Tag Archives: Knowledge

Impact of an Educational Intervention of 40 Hours Training of Breast Feeding Promoting on the Knowledge and Attitude of a Sample of Health Professional Staff: A Study of A Pre and Post Evaluation (Published)

Health professionals have a crucial role in promotion, support and management of breastfeeding. To be effective in this effort, the clinician should focus on the issue from the preconception stage through pregnancy and delivery, and continue in subsequent infant care.  To assess the effectiveness of the UNICEF/WHO 40-hour of breast feeding training through the assess breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of the health profession staff before and after training course. Pre-posttest study with an intervention of an educational training course were conducted in Karbala maternity Hospital, during the period from May till July, 2016.A total of 90 participants arrange to reply to the invitation, Self-administered questionnaires were designed which include general demographic information, items related to the knowledge and attitude regarding the breast feeding. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS program (version 20) Results were presented as the frequencies and percentage in tables and figures. Chi-square test was used to determine any association found between these demographic variables and knowledge and attitudes. P value < 0.05 considered as cut off value for significance. The study revealed that the majority 48.9% of the participants achieved fair level score of knowledge regarding to breast feeding in pretest while the knowledge score improved as the majority 75.6% reported good knowledge in posttest.  There is improvement regarding the knowledge related to basic information, breast feeding problems management and hospital policies supporting breast feeding. This improvement was significant statistically regrading knowledge related to the basic information (sings of adequate breast feeding 77.8%, breast feeding with local anesthesia 82.2%, breast feeding benefit 97.8% and contraindication to breast feeding84.4% with p<0.05. There is an improvement in good attitude from pretest to posttest in each attitude questions except for Q 14 and Q 15 (Formula is as healthy for an infant as breast milk, Breast-feeding is more convenient. than formula-feeding) the attitude is slightly reversed in the posttest. Significant statistical association were reported regarding the effect of the course of breast feeding promotion training in certain aspects of attitude questions especially the breastfeeding benefit aspect. UNICEF/WHO 40-hour of breast feeding training was effective tool to assess the   breast feeding knowledge and attitudes among health profession staff that provide maternity care.   

Keywords: Assess, Attitudes, Breast Feeding Training, Effectiveness, Health Profession Staff, Knowledge, Pre and Posttest.

The Relationship between Ma’rifat and the Theory of Knowledge and Its Implication in Education (Published)

This article elaborates the knowledge achieved through fana’ process in accordance with Sufi experts. Hierarchically, fana’ stimulates “emotion” and awareness of the Oneness of God involving the existence of ratio. Unfortunately sensory and rational potentials do not function individually and are free from the emotion. Thus, people’s awareness often changes and the system of knowledge transforms as the result of impelementing muj­âhadah through maqâmât and hâl mechanism. The purposed knowledge here is not the direct knowledge achieved at the end of journey such as ladunni knowledge. This is a holistic knowledge combining rational, empirical, and intuitive knowledges, a model introduced by Sufi community through the concept of Ma’rifat. This concept is relevant with the needs of education field today. Without this concept, education is only a meaningless process of knowledge transformation.

Keywords: Al Îmân, Education, Knowledge, Ma’rifat, Soul Cleansing

The Incidence and Detectability of Phlebitis by Healthcare Professionals in a 1,200 Bed Teaching Hospital with No Vascular Access Team (Published)

Infusion phlebitis can be caused by a multitude of factors including the chemical nature of the infusion, the catheter type, insertion and care technique, and factors leading to catheter or site contamination. A cross-sectional study of 100 randomly selected charts of patients were reviewed for the occurrence of phlebitis and IV-related adverse event. In addition, an 8-item questionnaire that assessed 51 physicians’ and nurses’ knowledge of phlebitis and aspects of prevention and care was administered. 95 of the 100 patients were included in the study. Overall phlebitis incidence was 36.8%. Three cases of infiltration and one of extravasation were also documented. The median interquartile range (IQR) score was 62.5 (50-75). This study reports a moderately high incidence of phlebitis and other IV complications. It suggests the need for a better system of documenting phlebitis, and the need to be consistent in compliance with CDC guidelines for line longevity

