Language is particularly significant in law because it is through it that law finds expression. From formulation to interpretation and enforcement, law exclusively depends on language. Legal contract is notorious for formalities and unchanging nature, especially with the use of archaic words and formulaic expressions is an important genre of legal English. Although the formalities afford lawyers opportunity to achieve “precision”, they constitute a serious challenge for the layman. This study examined the frequency, structure, and meaning of archaisms to argue that the elements are operational tools in legal contracts. The data for the study were derived from ten purposively sampled legal contracts (scanned and converted to electronic-version) of about 7116 words of the Akure Judicial Division of Ondo State Nigeria. With corpus linguistics methodologies, using register analysis within the purview of Systemic Functional Grammar, the study adopted the content analysis methodology to identify archaisms in the legal contracts, and to quantitatively and qualitatively analysis the data. The study found 20 archaisms of 4 categories occurring 187 times (2.6%) of the total number of words to justify the claim that archaisms, which are no more found in general English usage, are still very much in use in legal documents, especially contracts. This study concluded that archaisms which according to lawyers, are used to lend a touch of formality and precision to legal language, should give way to modern words which can serve both lawyers’ and non-lawyers’ needs.
Decoding the Underpinning Assumptions of Linguistic Theories: The Lens on Structural Linguistics (Published)
Linguistic theories are frameworks about language and language use. Linguistic theories seek to outline the parameters of operations in any given language. They are developed by linguists who study language over a period to arrive at specific assumptions about the nature of human communication. Among others, the most prominent linguistic theories today include generative linguistics, systemic functional linguistics and structural linguistics. This paper dwells on the inherent assumptions of structural linguistics as a theory. Structural linguistics is defined as a study of language based on the theory that language is a structured system of formal units such as sentences and syntax. An example of structural linguistics is phonetics. It is also defined as a language study based on the assumptions that a language is a coherent system of formal units and that the task of linguistic study is to inquire into the nature of those units and their peculiar systematic arrangement, without reference to historical antecedents or comparison with other languages (Chomsky 1972).
Language Use and Language Maintenance in Ọ́lọ̀wà, Dèkínà Local Government Area, Kògí State, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated language use and language maintenance in Ọ́lòwà, Dèkínà Local Government Area, Kògí State, Nigeria with a view to identifying the factors responsible for the use or non-use of the languages in contact, namely Ígálà, Bàssà-Ngé, and Bàssà-Kómǒ, and how the factors manifest across different socio-cultural groups in the community. Fishman’s theory on the relationship between micro- and macro-sociolinguistics, which centres around who speaks what language to whom and when, was used. One hundred respondents from each of the three language groups totaling three hundred respondents representing the different age groups, sexes, and socio-cultural classes were selected through random sampling. The data were analyzed using simple percentage to determine the extent of language use and language maintenance. The findings show that each respondent is proficient in his or her native language and in the dominant language, Ígálà. Factors responsible for this include ethnic identity consciousness, inter-ethnic relations such as marriage, economic, communal and other socio-cultural activities. Another factor is religion. This work adds to our existing knowledge of how the three languages used in the community have co-existed without any of them being endangered
Language cannot be separated from the society. It is the unifying instrument among the members of any given society. Languages are used in situations. If the situation is not given, there is nothing the language use could be marched with. It is on this note that this paper examined language and situation with particular reference to English language in Nigeria context. Various crucial aspects of language were examined. Some English lexical items were also discussed in various situations. The paper concluded that the choice of lexical items used in communication is determined by certain factors in situational context. It was therefore recommended that every language speaker should study and understand the situation in which he/she finds himself/herself before selecting lexical items. A good knowledge of register is also expected of every speaker and writer of English. This will go a long way in assisting the speaker’s/writer’s choice of appropriate lexical items as situation demands.
Ethnography of Communication is a novel approach that relates language with the cultural norms, values and the speaking rules that are specific to a particular speech community. Duranti (1997)1 defines Ethnography as follows:” Ethnography is the written description of the social organization, social activities, symbolic and material resources, and interpretive practices characteristic of a particular group of people”. A number of scholars including Dell Hymes (1962)2 Sherzer (1983)3, Hill and Hill (1986)4 and Saville-Troike (2003)5 worked in the framework of ethnography of communication. Though the studies made by all ethnographers generally focus on the spoken language in a community, it is possible to extend the above frameworks to the analysis of short stories in view of the fact that many short stories are not merely narratives from a third person point of view but involve dialogues between characters. Often the speech patterns, expressions, motivations and the logical deductions they make are in conformity with the particular society they belong to. In particular, the SPEAKING Model evolved by Dell Hymes (1974)6 is found to be highly adaptable to the analysis of short stories.
