Tag Archives: Influence

The Influence of the Levels of Education and Knowledge on the Performance of Community Health Workers in Soy Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

Community health workers (CHWs) the world over help to alleviate the shortages of health workers in the health sector. They are involved in the delivery of health services to the community and constitute the first point of contact on health-related issues in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The performance of CHWs is often hampered by various factors. The purpose of the study was to investigate the socio-cultural factors influencing the performance of CHWs in Soy Sub-County. Based on the study, this paper explores the influence of CHWs’ level of education and knowledge on their performance in Soy Sub-County. A correlation research design was used in the study with systematic sampling method being used to identify the respondents. In total, 98 respondents were given questionnaires to fill. Qualitative data was also collected from 7 heads of community health management team (CHMT) using key informant interviews. The collected data was then presented using frequency distribution tables while inferential statistics were computed using regression and correlation to determine the relationship between socio-cultural factors and performance of community health workers. Qualitative data was analysed manually to generate trends, sub-themes and themes from which conclusions were inferred regarding the performance of CHWs. The research findings showed that there was a significant (p= .000; α = 0.05) relationship that exists between education and knowledge and CHWs’ performance. Based on the findings, it was recommended that a strategy should be developed to incorporate all the stakeholders that affect the performance of community health workers in coming up with a training programme for CHWs.  Moreover, there should be a policy shift in Kenya to encourage male CHW to scale up delivery of health services at community level. The findings of the study support decision-making on CHWs’ training programmes and also constitute the basis of transformation of implantation of community strategy in Soy Sub-County.

Keywords: Community Health Workers, Education, Influence, Kenya, Knowledge, Level, Performance, Soy Sub-County

The Influence of Source of Funding on the Financial Sustainability of Non-Governmental Organizations in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)

Financial sustainability is the ability of organizations to develop a diverse resource base. In Kenya, the number of NGOs has been increasing yearly; most of them depend on foreign donations. Therefore, the study sought to establish the relationship between donor funding and financial sustainability of non-governmental organizations in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Based on the study, this paper explores the influence of sources of funding on the financial sustainability of NGOs. Correlation research design was used as the principal research methodology for the study.  The target population was 146 NGOs that were actively engaged in development projects in Uasin Gishu County. The respondents were NGO management and volunteers. Stratified sampling technique was used to identify non-governmental organizations to participate in the study. A sample size of 60 respondents was selected using Nassiuma’s 2000 model. Data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Test re-test was done to establish the reliability of instruments results; 95% level of significance was used to test the hypothesis. The findings of the study showed that there was a positive correlation between donor funding and financial sustainability of the NGO’s in Uasin Gishu County. Improved financial sustainability could be achieved as a result of diversifying sources of funds, retaining qualified staff and improving governance practices and organizational capacity. Therefore, it was recommended that NGOs should limit over-dependence on donor funds and indeed focus on establishing income generating activities and venture into multiple sources of funds for their projects; this would improve their financial sustainability.

Keywords: Financial Sustainability, Funding, Influence, Kenya, Non-Governmental Organizations, Source, Uasin-Gishu County

Factors Influencing the Choice of Interpersonal Communication Forms Utilized In Promoting Maternal and Child Survival in West Pokot County, Kenya (Published)

Interpersonal communication is one of the most common methods used in campaigns to reduce high maternal and child mortality rate in West Pokot County, Kenya. The study sought to identify the factors that affect the choice of each form of interpersonal communication used in promoting maternal and child survival. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional survey research design. It also utilized a mixed research approach. The research sampled four hundred (400) respondents from the County. Cluster sampling, and purposive sampling techniques were used to identify respondents. Qualitative data was collected using four key informant interviews and focus group discussions and analysed thematically and then presented narratively. On the other hand, quantitative data from questionnaires were analysed using descriptive statistics, then presented using a combination of narrative explanations, tables and graphs. From the study findings, government policies, indicators, national campaigns and routine of the health workers were identified as the major factors that influenced the choice of interpersonal communication forms used. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the views of the all the stakeholders should be sought and incorporated into programmes aimed at enhancing maternal and child survival. Cultural aspects that encourage the upholding of proper upkeep of children and pregnant mothers should be identified and used during maternal and child survival campaigns.