Keywords: Incidence, Intravenous Access, Knowledge, Nursing, Phlebitis

The Relationship between Board Members’ Knowledge and Organizational Performance of Private Commercial Banks in Nairobi County, Kenya (Published)

Many organizations are striving to enhance their organization performance by creating and commercializing knowledge in a timely and cost-efficient manner. Given the intensifying competitive environment, the critical determinant of organizational success is the effectiveness of board of directors. The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between board members’ characteristics and organizational performance, drawing empirical lessons from private commercial banks in Nairobi County, Kenya. Based on the study, this paper examines the relationship between board members’ knowledge and organizational performance. The study employed a correlation research design. It targeted 207 senior management staff drawn from 28 private commercial banks within Nairobi County. Stratified and random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 103 senior management staff, representing 50% of the target population. Primary data was collected using structured questionnaire while secondary data was collected using documentary guided. Content validity index was used to test validity of research instruments whilst Cronbach alpha method was applied to test reliability of the research instruments. Correlation analysis was used to determine the nature of the relationship between variables. The study found no significant correlation between board members’ knowledge and organization performance. The study therefore adds new knowledge to the existing body of literature since the extant literature suggests that board members’ knowledge has a positive influence on organization performance. There is however need for further studies on the same to establish if the study findings hold.

Keywords: Influence Board Members, Kenya, Knowledge, Nairobi County, Organizational Performance, Private Commercial Banks

Knowledge, Experience and Use of Probiotics among the Universities and (Paaet) Students of Kuwait (Published)

The study was conducted to determine the level of general experience and knowledge concerning probiotics in the different institutions in Kuwait, and the survey led to the realizations of varying data. The survey was conducted to a total of four hundred students from two learning institutions through the use of questionnaires. The students interviewed were of different ages, genders, education levels, nationalities as well as attitudes towards the probiotics information. The probiotics are bacteria that are helpful to the body’s digestion system and are commonly found in the gut’s walls. These bacteria which occur in various forms are present in various food sources such as the milk products as explained in the context. The study also was set to determine the level of awareness concerning the consumption of these bacteria from the interviewers and the relevant data collected. Some of the responses, however, proved that a lot of students are not aware of their consumption of these bacteria as explained in the context.  

Keywords: Knowledge, Probiotics, Survey, University students

Aristotle and Farabi’s Viewpoint about Plato’s Theory of Idea (Published)

Idea theory is the most important part of Plato’s theory, since it is predominant on all part of his philosophy, knowledge, and morality or even politic. Plato’s viewpoint is the base and basic of many philosopher and philosophy historian’s view. Aristotle as the best and nearest Plato’s student found and a presented a different way than his teacher, in spite of his respect to Plato, this knowledge separated his way from his teacher. According to Aristotle, there is no other world than sensible word and there is no externally world of general. However, general beings are just human mind created and this is human mind, which creates general. Aristotle does not accept existence of self before body, therefore he rejects Plato’s view who said science and knowledge is remind. However, Farabi tried to show that Plato and Aristotle’s different viewpoint had the same direction. Since he believes that philosophies are the same and these differences are just in surface. Author of this article tries to analysis Aristotle and Farabi’s viewpoint and show their general structure.

Keywords: Aristotle, Farabi., Idea, Knowledge, Plato, Sensible

Perception and Experiences of Infection Control Practices among Professional Nurses in Secondary Health Facilities in South-South Nigeria: A Qualitative Approach (Published)

Infection control practice is a fundamental operational guiding principle in the delivery of modern health care. However, there is minimal qualitative investigation into professional nurses’ perception of infection control practices and how the experiences affect compliance with recommended infection control procedures. The purpose of this study was to examine and describe professional nurses’ impressions and experiences about infection control practices. A descriptive qualitative research design was used as the research framework. In-depth Interviews (IDI) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were completed with a sample of 54 nurses.  The findings highlight the importance of both individual and organisational factors in determining Nurses’ compliance with recommended workplace safety practices. Four major themes emerged from the data, namely knowledge, infection surveillance, safety practices, and workplace policy. The findings indicate individual and organisational factors associated with compliance which are useful in developing strategies to facilitate long-term compliance with infection control practices among nurses.