The main focus of this study is to analyze the phonemic differences between allomorphs of the same morpheme in the adjectives and verbs of the Kamayo language .This study is qualitative and it uses key informants in gathering the needed data. The common phonemes used which signify the time when the event happened is attached to a root word. Often times, the phonemes : [tag], [ya], [yaka] [ki] [yang], [an] are commonly found in the past form of the verb; while, [yaga], [ga] [paga] and [yag] are phonemenes usually used in the present tense of the verb. The [mag], and [mang] in the beginning of the root word and [an], [on] and [i] are also attached in the end of the root word which are usually used in the future tense of the verb.The common phonemes used in the comparative degree in all categories of adjectives are the [ya],[ay] [ka] [ga] and [ma], where [ya], [ ka] and [ga] are phonemes commonly attached in the beginning of the root word, while [ay], and [ma] are usually found in the end of the rootword to signify the comparison. The phonemes [i], [ay], [hay],[hi] are usually found in the end of a superlative degree adjectives. The phoneme[ hi] is an allomorph of the vowel sound in the words “ guapuhi’, ‘guapahi’ and pubrehi’. On the other hand, the adjectives used to describe an amount has no specific distinction in meaning among the words “ few”, “some”, “multiple”,” plenty”, and “ several”, usually in the Kamayo Language it would only use one word “ hamuk-hamukay” for comparative degree and “ hamuki” and “hamukay” in the superlative degree.The result of the analysis revealed that kamayo language is distinct and it has its own characteristics. It is further revealed that because of its distinctness it is interesting to come up with teaching materials perfectly suited to the first language of the learners in the classroom for Mother Tongue Based-Education in the place of Surigao del Sur.
Language as the Device for Psychological Manipulation in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four: A Psycholinguistic Analysis (Published)
Language is the unique human talent that works amazingly in molding one’s thoughts and deeds. If grown unrestricted, it can help people widen their notions about things and issues in and around them. On the other hand, if shrunk and chained, it hinders the flourishing of ideas and information. The blossoming as well as the limiting power of language has been very perspicuously illustrated by George Orwell in his dystopian novel, 1984. How linguistic constituents hold the absolute ability to do and undo human thoughts has been portrayed in the novel in the most striking manner. Orwell has shown how language can manipulate psychological functions supreme-handedly. To lead popular thought to a certain target, language has to be engineered in the required mechanism. It does so, and attains complete control over people’s mind. This paper examines how language sets a demarcation line for human psychological processes. It attempts to dig deep into the linguistic treatment in 1984 and comes up with a vivid description of the dominance of language on people’s mental procedure. It investigates the manipulations of the ‘Newspeak’ and strives to grasp a psycholinguistic analysis of the novel.
English Expressions in Ghana’s Parliament (Published)
This paper takes a look at the English language spoken on the floor of parliament by Ghanaian parliamentarians. It attempts to ascertain the English features of Ghanaian parliamentarians and whether the identified features can be described as Ghanaian English. The study was guided by the syntactic features given as typical of WAVE (Bokamba, 1991) and the grammatical description of African Englishes (Schmied, 1991) and a careful reading of the Hansard which is the daily official report of parliamentary proceeding. It is revealed that the English spoken by Ghanaian parliamentarians has identifiable Ghanaian features that can support the claim that their English is typically Ghanaian.
Conflict is inevitable and part of the society. A conflict can be encountered in the home, between a husband and his wife, between parents and their children. Conflicts can also be between friends, colleagues, a teacher and his students, and even between religious leaders, politicians, traders, just mention it. Conflict is not entirely negative. The society needs conflict to advance as conflicts enable people know their rights, duties and short comings. The manner a conflict is handled is very important. Language at this juncture, plays an indispensable role in managing conflicts on one hand, and on the other hand, escalating a conflict. In other words, the paper explores language as an instrument capable of deescalating or escalating a conflict.
