Tag Archives: Kenya

Assessment of the Factors Influencing Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women: A Case of Selected Health Care Facilities in Eldoret, Kenya (Published)

Evitable mortality and morbidity remains a formidable challenge in many developing countries, Kenya among them. Countering this challenge due to birth complications then becomes a critical area of concern. The principle and practice of Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness (BP/CR) in resource-poor settings have the potential of reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates. This paper aims to assess the factors that influence BP/CR among pregnant women attending Antenatal care in selected Health Care Facilities in Eldoret, Kenya. The current maternal mortality ratio is 488 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (KDHS 2008-9). Most of these deaths occur due to the five leading causes: severe bleeding/hemorrhage (25%), infections (13%), unsafe abortions (13%), eclampsia (12%), obstructed labor (8%), other direct causes (8%), and indirect causes (20%). It is important to note that most of these deaths can be prevented by proper ANC attendances and ensuring the presence of a skilled birth attendant during delivery and/or in case of any complications (Omolo & Kizito, 2010).  The study used a descriptive cross sectional approach. Pregnant women seeking antenatal services in 3 health care facilities (Eldoret West Health Centre, Huruma and Uasin Gishu District Hospitals) formed the target population from which a sample size of 273 was obtained using fisher’s formula. Data collection was done using questionnaire and analyzed using the SPSS software. Results are presented in tables and narratives. Among the factors established to be the most predictors included maternal education, source of income, pregnancy planning and attendance of Antenatal Care. The study recommends emphasis of Antenatal care education on birth preparedness and complication readiness to improve access to skilled and emergency obstetric care.

Keywords: Antenatal Care, Birth Preparedness, Complication Readiness, Kenya

Profitability of Economic Stimulus Program (ESP) Fish Farming Adopters in Makueni County, Kenya (Published)

Fish farming in Kibwezi is a recent livelihood alternative that was propelled by government funding under the Economic Stimulus Programme (ESP) between 2009 and 2012.  This study evaluated the profitability and sustainability of fish farming in Kibwezi, Makueni County, Kenya using a sample size of 146 fish farmers. Fish production of finfish specifically Nile Tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus) and African Catfish (Clariasgariepinus) respectively were the species cultured. Twenty seven percent of farmers had an annual gross margin average of KES. 30,333.95 from a 300M2 fish pond with a gross margin ratio of 0.35. Net fish income was positive for 8.9 percent of farmers and averaged KES. 24,707.14. Farmers with a stocking density of 5fish/m2 and above serviced their total variable costs. Hatchery owners did better with 57.1 percent of them showing positive returns on both measures of gross margin and net fish income. Fingerlings, feeds and labour costs constituted 67% of total variable cost. Underweight of tilapia fish was a common problem among the sampled farmers. Adopters with the highest gross margins paid employees or committed themselves to pond management activities. Adopters made their own feeds. It is recommended that farmers be trained to make their own feeds

Keywords: Economic Stimulus Program (ESP), Kenya, Makueni County, Profitability, fish farming

Factors Influencing Adoption of E-Procurement in Kenya’s Public Sector (Published)

E-procurement system contributes significantly to national productivity growth through the removal of non-value added activities in procurement process. However, the adoption has been slow in Kenya and there is still a lack of studies assessing the impact of e-procurement. This study aims to explore the barriers of e-procurement adoption in Kenya and to understand e-procurement success, and why success has not been achieved using desktop research design. Insights that will be obtained from systematic evaluations regarding the barriers of e-procurement systems will help to develop an instrument to measure success; identify barriers to achieving success and establish a framework to promote success of e-procurement in the public sector in Kenya

Keywords: E-Procurement, Kenya, Procurement Process, Productivity, Public Sector

The Challenges of Learners with Diverse Linguistic Needs: Experiences of Teachers in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)