Keywords: Child Survival, Choice, Factors, Influence, Interpersonal Communication Forms, Kenya, Maternal, Promotion, West Pokot County

Influence of Employee Welfare Facilities on Their Performance at the Kenya Judiciary Systems in North Rift Kenya (Published)

The study examined the relationship between motivational factors and employee performance in the judiciary systems located in the North Rift Region of Kenya. Based on the study, this paper discusses the relationship between employee welfare practices and employee performance. The study employed a correlational survey design. The target population was all the 309 employees attached to the courts located in North Rift Region. Stratified random sampling was used to select 179 employees. A pilot test was done at the neighbouring Hamisi Law Courts to assess the reliability of the research instruments. The pilot study tested the face validity of the instrument which was found to be valid. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was used to determine internal reliability of the research instruments. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the research instruments was 0.842. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data. Statistical significance of relationships among selected variables was determined using linear regression analysis. The study established that the motivational factors of employee welfare facilities influenced the performance of the judiciary employees. Evidence of improved performance included a reduction of case backlogs and expeditious determination of cases. Based on the findings from the study, it was recommended that the administration of the judiciary to design effective employee welfare facilities that are likely to stimulate employee efforts towards performance.

Keywords: Influence, Judiciary Employees, Kenya, Performance, Welfare Facilities

A Descriptive Analysis of the Influence of Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions On the Performance of SMEs in Kenya (Published)

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the world economy. They contribute substantially to income output and employment. Indeed, they dominate the world business. In spite of this, studies have failed to identify and assess the corporate entrepreneurship dimensions that lead to good performance, especially in Kenya. As such, based on a study of SMEs in Kenya, this paper examines the relationships that obtain between Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) and firm performance among SMEs. Specifically, the study sought to find out the effect of entrepreneurial innovativeness, risk-taking and proactiveness on firm performance. The study was guided by the resource based view (RBV), contingency theory, theories of entrepreneurship and the marketing theory. It adopted explanatory research design using a census sample with the target population being all the top 536 medium sized firms between 2006 and 2013. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s bivariate correlation, multiple regression and moderated regression analysis. Results revealed that entrepreneurial innovativeness, risk taking and proactiveness have a direct positive relationship with performance of SMEs. From the findings, the study recommended the need to intensify initiatives that encourage a better understanding of EO dimensions in boosting firms’ competitive positions and superior performance; firms should be more entrepreneurial in order to attain superior performance and survive the intensively competitive market environment. They should continuously innovate, especially through new product development, being first to enter the market with new products and in the use of creative new solutions that lead them to be recognized by competitors as leaders in innovation. SME owners/managers also need to enhance their risk-taking behaviour by encouraging staff to take risks with new ideas, make effective changes to their products and be willing to accept at least moderate levels of risk, engage in risky investments and have the courage to seize new opportunities, even if this may involve great financial risks

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions, Influence, Kenya, Performance, SMEs

Influence of Agricultural Child Labour Experience On Students’ Decision to Study Agriculture in Delta State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated the effect of child labour experience in agriculture on the decision of students to study agriculture in tertiary institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. Delta State University and Delta State Polytechnic students of agriculture were purposively selected for the study. Random selection of students was done in each agriculture area of specialization in the tertiary institutions based on 10% of the population to result to a sample size of 151 students. Data for the study were elicited with the use of questionnaire and were analyzed with the application of descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC). Most (52.98%) of the student were males. The students were mainly (96.02%) in the age bracket of 20-29 years. Most (76.16%) of the student had 6-10years of working experience in their childhood years in either family or others farms as many (64.90%) were residents in rural settlements, where majority (64.24%) of them did not witness extension agents’ visit to their farms. The involvement index of the children in poultry farming was 0.48; in arable crop production, 0.60; in fish farming, 0.20 and in plantation agriculture, 0.12. Some of them experienced hard labour (47.68%); no remuneration (no pay) (51.66%) and injuries (54.97%). Only 6.62% of them originally sought for admission to study agriculture. The reasons given by those who originally applied to read agriculture for doing so ranged from self employment, interest, lucrative nature of agriculture and familiarity with farming activities. Their involvement in agricultural child labour positively influenced their decision to study agriculture. It is therefore recommended that extension agents should interact with farm families in order to encourage the children on agriculture; farmers should be encouraged to simply mechanize their farming activities; farm families should be encouraged to give their children only non-hazardous activities to carry out and the children should only be involved in farming activities during the holidays in order not to compromise their schooling.