The principal objective of this study is to investigate the impact of consumer culture on advertising decisions in Cameroon. The cultural variables used include: language, religion, individualism/collectivism, beliefs, values, customs, and pride. We collected primary data from the towns of Douala and Yaounde through the use of questionnaire, calculated Cronbach`s alpha for each of our measuring instruments to ensure their reliability. This data is analysed through Chi square analysis test, multiple correspondence analysis, the test of T student, poison regression analysis, and Spearman correlation test. We found out that prominent values influencing advertising decisions are; pride, face to face contact in business negotiation, elastic time concept, long term orientation, and high social tides. Our results showed that consumer culture has a strong impact on advertising in all the regions with the exception of the centre and south regions. It is represented in the products we buy through design. Lastly, local models have a strong positive impact than foreign models, we recommend enterprises advertising in Cameroon to practice ethno advertising, and more so new products should first be advertised in the rest of the regions and gradually to the Centre and south Regions.
The Pattern of Inheritance Utterance Addresing Angkola Mandailing Society Through Biola na Mabugang Reconstruction; Culture and Language Studies (Published)
This research deals with the pattern of inheritance utterances addressing Angkola Mandailing society. This research aims to describe three formulated research problems; 1) the classification of pattern utterances, b) the method of pattern utterances and 3) the pattern of inheritance pattern utterances Angkola Mandailing society in which it has seven purposes namely; i) respect ii) honor iii) helping iv) family building v) intimate relationship vi) problem solving and vii) marriage. Then, the descriptive qualitative method was used to achieve the objectives of the reserach. The data were obtained and analyzed from Biola na Mabugang by the researcher, Rosmawati Harahap. The findings showed that there are 15 of 33 classifications of utterances found Biola na Mabugang. Then, the pattern of utterance is decided based on Dalihan na Tolu (three main kinship elements; kahanggi, mora and anak boru) . Last, the existence of parents, children and experiences play an important role in the pattern of inheritance utterances addressing Angkola Mandailing society in South Padang Lawas and Padang Lawas of South Tapanuli.
The Performance of Language Heterodoxy in Black Theater: Profanity and Inversion on Amiri Baraka’s Stage (Published)
In LeRoi Jones/Amiri Baraka’s playtexts, the authority of the English language seems to become the object of linguistic mutilation and salient profanity. The employment of an obscene language and the disfigurement of language transpire to be acts of a deliberate withdrawal from linguistic norms. The dramatist along with the plays’ characters seem to drop identification with domination from the agenda of cultural and political options, and gesture toward altering and inverting linguistic conventions and connotations. The playwright, consequently, appears to invert and subvert the English language, a language that is perceived as odd and dominative. Inversion is indexical of the linguistic proclivity to chase a language which levies its significations and meanings. The dramatist’s transformations carved on the tissue of verbal and written forms signal an urgency to unchain the black vernacular and break off the shell of the English language. Baraka’s style seems then to ground inversion with variation, revision, and repetition on the body of language itself. In this light, mutilation tends to assume a disruptive syntax, uncommon orthography, and disparate typography. Inversion implicates new terms and forms for the production of novel meanings. This is the new modality upon which the playwright’s writing style is predicated. The goal of this article is to spell out Baraka’s resort to profanity and mutilation along with outlining the reversal of signification and its attendant senses. The second objective of this article is to sketch and delineate the pattern of inversion marshaled by the dramatist. The first part sheds light on the playwright’s recourse to profanity and obscenity of parlance. The second part traces the mutilation of language and takes stock of the inversive pattern.
Language as a structure of meaning giving and reality creation is composed of words, phrases and sentences. Humans’ communications are based on these features to describe an event, explain one’s emotions, needs, interests and fears etc. Language is used to resolve or escalate dispute. People from different culture and social units perceive the world through the lens provided by their distinctive languages. Meaning that language provides repertoire of words that name the categories into which the language users have divided their world. In fact, definitions of words are linguistically, culturally and contextually bound. This is because words carry meanings that make sense to members of a shared social environment. Dispute resolution relies heavily on words (language). However, there is an underlying assumption in Nigeria that all these words should be in English – the second language. The researcher posits that if English is to be a conflict resolution tool in Nigeria. It must accommodate the diversity of culture and language usage. The paper therefore explores the challenges of English language in intercultural conflict resolution, and emphasizes the need to consider the different uses of the language in national and transnational conflict resolution.
A Comparative Study on the Aesthetics of Language and Structure in T.S. Eliot and Mahmoud Darwish’s Poetry (Published)
This paper explores the insights and inspirations Mahmoud Darwish has received from other poets. The thematic and structural analysis the study conducts on T. S. Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and Mahmoud Darwish’s “A Truce with the Mongols in the Forest of Oak” indicates that the two poems are narrated using a fragmented, ironic and symbolic language. Likewise, both purposefully repeat lexical items and syntactic structures, and abound with imageries and figures of speech.