Teachers in Kenya undergo language-based training that exposes them to both the academic content and teaching methodology in order that they may be able to respond to the diverse linguistic needs of learners in the language classroom. The unquestioned guiding assumption is that such the training knowledge informs teachers’ classroom practices. This paper assesses the challenges experienced by language learners in classrooms as a result of the diversity of their linguistic abilities. The paper is based on a study that examined how teachers’ maxims influence the teaching of English language in classrooms with learners of diverse linguistic abilities. The study was conducted in Wareng District of Uasin Gishu County. Wareng has one hundred and twenty teachers of Standard Four level English. A descriptive survey was carried out in the selected area. The study used both simple random and stratified sampling procedures to identify the schools and teachers to participate in the study. Data was collected using questionnaire and interview schedule and analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and then presented by the use of pie charts, graphs and percentages. The study established that the language learners and teachers in Uasin Gishu County experience a number of challenges emanating from the diversity of their linguistic abilities and needs. These challenges include the feelings that they are not part of class; lack of experience to handle linguistic needs; large number of learners in language classroom; the strong influence of first language; inadequate time to address each learners’ needs, and language policy not being supportive. It was, therefore, recommended that there is need for funds to be provided for teachers to attend further training and seminars on specific language needs in language education. In addition, more time is needed for teaching language to enable teachers to respond to the needs of every individual student. Teachers also need to adopt diverse methods of learning language in order to cater for the diverse learning needs of students. The government also needs to address the challenge of excessive enrolment of students that is causing congestion of classrooms in primary schools in Kenya.

Keywords: Assessment, Challenges, Diverse Linguistic Needs, Kenya, Learners, Schools Uasin Gishu County

Effect of Knowledge Management on Firm Competitiveness: Testing the Mediating Role of Innovation in the Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya (Published)

Knowledge and innovativeness are have been recognized as the main sources of competitive advantages in the economy. Small and medium-sized firms need to increase attention on knowledge management and innovativeness so as to be competitive. The study examined knowledge management, innovativeness and firm competitiveness. The study is conducted on the results based on 252 small and medium manufacturing enterprise managers in Nairobi, Kenya. The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed using the SPSS statistical packaged software. The study results showed that knowledge management processes influence innovativeness positively, innovativeness enhances firm competitiveness while innovativeness is a mediator between knowledge management and firm competitiveness. The study demonstrated that knowledge management and innovation should be integrated to enhance firm competitiveness. The viewpoint proposed is that knowledge management is an important element for small and medium enterprises in today’s dynamic and competitive environment.

Keywords: Firm Competitiveness, Innovativeness, Kenya, Knowledge Management, SMEs

An Assessment of the Overall Mortality of Low Birth Weight Neonates at the New Birth Units of the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya (Published)

Neonatal mortality is a leading health problem world over and more so in the developing countries. Neonatal mortality is a major contributor to infant mortality in the developing countries accounting for up to 50% of the infant mortality rate. This paper examined the overall mortality of low birth weight neonates at the new birth unit (NBU) at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH) in Eldoret, Kenya. The study was carried out among 159 neonates with a birth weight of less than 2500 grams and admitted to the NBU of MTRH. From the study findings it was concluded that the mortality rate of low birth neonates at MTRH newborn unit is quite high. The mortality is much higher compared to the developed world and also in some other 3rd world countries. Measures to reduce the incidence of birth asphyxia need to be put in place. Blood cultures should be done as a routine whenever sepsis is suspected to give a guide on the choice of antibiotics.

Keywords: Kenya, Low Birth Weight Neonates, Moi Teaching, New Birth Unit, Overall Mortality, Referral Hospital

Analysis of the Volatility of the Electricity Costs in Kenya Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model (Published)

Electricity has proved to be a vital input to most developing economies. As the Kenyan government aims at transforming Kenya into a newly-industrialized and globally competitive, more energy is expected to be used in the commercial sector on the road to 2030. Therefore, modelling and forecasting of electricity costs in Kenya is of vital concern. In this study, the monthly costs of electricity using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average models (ARIMA) were used so as to determine the most efficient and adequate model for analysing the volatility of the electricity cost in Kenya. Finally, the fitted ARIMA model was used to do an out-off-sample forecasting for electricity cost for September 2013 to August 2016. The forecasting values obtained indicated that the costs will rise initially but later adapt a decreasing trend. A better understanding of electricity cost trend in the small commercial sector will enhance the producers make informed decisions about their products as electricity is a major input in the sector. Also it will assist the government in making appropriate policy measures to maintain or even lowers the electricity cost.

