with English and vocabulary in particular somewhat lower after the end of formal instruction. Furthermore, the most powerful predictor appears to be the use of the internet which is strongly linked to better retention of productive vocabulary test over time.

Keywords: English, Language, Language Attrition, Literature, Vocabulary

Deviant Collocation As A Writing Technique In African Literature: A Stylistic Study of Helon Habila’s Measuring Time. (Published)

This paper appraises the use of deviant collocations in Habila’s Measuring Time. Ordinarily, collocations are words or expressions that naturally co-occur. But some literary artists have as a matter of fact made some incongruous blending for stylistic stand point and to unravel the ills in their environments. This inquiry adopts the systemic functional Grammar because it highlights the functions of language, the descriptive methods of data analysis, the primary and secondary data collection methods. It was discovered that language use depicts the afflictions of the people like the twins La Mamo and Mamo in the novel. Thus, elements of language as used in the Measuring Time stand for Habila’s ideological orientation. He therefore, uses deviant collocations such as personification, paradox, oxymoron, grotesque scheme, hybridity and so on to unearth the sense of fragmentation, despair and perplexity, which define his fictional Keti community, which is a paradigm for Nigeria and indeed Africa.

Keywords: African literature, Deviation and Collocation, Language, Style

Translation and Community Integration (Published)

This paper deals with the Translation and Community integration; and it highlights the increasing need for translation. In most virtual communities, language is at the heart of communication. When we extend these communities to the international stage, we are faced with challenges in interaction. Cross-lingual communication between academic communities is a matter of some urgency. The growth of the Language Technologies field in recent years, with increasing public, political, and industrial recognition, has meant that there are now major business players engaged in technology integration and product development, leading to a multiplicity of systems and solutions available on the market. Therefore, translation and community are very crucial in our daily life.

Keywords: Community, Diversity, Language, translation

Technicality of Translation Appears In the Competence of the Translator (Published)

This paper investigates the Technicality of Translation Appears in the Competence of the Translator. Technicality of Translation Appears in the Competence of the Translator. A competency is a set of defined behaviors that provide a structured guide enabling the identification, evaluation and development of the behaviors in individual employees. Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation. Terminology can be considered the surface appearance of relevant domain concepts. Candidate terminological expressions are usually captured with shallow techniques that range from stochastic methods to more sophisticated syntactic approaches.

Keywords: Competence, Language, communication, translation

Improving Language Proficiency and General Knowledge: A Case for Free Voluntary Reading (Published)

Free voluntary reading is just as its name states. It is free reading; free in the sense that students chooses what material they want to read, choose to read or not to read and to report in class on the reading they have done or not. It is purely reading with no strings attached. This is a strategy voiced by Stephen Krashen and quite a good number of language educators have decided it is worth a short. Research reports support the assertion that those who read more do better in a wide variety of tests. They become better users of language and have a wider horizon of life. They are also reported to have a greater general knowledge. It is in view of these that this paper recommends FVR as a probable solution to the lamentably poor standard of English in schools and the general poor academic outcomes.

Keywords: Academic Outcome, Education, Knowledge, Language, Reading, Student

Language Use in Arrow of God: A Socio-Linguistic Dimension (Published)

This paper examines the lexis structure and other linguistic features that coalesce to convey the intended message in Achebe’s Arrow of God. It highlights Achebe’s adaptive use of the English language to capture peculiar cultural ideals in the Igbo traditional society. The study analyses the corpus of the novel. Arrow of God and portrays the vocabulary, syntax and expressions that depict the socio-cultural Igbo norms and setting. The analysis explores how Achebe employs lexical and syntactic formations to realize the central message of conflict in Arrow of God. Linguistics styles such as proverbs, transliteration, focalization, lexical borrowings, sentential code-mixing, imageries are discovered. It is these unique that make the novel a master piece in the Nigeria context.

