Tag Archives: Language

The Impact of Language in Conflict Management and Peace Building (Published)

Conflict is inevitable and part of the society. A conflict can be encountered in the home, between a husband and his wife, between parents and their children. Conflicts can also be between friends, colleagues, a teacher and his students, and even between religious leaders, politicians, traders, just mention it. Conflict is not entirely negative. The society needs conflict to advance as conflicts enable people know their rights, duties and short comings. The manner a conflict is handled is very important. Language at this juncture, plays an indispensable role in managing conflicts on one hand, and on the other hand, escalating a conflict. In other words, the paper explores language as an instrument capable of deescalating or escalating a conflict.

Keywords: Language, Peace – Building, People’s Lives, conflict management

Advertising Decision Making in Cameroon as a Cultural Framework (Published)

The principal objective of this study is to investigate the impact of consumer culture on advertising decisions in Cameroon. The cultural variables used include: language, religion, individualism/collectivism, beliefs, values, customs, and pride. We collected primary data from the towns of Douala and Yaounde through the use of questionnaire, calculated Cronbach`s alpha for each of our measuring instruments to ensure their reliability. This data is analysed through Chi square analysis test, multiple correspondence analysis, the test of T student, poison regression analysis, and Spearman correlation test. We found out that prominent values influencing  advertising  decisions  are;  pride,  face  to  face  contact  in  business  negotiation,  elastic  time concept, long term orientation, and high social tides. Our results showed that consumer culture has a strong impact on advertising in all the regions with the exception of the centre and south regions. It is represented in the products we buy through design. Lastly, local models have a strong positive impact than foreign models, we recommend enterprises advertising in Cameroon to practice ethno advertising, and more so new products should first be advertised in the rest of the regions and gradually to the Centre and south Regions.

Keywords: Acculturation, Advertising, Collectivism, Face to face contact, Language, Long term orientation, Religion., and Elastic time concept, pride

The Pattern of Inheritance Utterance Addresing Angkola Mandailing Society Through Biola na Mabugang Reconstruction; Culture and Language Studies (Published)

This research deals with the pattern of inheritance utterances addressing Angkola Mandailing society. This research aims to describe three formulated research problems; 1) the classification of pattern utterances, b) the method of pattern utterances and 3) the pattern of inheritance pattern utterances Angkola Mandailing society in which it has seven purposes namely; i) respect ii) honor iii) helping iv) family building v) intimate relationship vi) problem solving and vii) marriage. Then, the descriptive qualitative method was used to achieve the objectives of the reserach. The data were obtained and analyzed from Biola na Mabugang by the researcher, Rosmawati Harahap. The findings showed that there are 15 of 33 classifications of utterances found Biola na Mabugang. Then, the pattern of utterance is decided based on Dalihan na Tolu (three main kinship elements; kahanggi, mora and anak boru) . Last, the existence of parents, children and experiences play an important role in the pattern of inheritance utterances addressing Angkola Mandailing society in South Padang Lawas and Padang Lawas of South Tapanuli.

Keywords: Angkola Mandailing Society, Biola na Mabugang, Culture, Language, Pattern of Inheritance, Studies, Utterance

The Performance of Language Heterodoxy in Black Theater: Profanity and Inversion on Amiri Baraka’s Stage (Published)

In  LeRoi  Jones/Amiri  Baraka’s  playtexts,  the  authority  of  the  English  language  seems  to  become  the  object  of  linguistic  mutilation  and  salient  profanity.  The  employment  of  an  obscene  language  and  the  disfigurement  of  language  transpire  to  be  acts  of  a  deliberate  withdrawal  from  linguistic  norms.  The  dramatist  along  with  the  plays’  characters  seem  to  drop  identification  with  domination  from  the  agenda  of  cultural  and  political  options,  and  gesture  toward  altering  and  inverting  linguistic  conventions  and  connotations.  The  playwright,  consequently,  appears  to  invert  and  subvert  the  English  language,  a  language  that  is  perceived  as  odd  and  dominative.  Inversion  is  indexical  of  the  linguistic  proclivity  to  chase  a  language  which  levies  its  significations  and  meanings.  The  dramatist’s  transformations  carved  on  the  tissue  of  verbal  and  written  forms  signal  an  urgency  to  unchain  the  black  vernacular  and  break  off  the  shell  of  the  English  language.  Baraka’s  style  seems  then  to  ground  inversion  with  variation,  revision,  and  repetition  on  the  body  of  language  itself.  In  this  light,  mutilation  tends  to  assume  a  disruptive  syntax,  uncommon  orthography,  and  disparate  typography.  Inversion  implicates  new  terms  and  forms  for  the  production  of  novel  meanings.  This  is  the  new  modality  upon  which  the  playwright’s  writing  style  is  predicated.  The  goal  of  this  article  is  to  spell  out  Baraka’s  resort  to  profanity  and  mutilation  along  with  outlining  the  reversal  of  signification  and  its  attendant  senses.  The  second  objective  of  this  article  is  to  sketch  and  delineate  the  pattern  of  inversion  marshaled  by  the  dramatist.  The  first  part  sheds  light  on  the  playwright’s  recourse  to  profanity  and  obscenity  of  parlance.  The  second  part  traces  the  mutilation  of  language  and  takes  stock  of  the  inversive  pattern.