Keywords: ARIMA, Electricity, Forecast, Kenya

Food Insecurity: Causes and Policy Framework in Strengthening Food Security in Kenya’s Agricultural Sector. (Published)

According to  United Nations Food Agriculture Organization and the United States of America  department of agriculture in the World Food Summit in 1996, Food security exists when all people at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food security is basic to the survival of any nation, be it at individual, family or national level. This therefore means that food security should have top priority since no meaningful development in economic, social or cultural sphere is possible without it. However in Kenya, with a population of more than 40 million people, about 10% is classified as food insecure according to United States of America Department of Agriculture – Food Security Analysis March 2009. This is growing at an annual rate of about 30%. Kenya is the largest import market for food and agriculture products in East Africa. Kenya imported about 725 million in agriculture products during 2009, up from 525 million in 2007 in an attempt to mitigate the crisis. This implies that the Government of Kenya should come up with policies that ensure people have access to enough food. This paper examines the role of policy framework in strengthening food security in Kenya.

Keywords: Agricultural Sector, Economic Development, Food Security, Kenya, Policy Framework

An Assessment of the Effect of Distribution Alliance on Growth of Hotels in Eldoret Town, Kenya (Published)

Strategic alliance enables firms to remain competitive and thus survive, grow and prosper. In order for enterprises to survive in a rapidly changing business environment, they are increasingly forming strategic alliances with other firms. This paper assesses the influence of distribution alliances on growth of hotel industry in Eldoret town. The paper is based on a study that sought to evaluate the influence of strategic alliances on the growth of the hotel industry in Eldoret town in North Rift region of Kenya. The study applied the Resource Dependency theory and the Resource Based theory and adopted a descriptive survey research design on a target population of 220 respondents involved in the hotel industry in Eldoret town. A sample of 112 respondents was drawn proportionately from four categories of hotels using stratified random sampling technique. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents to collect the required data. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Multiple regression analysis was also used to analyze the data. The study established that distribution alliance had increased the hotel sales, profits, product/service quality and reduction of costs. Further, strategic alliance had increased market share and enabled hotel businesses to gain competitive advantage. The study also established that the hotels have improved proximity to customers and faster and easier market penetration due to strategic alliance. Based on the research findings and conclusion in the study, it is recommended that hotels need to come up with governance structure that governs strategic alliance. This will help reduce problems encountered in strategic alliance.

Keywords: Distribution Alliance, Eldoret, Growth, Hotels, Kenya

The Challenges of Learners with Diverse Linguistic Needs: Experiences of Teachers in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)

Teachers in Kenya undergo language-based training that exposes them to both the academic content and teaching methodology in order that they may be able to respond to the diverse linguistic needs of learners in the language classroom. The unquestioned guiding assumption is that such the training knowledge informs teachers’ classroom practices. This paper assesses the challenges experienced by language learners in classrooms as a result of the diversity of their linguistic abilities. The paper is based on a study that examined how teachers’ maxims influence the teaching of English language in classrooms with learners of diverse linguistic abilities. The study was conducted in Wareng District of Uasin Gishu County. Wareng has one hundred and twenty teachers of Standard Four level English. A descriptive survey was carried out in the selected area. The study used both simple random and stratified sampling procedures to identify the schools and teachers to participate in the study. Data was collected using questionnaire and interview schedule and analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and then presented by the use of pie charts, graphs and percentages. The study established that the language learners and teachers in Uasin Gishu County experience a number of challenges emanating from the diversity of their linguistic abilities and needs. These challenges include the feelings that they are not part of class; lack of experience to handle linguistic needs; large number of learners in language classroom; the strong influence of first language; inadequate time to address each learners’ needs, and language policy not being supportive. It was, therefore, recommended that there is need for funds to be provided for teachers to attend further training and seminars on specific language needs in language education. In addition, more time is needed for teaching language to enable teachers to respond to the needs of every individual student. Teachers also need to adopt diverse methods of learning language in order to cater for the diverse learning needs of students. The government also needs to address the challenge of excessive enrolment of students that is causing congestion of classrooms in primary schools in Kenya.