Keywords: Infection control, Knowledge, Policy, Safety Practices, qualitative

Knowledge and Practices of Trans-Cultural Client Care amongst Practicing Nurses of Buea, Cameroon (Published)

Trans-cultural client care nursing has been described as the art of providing care to individuals, families, groups and community with a consideration given to the cultural background of the client in order to ensure compliance and improve health. It is a recommended and patronized strategy, due to its insistence on culture competence in care giving, as well as its potential to instigate culture desire in health care personnel. The objective was to investigate professional qualification, academic level, longevity of service, type of in-service training and the way the influence trans-cultural care nursing. It was also aimed at investigating knowledge of the importance, chronological steps, orientation in trans-cultural care, most appropriate person to provide information- trans-cultural communication and culture care preservation. Stratified samples of nurses/midwives working in Health Care Institutions in Fako Division, were administered multiple choice questionnaires, for a period of three weeks. One hundred and sixty five (165) participants filled the questionnaires and SPSS 16.0 was used to analyze the data collected and simple percentages were used to present the results. The results have demonstrated that: Nursing education, qualification and training influence trans-cultural client care among nurses/midwives in Health Care Institutions in Fako Division. It is thus recommend that Health Care Institutions should regularly organize seminars and workshops on the effective use and application of clients’ culture during care.

Keywords: Importance, Influencing Factors, Knowledge, Trans-Cultural Care Nursing

Aristotle and Farabi’s viewpoint about Plato’s theory of Idea (Published)

Idea theory is the most important part of Plato’s theory, since it is predominant on all part of his philosophy, knowledge, and morality or even politic. Plato’s viewpoint is the base and basic of many philosopher and philosophy historian’s view. Aristotle as the best and nearest Plato’s student found and a presented a different way than his teacher, in spite of his respect to Plato, this knowledge separated his way from his teacher. According to Aristotle, there is no other world than sensible word and there is no externally world of general. However, general beings are just human mind created and this is human mind, which creates general. Aristotle does not accept existence of self before body, therefore he rejects Plato’s view who said science and knowledge is remind. However, Farabi tried to show that Plato and Aristotle’s different viewpoint had the same direction. Since he believes that philosophies are the same and these differences are just in surface. Author of this article tries to analysis Aristotle and Farabi’s viewpoint and show their general structure.

Keywords: Aristotle, Farabi., Idea, Knowledge, Plato, Sensible

The Role of Knowledge Management Processes in Organizational Performance Applied Study in the Cement Company of “Ain Touta” (Published)

This research aims to identify the correlation and impact between knowledge management processes and organizational performance. To achieve this, it is relied on the key knowledge management processes, i.e., (knowledge diagnosis, acquisition, generation, storage, distribution and application). Organizational performance is expressed by the following focuses: (Growth and learning, internal processes, customer focus). The research was carried out at the Cement Company of “Ain Touta”, province of Batna, Algeria. The necessary data were obtained by a questionnaire prepared for this purpose. Many statistical methods were used, including Pearson correlation coefficient to measure the correlation between variables, T-test to determine the significance of this correlation, regression analysis, F-test to determine the significance of the regression equation, and R2 to explain the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable (organizational performance). The findings of the study are identical to the hypotheses. It is found that there are significant strong correlation and effect on all the focuses of knowledge management processes with the dependent variable “organizational performance”, through which a set of recommendations are presented.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technology, Knowledge, Knowledge Management, Knowledge Management Processes, Organizational Performance

Knowledge and Utilization of Prostate Cancer Screening Services among Male Civil Servants in Iseyin Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

Cancer related morbidity and mortality continues to pose grave health challenge to men globally with increasing prevalence especially in developing countries. Presently prostate cancer has been reported to have a prevalence level of 11% in Nigeria which is considered alarming. Developing strategies to forestall increasing incidence and prevalence are vital to reducing the deleterious effects prostate cancer on health and national developmental efforts. Research oriented strategies are considered potent measures to achieving this goal thus making research into factors associated with prostate cancer an important endeavour. It is against this background that this study was designed to examine knowledge and utilization of prostate cancer screening services among civil servants in Iseyin LGA of Oyo State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research design was employed in the study and data were collected using a self developed and validated questionnaire with a reliability of 0.86 Cronbach alpha. Collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages. Findings showed that respondents have low level of knowledge and low utilization level of prostate cancer screening services. Findings also identified cost, accessibility, work schedule and some fads like negative effect on sexual activities as perceived factors militating against the utilization of prostate cancer screening services. Addressing the identified issues using education as a tool among others were recommended.