Keywords: Language, Transformation, inversion, mutilation, profanity, signification

Language and Culture as Conflict Resolution Tools: Rethinking English as Lingua Franca (Published)

Language as a structure of meaning giving and reality creation is composed of words, phrases and sentences. Humans’ communications are based on these features to describe an event, explain one’s emotions, needs, interests and fears etc. Language is used to resolve or escalate dispute. People from different culture and social units perceive the world through the lens provided by their distinctive languages. Meaning that language provides repertoire of words that name the categories into which the language users have divided their world. In fact, definitions of words are linguistically, culturally and contextually bound. This is because words carry meanings that make sense to members of a shared social environment. Dispute resolution relies heavily on words (language). However, there is an underlying assumption in Nigeria that all these words should be in English – the second language. The researcher posits that if English is to be a conflict resolution tool in Nigeria. It must accommodate the diversity of culture and language usage. The paper therefore explores the challenges of English language in intercultural conflict resolution, and emphasizes the need to consider the different uses of the language in national and transnational conflict resolution.

Keywords: Conflict Resolution, Culture, English, Language, Lingua Franca

A Comparative Study on the Aesthetics of Language and Structure in T.S. Eliot and Mahmoud Darwish’s Poetry (Published)

This paper explores the insights and inspirations Mahmoud Darwish has received from other poets. The thematic and structural analysis the study conducts on T. S. Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and Mahmoud Darwish’s “A Truce with the Mongols in the Forest of Oak” indicates that the two poems are narrated using a fragmented, ironic and symbolic language. Likewise, both purposefully repeat lexical items and syntactic structures, and abound with imageries and figures of speech.  

Keywords: Eloit, Forest of Oak, Language, Mahmoud, Poem, Poetry, Speech

Speech Acts and Welfarist Ideology in Governor Aregbesola’s May 1, 2013 address (Published)

Politicians make use of language for the purpose of achieving desired goals. In political utterances, many acts are performed as politicians through their speeches try to manipulate the listeners by the way they use language. This study investigates the deployment of speech acts and welfarist ideology in Governor Aregbesola’s address to the Osun State workers in commemoration of year 2013 “Workers’ Day”. The speech is selected for analysis to bring out Aregbesola’s language use and to highlight the welfarist ideology of the government of Osun State of Nigeria. The speech titled “Productivity is the key to Wealth” is analysed within the framework of J.R. Searle’s Speech Acts to bring out the illocutionary force in it. The analysis reveals Aregbesola’s language use in performing certain actions with a view to changing the attitudes of workers and also to project the government as welfarist in its programmes.

Keywords: Labour, Language, Politics, Rauf Aregbesola., Speech Acts., Welfarist Ideology

Assessing the Academic Writing Proficiency of EFL Learners at Qassim University: Honing the Skills of Young Writers (Published)

Four language skills, academic writing is the one most at casualty at the post intermediate level in KSA. Syntax, organization of materials and expression, all are severely affected so far as the EFL learners are concerned. This paper proposes to evaluate the problem from the pedagogical perspective by comparing the current teaching practices in teaching EFL writing with world trends. It highlights recent studies in EFL apart from showcasing the teaching community’s viewpoint. Finally, it presents recommendations aimed at attaining the desired learning outcomes.

Keywords: Academic, Language, Proficiency, Skill, University, Writers

The Language of Science: A Lexical Study of Academic Writing in Computer Science (Published)

Language is a veritable tool for conveying knowledge and information. In the field of science and technology, it is indispensable in disseminating, concepts and facts. Ideas and novel thoughts cannot be formulated without the use of languages in the sciences. Thus, language is the means of understanding science and technology. In fact, language and science are so inextricably linked that learning science is analogous to studying language. However, some second language learners of English fail to realize the relevance of language in the study of science and technology.  Also scientific language expressing technical facts pose a lot of problems to second language learners in the field of computer science because the texts introduce the learners to many unfamiliar words. Therefore, this study examines and interprets some technical words in the field of computer science and shows its peculiar usage in the academic context. Excerpts culled from academic journals and texts in computer science are analyzed to explore some ordinary and technical words with specialized meanings. It is discovered that there is a significant number of technical jargons in computer science texts. A major implication of this study is that the second language learners of computer science need to understand and interpret the technical words for their studies and skills in professional communication.