Keywords: Assessment, Challenges, Diverse Linguistic Needs, Kenya, Learners, Schools Uasin Gishu County

The Nature and Causes of Indiscipline Cases among Public Secondary School Students in Thika Sub-County, Kiambu County, Kenya (Published)

For a long time now, Kenya has continued to record increasingly disruptive cases of indiscipline among students in public schools. In response to this menace, the Kenya government has usually set up committees to investigate the root causes of and recommend concrete solutions to student indiscipline in schools. Despite many recommendations and subsequent actions by educational stakeholders, the problem of student indiscipline in, especially, Kenyan public secondary schools just seems unable to go away. Therefore, this paper attempts to understand how teachers, students and principals identify and deal with indiscipline cases in their schools so as to make recommendations that could work for every other public school. The paper is based on a case study that investigated the constraints to the development of an effective discipline culture among public secondary schools in Thika District of Kenya. The study employed a survey research design targeting a population of 144 secondary schools, all the accessible students enrolled in these schools, all the 1,753 teachers and all the 144 principals from the 144 schools. The author purposely selected 6 public secondary schools. Data for the study was collected using questionnaires administered to principals, teachers and students and the collected data was analysed descriptively. Based on the research findings, the common cases of indiscipline are: noise making, bullying, fighting, failing to complete assignments, drug abuse, sexual deviance, sneaking out of school, stealing other students’ property and general defiance of school authority and rules. The principals, teachers and students all believe that indiscipline in school can be eradicated. According to them, schools can instil a discipline culture on students through guidance and counselling, involvement of parents in dealing with issues of student behaviour, teachers closely supervising assignments and helping learners to complete difficult tasks, strengthening of peer counselling and meting out punishment against unruly students. The study recommends the need to effectively use available means of communication in schools. Students should be encouraged to express themselves through the proper channels rather than resorting to indiscipline.

Keywords: Causes, Indiscipline Cases, Kenya, Public Secondary Schools, Thika

Teaching of Listening Skills in Kiswahili Language: Instructional Strategies Used By Secondary Schools Teachers in Wareng Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

This study investigated the influence of the instructional process on the teaching and acquisition of listening skills in Kiswahili language. Based on the study, this paper examines the type of instructional strategies used by secondary school teachers in the teaching of listening skills in Kiswahili language. The study was based on two theories, the theory of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) as advanced by Widdowson in 1978 and the Top-down theory propounded by Mendelsohn in 1995. A sample of 13 secondary schools was purposively selected from a total of 41 secondary schools in Wareng’ Sub-County. Thirteen (13) teachers and 130 Form Two learners of Kiswahili formed the study sample. The study was a descriptive survey since it set out to discover, describe and interpret existing conditions focusing on secondary school teachers of Kiswahili and Form Two learners. The research instruments used to collect data were two sets of interview schedules and an observation schedule. The 13 teachers were interviewed whereas the 130 learners participated in Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Moreover, 13 Kiswahili lessons were observed and tape-recorded. Tape-recording was used to record data during observations while note taking was used during the focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews. Analyzed data was presented using frequency tables, percentages, graphs and charts. The study revealed that poor teaching strategies used in the teaching process contribute heavily to poor levels of acquisition of listening skills. In view of the findings, the study recommends that teachers of Kiswahili should build into their classrooms listening activities that have as much of the characteristics of real life listening as possible. In particular, there should be a purpose for listening that should be known before the listening activity commences. This paper is significant in that it seeks to provide impetus for Kiswahili language educators, teacher trainers, curriculum designers and the Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC) to re-examine their policies on teaching listening skills.