Keywords: Barrier, Education, Knowledge, Prostate Cancer, Screening, Utilization

Knowledge and Utilization of Prostate Cancer Screening Services among Male Civil Servants in Iseyin Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

Cancer related morbidity and mortality continues to pose grave health challenge to men globally with increasing prevalence especially in developing countries. Presently prostate cancer has been reported to have a prevalence level of 11% in Nigeria which is considered alarming. Developing strategies to forestall increasing incidence and prevalence are vital to reducing the deleterious effects prostate cancer on health and national developmental efforts. Research oriented strategies are considered potent measures to achieving this goal thus making research into factors associated with prostate cancer an important endeavour. It is against this background that this study was designed to examine knowledge and utilization of prostate cancer screening services among civil servants in Iseyin LGA of Oyo State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research design was employed in the study and data were collected using a self developed and validated questionnaire with a reliability of 0.86 Cronbach alpha. Collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages. Findings showed that respondents have low level of knowledge and low utilization level of prostate cancer screening services. Findings also identified cost, accessibility, work schedule and some fads like negative effect on sexual activities as perceived factors militating against the utilization of prostate cancer screening services. Addressing the identified issues using education as a tool among others were recommended.

Keywords: Barrier, Education, Knowledge, Prostate Cancer, Screening, Utilization

Women Participation in Higher Secondary Education in Bangladesh (Published)

Formal education is a fulcrum of sustainable development. Education allows individuals to develop within their community and country, and allows nations to compete and survive in the global economy. Education plays a critical role in fostering basic intellectual abilities, expanding further educational opportunities that are vital to success in a world where power is closely linked with knowledge. Education is the nourishment of the mind with knowledge and as such it helps in the formation of an integrated personality of an individual. Education has a special significance in the context of a quasi-traditional or transitional society like Bangladesh. In this paper I shall try to delineate the picture of women participation in higher secondary education in Bangladesh. I shall also mention the necessity and factors responsible for women participation in higher education. From the analysis it is observed that there is a skyward trend for the female passed students that lead to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Keywords: Higher Education, Higher Secondary Education, Knowledge, Millennium Development Goals (MDGS), Women, Women Education

Health Education and its Relation with Health Knowledge among College Students in Kuwait (Published)

College is considered one of the important means for health education attainment. Thus, having a profound impact on student’s health, attitude, and behavior. In this study, we assesse and examine the relation of health education intervention with health knowledge and behavior, some these disruptive behaviors include smoking, drugs, injury, disease, individual abuse, stress, mental and emotional health among students of different colleges under PAAET (The Public Authority for Applied Education & training). These colleges are (college of Health Science’s, Nursing, Technological Studies, Basic Education, Business Studies). Besides these colleges, there are numbers of training institutes such as: (The higher Institute of Telecommunication and Navigation, Nursing institute, Secretarial and Office Administration Institute). We also want to inspect the relation between health education, health behavior, and attitude of college students regarding, their age, sex, and education level. Never the less, to elevate health knowledge of these students, in giving them a better healthy lifestyle for their coming future.

Keywords: Behavior, Health education, Knowledge, Students, attitude

Impact of Mentoring On Staff Retention through Knowledge Transfer: An Empirical Evaluation of Four Private Universities in the North Central Zone of Nigeria (Published)