Keywords: Academic Writing, Computer Science, Language, Lexical Study

Gender-Based Phonological Analysis in Non- Native Selected Tennis Players’ Speeches (Published)

This study is a phonological analysis of a kind of spoken discourse. It sheds light on English speeches of tennis players who are from different nationalities, but they speak English as their second or third language. This speech event is important in that a speech is given in a formal setting for a huge number of audience and it is characterized as being unplanned. Immediately after the final game, the two players; the winner of the match and his opponent, are to deliver a short speech. The study aims to examine, phonologically, the speeches of those nonnative players against the BBC accent. It focuses on whether male and female speeches are different or not and to what extent. It is hypothesized that the mismatch lies mainly in allophonic variations, let alone accent and intonation. It analyzes two spoken texts given on the court in the final game. The data are videos taken from “You tube” and they include the final part of championships when the trophies are presented to both players. They deliver a speech to express their feelings and viewpoints. This study is of interest to those interested in second language phonology, gender-based phonological differences and spoken discourse analysts.

Keywords: English Speech, Gender, Language, Phonological, Tennis Player

The Impact of the National Policy on Education (NPE) On Multilingual Proficiency in Nigeria (Published)

About 450 languages are spoken in Nigeria with Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba as the major languages. In order to assign functional roles to the multiplicity of languages, the Federal Government promulgated the National Policy on Education (henceforth NPE) in 1977 stipulated that every Nigerian child must be proficient in his mother tongue and in a major Nigerian language. At the secondary level, it is expected that every child should be bilingual in two Nigerian languages. Thirty six years later, the impact of the policy on the language education of Nigerian pupils was assessed. Data were collected using questionnaire and interview methods. Findings revealed that the primary aim of the NPE has not been achieved. Based on the findings, the recommendation made include the organization of intensive workshop sessions for language teachers to expose them to the modern techniques for attaining bilingualism through effective training.

Keywords: Education, Language, National Policy, Nigeria

Language Use in Arrow of God: A Socio-Linguistic Dimension (Published)

This paper examines the lexis structure and other linguistic features that coalesce to convey the intended message in Achebe’s Arrow of God. It highlights Achebe’s adaptive use of the English language to capture peculiar cultural ideals in the Igbo traditional society. The study analyses the corpus of the novel. Arrow of God and portrays the vocabulary, syntax and expressions that depict the socio-cultural Igbo norms and setting. The analysis explores how Achebe employs lexical and syntactic formations to realize the central message of conflict in Arrow of God. Linguistics styles such as proverbs, transliteration, focalization, lexical borrowings, sentential code-mixing, imageries are discovered. It is these unique that make the novel a master piece in the Nigeria context.

Keywords: Achebe, Arrow of God, Language, Socio-Linguistic, Vocabulary

Improving Language Proficiency and General Knowledge: A Case for Free Voluntary Reading. (Published)

Free voluntary reading is just as its name states. It is free reading; free in the sense that students chooses what material they want to read, choose to read or not to read and to report in class on the reading they have done or not. It is purely reading with no strings attached. This is a strategy voiced by Stephen Krashen and quite a good number of language educators have decided it is worth a short. Research reports support the assertion that those who read more do better in a wide variety of tests. They become better users of language and have a wider horizon of life. They are also reported to have a greater general knowledge. It is in view of these that this paper recommends FVR as a probable solution to the lamentably poor standard of English in schools and the general poor academic outcomes.

Keywords: Academic Outcomes, English, Free Reading, Language, Literature, Student

Language Use And Lexical Attrition: Do They Change Over Time (Published)

The issue of language use has already been assumed to be an important predicting factor for language attrition. Intuitively, it makes perfect sense that second or foreign language learners who make little use of a language experience more attrition than ones who use the language more frequently. Therefore, the availability or the lack of opportunities to use the language could influence the amount of language attrition, let alone an essential variable like vocabulary knowledge. Such language use factors must be considered in any model concerned with explaining FL attrition, and the primary purpose of the present study is to provide evidence about this. It attempts to examine a population of college acquired English among college leavers who vary in the extent to which they have been able to maintain contact with the target language over time. The findings demonstrated that participants rated many of their patterns of contact with English and vocabulary in particular somewhat lower after the end of formal instruction. Furthermore, the most powerful predictor appears to be the use of the internet which is strongly linked to better retention of productive vocabulary test over time.