Keywords: Instructional Strategies, Kenya, Kiswahili language, Listening Skills, Teachers, Teaching

The Influence of Social Capital in Table Banking On the Performance of Women-Owned Business Enterprises in Eldoret East Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

The study sought to understand the effects of table banking on performance of women-owned enterprises in Eldoret East Sub-County. Based on the study, this paper examines the extent to which social capital in table banking groups affects performance of women-owned enterprises. The study adopted a correlational research design with the target population being all women-owned enterprises in Eldoret East Sub-County from 2010 to 2014. A sample size of 384 respondents was obtained using Yomane formula of sample size. The study used multivariate linear Regression to establish the relationship between table baking and social capital and business performance indicators. Pearson product moment correlation(r) was applied to establish the relationship between the variables. From the findings of the research it was concluded that social capital has a strong positive effect on the business performance of women-owned enterprises. This is attributable to the fact that during meetings the members are able to discuss the challenges they face in running their businesses and how well they can improve their incomes. The study also established a positive correlation relationship between table banking and women-owned enterprises in Eldoret East Sub-County. It was, therefore, concluded that table banking has a positive influence on the business performance of women-owned enterprises in the area. The study recommends that women should be encouraged to form groups and register with the Ministry of Culture and Social Services.

Keywords: Eldoret East, Kenya, Performance, Social Capital, Table Banking, Women-Owned Business Enterprises

Impact of Social Media on Agricultural Extension in Kenya: A Case of Kesses District (Published)

The introduction of social media and web 2.0 applications has opened up a platform that agricultural extension officer’s, farmers, agricultural institutions and non-governmental institutions utilize to disseminate and exchange agricultural information. The objective of the study was to assess the use of social media as a source of agricultural information with reference to farmers in Kesses District. The study adopted a descriptive survey and the major data collection tools were interviews from farmers who use social media platforms. The study purposively sampled farmers in Kesses District and data was analyzed both descriptively. From the analysis, it is evident that there is immense need for agricultural information among farmers in Kesses District. The study reveals that farmers in Kesses District have diverse source of agricultural information for example the internet, social media and extension services. Majority of farmers approach the use of social media in agricultural information seeking with a positive attitude, pointing to the assumption that social media is largely beneficial and convenient as a source of agricultural information. Among the most common challenges faced include poor network access, power outages, and costly charges when accessing the internet. This study recommends that information centers can be established in Kesses District whereby farmers can obtain agricultural information online and that social media should be fully utilized to provide; feedback, complement extension programs, access local and international markets and complement communication campaigns whose goal is to bring about agricultural development.

Keywords: Agriculture, Farmer, Information, Kenya, Social media, extension

Methods Used By Teachers to Teach Christian Religious Education in Secondary Schools in Kimilili in Bungoma County, Kenya (Published)

Christian Religious Education in secondary schools in Kenya occupies a key position in the 8-4-4 curriculum. This is so because it enables the learner to integrate all subjects of the curriculum into a more mature view of self, their relationship with the environment, both physical and cultural, other people and God. The purpose of the study was to establish factors that face the use of audiovisual resources for teaching Christian Religious Education (CRE) in Kimilili Division, Bungoma County in Western Kenya. Based on the study, this paper surveys the methods used by teachers in teaching CRE in the study area. The study adopted a survey research design. Random sampling was used to select both CRE teachers and students to participate in the study while stratified sampling was used to select the schools. The sample was drawn from secondary schools in Kimilili Division of Bungoma County in Kenya. The sample size was made up of 266 respondents, comprising 242 CRE students and 24 CRE teachers. Data was collected using questionnaires and observation schedules. The study used two sets of questionnaires; one for CRE teachers and another for students. The collected data was quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented using tables and graphs. The findings showed that the CRE subject is mainly taught using verbal communication and the use of textbooks is common. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that curriculum planners and other educational stakeholders in Kenya should establish CRE resource centres in every County so that resources for teaching CRE can easily be availed to teachers for teaching the subject. This paper will help teachers and other educational stakeholders to understand the importance of combining various methods in teaching with the sole purpose of ensuring that learners are able to master, retain and live out the content that is taught in CRE in Kenya.