Keywords: Arrow of God, Code-Mixing, English, Language, Socio Linguistics

African Linguo-Cultural Aesthetics in Barclays Ayakoroma’s A Matter of Honour (Published)

Language and culture are not only inherently intertwined, but are also veritable elements for literary imagination and production which constructs and documents distinctive patterns of human existence. Hence modern African literature is essentially characterized by aspects of the African existential reality, as subtly or overtly encapsulated in the fabrics of oral tradition. With insights provided by the socio-semiotic theory espoused by Ferdinand De Saussure (1986) and expanded by Hodge and Kress (1988), Thibault (1991) and Kress and Van Leeuwen (2001), as the analytical template, this study, therefore , examines the deployment and appropriation of indigenous devices, such as native rhetorical patterns, proverbs, native similes, traditional belief system and transliteration, for the expression of cultural meaning in Barclays Ayakoroma’s A Matter of Honour, as an exemplification of how African authors deploy African linguo-cultural elements and aesthetics to capture the African existential reality, sensibility and essence in their works written in an imperial language. The study not only adumbrates the interface between language, culture and literature and the concept of literature as an evocation or microcosm of society, but also further enhances and enriches extant knowledge and perspectives on the African world-view, mores and values.

Keywords: African literature, Barclays Ayakoroma, Culture, Language, socio-semiotic

The Difficulties of Learning English As Perceived By a Group of International Students: A Case Study (Published)

This study investigated the challenges of learning English encountered by a group of international students while learning in an intensive English program at a large Midwestern American university. One tenet underpinning this study is that social learning plays a crucial role in L2 learning because it enables learners to be actively engaged in the language learning process. Twenty students (9 graduate and 11 undergraduate), were chosen randomly from the intensive English program to take part in this study. Their ages ranged between 19-26 years, and they came from different countries, including Saudi Arabia, China, Pakistan, India, Jordan, Ghana, Nigeria and Algeria. The study used information gathered by means of the qualitative research method of interviewing. The findings of the study showed that social interaction is one of the major difficulties confronting international students learning English. Difficulties in terms of oral production, comprehension, pronunciation and using the correct lexicon.

Keywords: Education, English, International student, Language, Learning

The Influence of Drama and Its Repercussions on the Vulnerable Community (Published)

This study sought to discover the Influence of Drama and its Repercussions on the vulnerable communities. Drama represents an ideal method of work if Dramatists want to put the meaning for people into a sizeable context. Unlike in guided practice, people are involved in real communication while they activate language to communicate real meaning, rather than just practicing language and thus develop their communicative competence in a natural way, using body language, making pauses and interruptions, showing emotions, and creating relationships. Drama techniques have the singular merit of directly engaging People’ feelings and, as a result, often making them aware of the need to be able to express them appropriately.

Keywords: Community, Drama, Drama Techniques, Language, communication

Language, Ideology and Reportage on Mutuality in a Pluralistic World (Published)

This paper observes that most discourses in a multilingual setting tend to be ideologically based. Using the multi-ethnic Nigerian situation as reference point, the study explores the ideological nature of reportage in selected newspaper headlines with a view to examining how the structures of media discourse are influenced by the structures of ideologies. The Triangulated Discourse Analytical Approach of Teun Van Dijk was adapted as the theoretical framework for the study. Twenty headlines, characterized by social properties of ideologies such as activity, perspective, rhetorical form, goal, resource and so on are purposively selected from five different Nigerian newspapers, formed the data which were content-analyzed. The surface structure of the newspaper headlines contained ideologies and belief system of the writers which were not overtly expressed but located in the linguistic expressions that characterized the selected newspaper headlines. The nature of language in the newspaper headlines indicate that the writers conceal their opinions in linguistic forms in order to create persuasion for ideological support.

Keywords: Ideology, Language, Media Discourse, News Story, Reportage

Stylistic Choice of Euphemism as a Strategy against Vulgarity in Social Media (Published)

There is no gainsaying the fact that social media such as facebook encapsulate language of obscenity, vulgarity and indecency. Using the stylistic approach that considers style as choice, the paper contends that stylistic strategy of euphemism can be deployed to mitigate obscenity and vulgarity in the language of social media. An article on facebook “Letter to my Boss” serves as data for the analysis of obscenity in the language of social media. Linguistic contents of the article, purposively selected and placed in the first columns of both tables I & II, represent the stylistic choices of the writer, while the linguistic content on the second columns of the tables represents the available linguistic options open to the writer. The analysis reveals that the writer carefully selects his/her linguistic choices while ignoring other choices of the available options even though they contain the same meanings. This is perhaps done in order to mitigate the obscenity that the article would have portrayed. The paper therefore suggests that this euphemistic strategy can be deployed as stylistic choice in any literary piece where vulgarity and obscenity are inevitable.

Keywords: Language, Mitigation, Obscenity, Style, Taboo

  • Our Journal Publishing Partners