Keywords: English, Language, Language Attrition, Literature, Vocabulary

Deviant Collocation As A Writing Technique In African Literature: A Stylistic Study of Helon Habila’s Measuring Time. (Published)

This paper appraises the use of deviant collocations in Habila’s Measuring Time. Ordinarily, collocations are words or expressions that naturally co-occur. But some literary artists have as a matter of fact made some incongruous blending for stylistic stand point and to unravel the ills in their environments. This inquiry adopts the systemic functional Grammar because it highlights the functions of language, the descriptive methods of data analysis, the primary and secondary data collection methods. It was discovered that language use depicts the afflictions of the people like the twins La Mamo and Mamo in the novel. Thus, elements of language as used in the Measuring Time stand for Habila’s ideological orientation. He therefore, uses deviant collocations such as personification, paradox, oxymoron, grotesque scheme, hybridity and so on to unearth the sense of fragmentation, despair and perplexity, which define his fictional Keti community, which is a paradigm for Nigeria and indeed Africa.

Keywords: African literature, Deviation and Collocation, Language, Style

Translation and Community Integration (Published)

This paper deals with the Translation and Community integration; and it highlights the increasing need for translation. In most virtual communities, language is at the heart of communication. When we extend these communities to the international stage, we are faced with challenges in interaction. Cross-lingual communication between academic communities is a matter of some urgency. The growth of the Language Technologies field in recent years, with increasing public, political, and industrial recognition, has meant that there are now major business players engaged in technology integration and product development, leading to a multiplicity of systems and solutions available on the market. Therefore, translation and community are very crucial in our daily life.

Keywords: Community, Diversity, Language, translation

Technicality of Translation Appears In the Competence of the Translator (Published)

This paper investigates the Technicality of Translation Appears in the Competence of the Translator. Technicality of Translation Appears in the Competence of the Translator. A competency is a set of defined behaviors that provide a structured guide enabling the identification, evaluation and development of the behaviors in individual employees. Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation. Terminology can be considered the surface appearance of relevant domain concepts. Candidate terminological expressions are usually captured with shallow techniques that range from stochastic methods to more sophisticated syntactic approaches.

Keywords: Competence, Language, communication, translation

Improving Language Proficiency and General Knowledge: A Case for Free Voluntary Reading (Published)

Free voluntary reading is just as its name states. It is free reading; free in the sense that students chooses what material they want to read, choose to read or not to read and to report in class on the reading they have done or not. It is purely reading with no strings attached. This is a strategy voiced by Stephen Krashen and quite a good number of language educators have decided it is worth a short. Research reports support the assertion that those who read more do better in a wide variety of tests. They become better users of language and have a wider horizon of life. They are also reported to have a greater general knowledge. It is in view of these that this paper recommends FVR as a probable solution to the lamentably poor standard of English in schools and the general poor academic outcomes.

Keywords: Academic Outcome, Education, Knowledge, Language, Reading, Student

Language Use in Arrow of God: A Socio-Linguistic Dimension (Published)

This paper examines the lexis structure and other linguistic features that coalesce to convey the intended message in Achebe’s Arrow of God. It highlights Achebe’s adaptive use of the English language to capture peculiar cultural ideals in the Igbo traditional society. The study analyses the corpus of the novel. Arrow of God and portrays the vocabulary, syntax and expressions that depict the socio-cultural Igbo norms and setting. The analysis explores how Achebe employs lexical and syntactic formations to realize the central message of conflict in Arrow of God. Linguistics styles such as proverbs, transliteration, focalization, lexical borrowings, sentential code-mixing, imageries are discovered. It is these unique that make the novel a master piece in the Nigeria context.

Keywords: Arrow of God, Code-Mixing, English, Language, Socio Linguistics

African Linguo-Cultural Aesthetics in Barclays Ayakoroma’s A Matter of Honour (Published)

Language and culture are not only inherently intertwined, but are also veritable elements for literary imagination and production which constructs and documents distinctive patterns of human existence. Hence modern African literature is essentially characterized by aspects of the African existential reality, as subtly or overtly encapsulated in the fabrics of oral tradition. With insights provided by the socio-semiotic theory espoused by Ferdinand De Saussure (1986) and expanded by Hodge and Kress (1988), Thibault (1991) and Kress and Van Leeuwen (2001), as the analytical template, this study, therefore , examines the deployment and appropriation of indigenous devices, such as native rhetorical patterns, proverbs, native similes, traditional belief system and transliteration, for the expression of cultural meaning in Barclays Ayakoroma’s A Matter of Honour, as an exemplification of how African authors deploy African linguo-cultural elements and aesthetics to capture the African existential reality, sensibility and essence in their works written in an imperial language. The study not only adumbrates the interface between language, culture and literature and the concept of literature as an evocation or microcosm of society, but also further enhances and enriches extant knowledge and perspectives on the African world-view, mores and values.

Keywords: African literature, Barclays Ayakoroma, Culture, Language, socio-semiotic

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