Keywords: CRE, Christian Religious Education, Kenya, Methods, Secondary Schools, Teachers

Determinants of Self Service Banking Technology in Kenya (Published)

Advances in technologies have allowed service providers to incorporate many different technologies into the delivery of their services to improve their competitiveness and performance. The study focused on establishing determinants that influence consumer towards the usage of self-service banking technologies. It is believed that the successful usage of self-service banking technologies will be cost and convenience beneficial for all stakeholders in the financial sector enhance improving their performance. The research model purposes an extension to the technology acceptance models and the Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology that will represents a shift from fragmented view of information technology acceptance to a unified integrated single theory that will account for use of self service banking technology. The target population for the study was users of selected commercial banks in Kenya, utilizing a sample size of 325 respondents. Reliability and validity of the data collection instrument was tested using Crobach Alpha and Average Variance Extracted respectively. Descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis was carried out while regression analysis was used to predict the effect of selected determinants of self-service banking technology on its usage. The domains in which subjects were tested for were ease of use, facilitating condition, need for interaction, and perceived risk. The domains were significantly associated with use of self service banking technology exception of ease of use. Taking into account the importance of innovation and technological advancement studies should be carried to establish the effect of technological usage and organization commitment on firm performance.

Keywords: Kenya, Self-service, Self-service banking technology, Use of Self-service banking technology

The Effect Of Country-Of-Origin, Consumer Characteristics And Attitudes On Consumer Behaviour Towards Foreign Clothing Brands In Nairobi, Kenya (Published)

The country-of-origin (COO) concept refers to the country where a particular product is made and is anchored on the international marketing theory. The broad objective of this pioneering study was to determine the effect of COO, consumer characteristics and attitudes on consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands in Nairobi, Kenya. The specific objectives were to: assess the influence of COO on consumer behaviour; determine the influence of country-of-origin on consumer attitudes; establish the influence of consumer attitudes on consumer behaviour; assess the influence of consumer characteristics on consumer behaviour; determine the extent to which consumer characteristics moderate the relationship between COO and consumer behaviour; assess the degree to which consumer attitudes influence the relationship between country-of-origin and consumer behaviour and; establish the extent to which the relationship between COO and consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands is influenced by consumer characteristics and by consumer attitudes. The pertinent hypotheses were derived from the objectives. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional research design which facilitated testing of hypotheses quantitatively and ensured that conclusions about the COO research problem were based on the information provided at the time of the research. Primary data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires from a study population comprising 384 consumers of clothing brands across Nairobi County, Kenya. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results of the study established that country-of-origin influences consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands and there was a significant association among the two. The findings also revealed that consumer characteristics directly influence consumer behaviour and also moderate the relationship between COO and consumer behaviour. There was a significant relationship between consumer characteristics and consumer behaviour. Furthermore, the results showed that consumer attitudes strongly mediate the relationship between country-of-origin and consumer behaviour, and there was a significant association among the two. Finally, the joint effect of COO, consumer characteristics and consumer attitudes was greater than the individual effects of the independent, mediating and moderating variables on consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands. The combined effect of these variables on consumer behaviour was also found to be statistically significant. The study has made contribution to theory, policy and practice in relation to consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands in general and specific influence of country-of-origin, consumer attitudes and consumer characteristics. The selection of the study variables was not exhaustive. The use of a relatively small population, use of a descriptive cross-sectional research design and testing of COO as a single concept put constraints on the generalizability of the results. The use of quantitative methods alone is also restrictive. Future research should seek to address these limitations by inclusion of the additional factors; use of a longitudinal and broader research design and; incorporation of qualitative research techniques such as focus group sessions and structured interviews.