Politicians make use of language for the purpose of achieving desired goals. In political utterances, many acts are performed as politicians through their speeches try to manipulate the listeners by the way they use language. This study investigates the deployment of speech acts and welfarist ideology in Governor Aregbesola’s address to the Osun State workers in commemoration of year 2013 “Workers’ Day”. The speech is selected for analysis to bring out Aregbesola’s language use and to highlight the welfarist ideology of the government of Osun State of Nigeria. The speech titled “Productivity is the key to Wealth” is analysed within the framework of J.R. Searle’s Speech Acts to bring out the illocutionary force in it. The analysis reveals Aregbesola’s language use in performing certain actions with a view to changing the attitudes of workers and also to project the government as welfarist in its programmes.
Assessing the Academic Writing Proficiency of EFL Learners at Qassim University: Honing the Skills of Young Writers (Published)
Four language skills, academic writing is the one most at casualty at the post intermediate level in KSA. Syntax, organization of materials and expression, all are severely affected so far as the EFL learners are concerned. This paper proposes to evaluate the problem from the pedagogical perspective by comparing the current teaching practices in teaching EFL writing with world trends. It highlights recent studies in EFL apart from showcasing the teaching community’s viewpoint. Finally, it presents recommendations aimed at attaining the desired learning outcomes.
Language is a veritable tool for conveying knowledge and information. In the field of science and technology, it is indispensable in disseminating, concepts and facts. Ideas and novel thoughts cannot be formulated without the use of languages in the sciences. Thus, language is the means of understanding science and technology. In fact, language and science are so inextricably linked that learning science is analogous to studying language. However, some second language learners of English fail to realize the relevance of language in the study of science and technology. Also scientific language expressing technical facts pose a lot of problems to second language learners in the field of computer science because the texts introduce the learners to many unfamiliar words. Therefore, this study examines and interprets some technical words in the field of computer science and shows its peculiar usage in the academic context. Excerpts culled from academic journals and texts in computer science are analyzed to explore some ordinary and technical words with specialized meanings. It is discovered that there is a significant number of technical jargons in computer science texts. A major implication of this study is that the second language learners of computer science need to understand and interpret the technical words for their studies and skills in professional communication.
This study is a phonological analysis of a kind of spoken discourse. It sheds light on English speeches of tennis players who are from different nationalities, but they speak English as their second or third language. This speech event is important in that a speech is given in a formal setting for a huge number of audience and it is characterized as being unplanned. Immediately after the final game, the two players; the winner of the match and his opponent, are to deliver a short speech. The study aims to examine, phonologically, the speeches of those nonnative players against the BBC accent. It focuses on whether male and female speeches are different or not and to what extent. It is hypothesized that the mismatch lies mainly in allophonic variations, let alone accent and intonation. It analyzes two spoken texts given on the court in the final game. The data are videos taken from “You tube” and they include the final part of championships when the trophies are presented to both players. They deliver a speech to express their feelings and viewpoints. This study is of interest to those interested in second language phonology, gender-based phonological differences and spoken discourse analysts.
The Impact of the National Policy on Education (NPE) On Multilingual Proficiency in Nigeria (Published)
About 450 languages are spoken in Nigeria with Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba as the major languages. In order to assign functional roles to the multiplicity of languages, the Federal Government promulgated the National Policy on Education (henceforth NPE) in 1977 stipulated that every Nigerian child must be proficient in his mother tongue and in a major Nigerian language. At the secondary level, it is expected that every child should be bilingual in two Nigerian languages. Thirty six years later, the impact of the policy on the language education of Nigerian pupils was assessed. Data were collected using questionnaire and interview methods. Findings revealed that the primary aim of the NPE has not been achieved. Based on the findings, the recommendation made include the organization of intensive workshop sessions for language teachers to expose them to the modern techniques for attaining bilingualism through effective training.
This paper examines the lexis structure and other linguistic features that coalesce to convey the intended message in Achebe’s Arrow of God. It highlights Achebe’s adaptive use of the English language to capture peculiar cultural ideals in the Igbo traditional society. The study analyses the corpus of the novel. Arrow of God and portrays the vocabulary, syntax and expressions that depict the socio-cultural Igbo norms and setting. The analysis explores how Achebe employs lexical and syntactic formations to realize the central message of conflict in Arrow of God. Linguistics styles such as proverbs, transliteration, focalization, lexical borrowings, sentential code-mixing, imageries are discovered. It is these unique that make the novel a master piece in the Nigeria context.