This research study explored the impact of mentoring on staff retention through knowledge transfer with specific reference to selected private universities in Nigeria. Mentoring is a natural one-on-one, mutual, committed relationship formed between a mentor and mentee designed to promote personal development beyond any particular institutional goals. However, Knowledge transfer seeks to build, systematize, otherwise distributes knowledge and guarantees its accessibility for future users. In an organizational setting, the goal of employers is usually to decrease employee turnover, thereby decreasing training costs, recruitment costs and loss of talents and organizational knowledge. Employers can improve retention rates and decrease the associated costs of high turnover with the aid of mentoring and knowledge transfer. The material used for this investigation was sourced from both primary and secondary data such as text books, management journals and internet. A well-structured open ended questionnaire was the main tool for data gathering. The questionnaire was designed for all the selected employees of private universities in the North central zone of Nigeria. The data through which responses were given in the questionnaire was analyzed and interpreted with the use of   students‘t’ distribution test in the analysis of data. The findings indicate that mentoring improves staff retention in private universities in Nigeria and transfer of knowledge enhances staff mentoring and retention in Nigerian universities. The review of literature suggests that knowledge transfer and conceptualization of mentoring is required for staff retention in organizations. For effective staff retention and knowledge transfer, it was recommended that mentoring should be utterly deliberated and not forced on the participants ‘‘the mentors and the mentees’’ and privacy should be indispensable in this relationship. Conclusively, knowledge transfer encompasses a wide variety of activities to sustain mutually beneficial collaborations between mentors and the mentees, universities, and the public sector. It is all about the transfer of tangible and intellectual expertise, skills and learning between academic and the non-academic community.

Keywords: Knowledge, Mentoring, Retention, Staff, Staff Retention and Knowledge Transfer.

Frequency of On-Job Training (Ojt) Of Administrative Staff Atmmust: A Human Resource Practice and Promotional Tool for Organizational Performance (Published)

Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST) is one of the institutions that sponsors its administrative staff to a variety of trainings, including on-job training programs. The university’s Human Resource Development (HRD) policy of On-Job Training (OJT) aims at ensuring that staff can cope with the dynamics of a competitive higher education environment. Like most public universities, once trained, an employee would require to be placed in a job that requires the newly acquired knowledge and skills. However, in most organizations, non-placement of trained employees persists.  This phenomenon leads to high turnover as they leave to look for positions that suit their training elsewhere. Those employees that do not leave may under-perform due to a feeling of under-utilization or non-recognition.  This paper is an investigation into the frequency of OJT in the institution and how this relates to individuals’ current jobs as well as transformation to their future appointments and promotions. The study employed a case study design and targeted 149 administrative staff. Since the target population was small, census sampling approach was used thus it formed the sample size. Data was collected using structured questionnaire and an interview schedule. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically while quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using percentages and frequency distribution techniques. The results revealed that most staff often attend OJT and indicated quite a number having received training while on their current job.

Keywords: Behaviour change., Knowledge, Non-placement, On Job Training, Performance, Skills

Chemistry Entrepreneurship: A Panacea for Chemistry Graduates Unemployment-The Nigerian Experience (Published)

This study sought to examine chemistry entrepreneurship as a panacea for chemistry graduates unemployment in Nigeria. The recent economy recession world-wide and particularly in Nigeria has necessitated the need to make a paradigm shift from consuming economy to producing economy. For any nation to attain the status of producing economy, its citizens must have acquired entrepreneurial skills in all sectors of the economy. Entrepreneurship is the capacity and willingness to develop, organize and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit. The notion to become an entrepreneur in Nigeria is fast gaining ground in the face of little or no government jobs. The labour market is gradually becoming more attractive to graduating students as they want to be self-employed and independent.In view of all these, there is the need to entrench entrepreneurship education into our school curricula at all levels of education, most especially the higher institutions. This being as it is, there is need for inclusion of chemistry entrepreneurship in the chemistry curriculum most especially for our higher education students.Chemistry entrepreneurship being offered as a course will equip the students with the knowledge and skills to convert innovations from researches in chemistry into marketable products for commercial gain. Many of the household materials being used on daily basis are the products of innovations from chemistry researches. Such household materials as soap, candle, cream, toothpaste, slippers, shoe polish, insecticides, herbicides among others are enough, if invested in, to make a chemistry graduate a wealth creator instead of a job seeker.In view of the above, the paper recommends that the Nigerian government should prioritise, generally the academic entrepreneurship and particularly chemistry entrepreneurship in all our higher institutions, as this will go a long way in arresting the spate of chemistry graduates unemployment and also strengthen the nose-diving economy in the country.