Keywords: Attitudes, Consumer Behaviour, Consumer Characteristics, Country of origin, Foreign Clothing Brands, Kenya, Nairobi

Influence of Access to Land and Finances on Kenyan Youth Participation in Agriculture: A Review (Published)

The Kenya Government prioritized the development of the agricultural sector to achieving the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of sustainable food production. Kenya’s strategic plan, Vision 2030 positions agriculture as a key driver for delivering a 10% annual economic growth and is expected to have an average growth rate of 7% by 2015. Agriculture contributes over 80% of all employment opportunities in the country, but Kenyan youths are not taking advantage of these opportunities since 64% of them are unemployed. To advance the 7% average growth rate, it is pertinent that the Kenyan youth be fully involved in agricultural development. However, agriculture is perceived unattractive to the youth and its potential has not been fully realized. The purpose of this review is to find out the influence of land and finances on youth participation in agriculture and to identify the interventions that can make agriculture attractive to the youth in Kenya. This information will be useful to the government, the farming community, agriculturalists, policy makers and non-governmental organisations in laying strategies that will make agriculture attractive to the youth. This will subsequently enhance youth participation in agriculture resulting in increased food production, employment creation and income generation for the youth. Engaging the youth in agricultural activities will contribute in reducing crime and other social problems attributed to the youth.

Keywords: Agriculture, Economy, Food Security, Kenya, Youth

THE ROLE OF TEACHERS’ TRAINING IN EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF LIFE SKILLS CURRICULUM IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ELDORET EAST DISTRICT, KENYA (Published)

The teacher is the most important ingredient in the effective teaching and learning and more so the life skills. It is therefore important that teachers are very well prepared to meet this new challenge of teaching life skills. The success of a teacher largely depends on his/her personal context, personal efforts and his/her general personality. These characteristics can be greatly enhanced if a teacher receives specialized training in methods of teaching life skills education programme. This prompted the author to carry out a study in life skills teaching in secondary schools in Eldoret East District in Kenya. This paper discusses the findings on how the training of teachers influences life skills education in the study area. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The techniques used to select the research sample were stratified, purposive and simple random sampling. Two hundred and forty (240) students, 45 teachers and 15 heads of humanities department were selected to participate in the study. To collect data, questionnaire and interview schedule were used. Data collected were coded in Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSSv 13.5) and analysed by non parametric Chi-square (χ2) test, descriptive statistics and frequency distribution. The findings were presented in form of tables, charts and graphs. The study revealed that teachers were not fully prepared to teach life skills and were in dire need of in-service courses for effective teaching. It was therefore recommended the Ministry of Education through KIE should facilitate in-service training of LSE teachers at least once per year and provide clear guidelines on how to teach the contents of LSE. Investigation into teachers’ classroom competence has yielded findings, which can be used for the betterment of teaching and learning of life skills in Kenyan secondary schools. Curriculum developers would find the research findings useful as they reflect on the extent in which the objectives set for the course are being achieved

Keywords: Eldoret East District, Kenya, Life Skills Education, Role, Secondary Schools, Teacher Training

INFLUENCE OF MARKETING COMMUNICATION CHANNELS ON URBAN DOMESTIC TOURISM IN KENYA (Published)

This study examined the influence of marketing communication channels on demand for urban domestic tourism in Kenya. The study was conducted in tourist destinations within Nairobi and Nakuru town. The sample size comprised of 384 respondents: 254 respondents from Nairobi city and 130 respondents from Nakuru town surveyed using multistage sampling procedure. Nairobi city and Nakuru town in Kenya were selected using cluster sampling. Stratified sampling was then used to divide the tourist destinations within Nairobi city and Nakuru town. Systematic sampling procedure was used to select every 3rd respondent visiting these tourist destinations. Primary data was collected through questionnaires. The survey revealed that telephone, direct mail, yellow pages, newsletters, internet, television and travel diaries television show aired on Kenya Television Network (KTN), magazines, brochures, newspaper, radio, exhibitions, tour firms and travel agencies, Sales promotion were found significant in creating awareness of tourist destinations in Kenya.

Keywords: Domestic tourism, Kenya, Tourism demand, marketing communication channels, urban tourism

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