Keywords: Chemistry entrepreneurship, Innovations, Knowledge, Skills, Wealth Creation

Pre-Service Teachers’ Use of Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Teaching and Learning Mathematics at Basic Seven in Akatsi District, Ghana (Published)

 

The purpose of the study is to explore how pre-service teachers’ use   their Pedagogical Content Knowledge (teachers’ knowledge of content and students’ thinking process) to identify and diagnose students’ misconceptions in comparing, adding, multiplying and dividing fractions. Pre-service teachers were expected to identify students’ misconceptions, give reasons of students’ misconceptions, and ask specific questions to diagnose students’ thinking processes that lead to the misconceptions. A total of 72 pre-service teachers teaching Mathematics were purposively selected out of 320 students from the schools of practice. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. Data   collected were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and means. The study revealed that about 60% of the pre-service teachers could identify the students’ misconceptions but only 17% of them could articulate the reasons for students’ misconceptions clearly. Also about 58% of the   pre-service teachers asked probing questions instead of   specific questions to diagnose students’ misconceptions and only about 14% of them asked specific questions. It was concluded that most of the pre-service teachers were   able to identify students’ misconception but could not give   reasons for the students’ misconceptions. In addition, majority of the pre-service teachers could not ask specific questions to diagnose students’ misconceptions. It was recommended that teacher training institutions   integrate pedagogical content knowledge in to the curriculum to equip pre-service teachers with skills that would enable them to analyze students’ thinking processes.

Keywords: Akatsi District, Ghana, Knowledge, Mathematics, Pedagogical Content, Pre-Service, Teaching and Learning

The Competency and Independency Auditors to Audit Quality at Auditors of Public Accountant in Palembang (Published)

This study aims to test the competency and independency of the Auditor on the Quality Audit Office Public Accountant Auditor Palembang. The study sample as many as 39 registered Public Accountants in Palembang, used multiple regression analysis. The results of calculations using SPSS, showed that:1) R2 of  0.499, illustrates that the quality of the audit, can be explained by the dependent variables amounted to 49.9%, while the remaining 51,1%, can be explained by other factors, which are not included in this study. ;2) Obtained value of F(7.309) Sig(0,000), means that there is a significant influence of dependent variables together to quality audit; 3) there are no significant effect from experience, knowledge, and non audit services on the quality of audit; 4) and there are  significant effect of long relationships with clients, pressure from clients, and review co-auditors on audit quality.

 

Keywords: Audit Quality, Experience, Knowledge, Non-audit services, long relationships with clients, pressure from clients, review co-auditor

Job Dissatisfaction: An Analysis of Skill and Knowledge Mismatch Of On-Job Trained Employees In Institutions Of Higher Learning (Published)

It is acknowledged that Human Resource Development (HRD) practices such as On Job Training (OJT) and Job Placement (JP) are linked to employee performance. However, research is yet to focus on how performance is affected by mismatch of new knowledge and skills acquired from OJT and those required to perform their allocated responsibilities, especially in public universities in Kenya. Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST) devotes some of its budgetary allocation on OJT of administrative staff and any mismatch between knowledge and skills acquired and those demanded by administrative jobs can be counterproductive.  Thus a need exists to establish the relationship between OJT as HRD practice and JP of trained administrative staff. The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between on-job training and job placement of administrative staff at MMUST. This is aimed at finding out if the OJT programmes match the staff’s skills and knowledge. The study employed a case study design with target population of 149 administrative staff. Since the target population was small, it formed the sample therefore census sampling.  Data was collected using structured questionnaire and an interview schedule. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically and was presented verbatim according to the themes while quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using percentages and frequency distribution techniques. The results indicated that majority of the respondents acquired most of their knowledge and skills while in their current positions, with a few others had the knowledge and skills that matched with the positions they held. The study concludes that properly placed employees perform optimally while misplaced employees feel demotivated and tend to have a high turn-over rate. The study recommends that organizations should ensure that they hire competent and qualified administrative staff and also, enact policies on proper placement to ensure that employees who are misplaced have a chance to be properly placed to the right positions.

Keywords: Administrative staff, Job Dissatisfaction, Job Placement, Knowledge, Skills

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