Keywords: Agricultural Labour, Child Labour, Farm Families, Influence, Involvement Index

Mitigation Processes in Insulating Foils after Partial Discharge (Published)

The influence of partial discharge exposure time on the thermally estimated depolarization and on the natural relaxation in polymer dielectrics is described. The polypropylene and polyethylene terephtalate foils were the object of investigations. Study of partial discharge plays an important role in the aging and the rupturing process of solid and mixed insulation systems. The PD analysis is a predictive test which indicates insulation degradation in advance, which may lead to the failure of the system, and it is performed under normal operating conditions.

Keywords: Discharge Action, Foils, Influence, Insulation, Partial discharge, Relaxation., Transformer, depolarization, exposure

The Influence of Financial Support Services on the Financial Performance of Women-Owned Enterprises in Eldoret, Kenya (Published)

Micro-credit services target low income clients who lack access to banking and related services. The study sought to establish the influence of micro-credit services on financial performance of women-owned enterprises in Eldoret. The financial performance measures were the net profit, current, inventory and times interest earned ratio. Based on the research, this paper discusses the influence of financial support services on the financial performance of women-owned enterprises which are funded through micro-credit. The study targeted a population of 1721 which constituted of women who owned enterprises and were registered with the county government of Uasin Gishu County. Study samples were drawn through purposive random sampling. A sample size of 313 was obtained using the Krejcie and Morgan formula. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present and analyse the data obtained. Data was then presented in form of tables, and explanations provided. There results showed that there was no significant influence of financial support services on financial performance of women-owned enterprise (p=0.00). From the study, it was observed that the financial performance of the women-owned enterprises in Eldoret improved due to the increase in the net profit, current, inventory turnover and times interest earned ratio. The study concluded that multiple loan products and favourable loan terms helps boost the financial performance of women owned enterprise. The study recommended that microfinance institutions should restructure the collateral and interest requirements by the women entrepreneurs by using credit scoring and business history as alternatives to asset-based security. This paper underscores the need to carry out more research on factors affecting women-owned enterprise in other areas of similar socio-economic patterns to ascertain whether or not financial support services have had a positive impact on the financial performance of women-owned enterprises. Moreover, a study should be conducted on the influence of micro-finance lending on financial performance of women-owned enterprises in Eldoret town.

Keywords: Eldoret, Financial Performance, Financial Support Services, Influence, Kenya, Women-Owned Enterprises

The Influence of Capital Adequacy Ratio on the Financial Performance of Second-Tier Commercial Banks in Kenya (Published)

Performance of most mid-tier commercial banks in Kenya has been fluctuating over the past few years. Meanwhile, some of them continue to post impressive results as majority report losses and others merge in order to remain sustainable. This situation points to financial performance affecting the mid-tier commercial banks in Kenya. The government, through the Central Bank of Kenya, introduced prudential regulations aimed at bringing sanity in the banking industry. This move led to closure of Dubai Bank and Imperial Bank while Chase Bank went under statutory management awaiting new investors. From this, an investigation was done on how Central Bank regulations influenced financial performance of second-tier commercial banks in Kenya. Based on the study, this paper explores how capital adequacy ratio influences financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The study was purely quantitative research and, therefore, correlation research design and descriptive research designs were used. The study was conducted in 14 second tier commercial banks in Kenya. It collected financial data from 2013 to 2016, considering that the regulations came into effect in 2013 from CBK and commercial banks websites. The data was sourced from Central Bank of Kenya after getting permission and approval from National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI). Data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Multiple Regression Analysis was used to test the study research hypothesis. Findings were presented through tabulations and graphical illustrations. Computed correlation showed that capital adequacy ratio had significant strong positive relationship (p<0.05) with financial performance of mid-tier commercial banks. In conclusion, it was found that capital adequacy ratio is among the main predictors of mid-tier commercial banks’ financial performance. It was therefore recommended that CBK needs to regularly monitor commercial banks by ensuring that they publish their quarterly results to the public. The investment regulators in the country such as the Capital Markets Authority (CMA), Kenya Banker Association (KBA) and Central bank of Kenya can use these study findings to understand the bottom line impact of bank regulatory requirements and in understanding banks decision on to its customers.

Keywords: Capital Adequacy Ratio, Commercial Banks, Financial Performance, Influence, Kenya

Influence of Television Programmes on Youth Dressing Pattern in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions (Published)

This study examines the influence of Television programmes on youth dressing pattern in Taraba State University, Jalingo. The researcher employed Taro Yame’s formula to select 100 students which formed the sample frame. The study made use of focus group and quantitative survey for its methodology. 8 participants formed the focus group while 100 selected students were distributed questionnaires. All the questionnaires distributed were duly filled and retrieved by the researcher. Data gathered for the quantitative survey were coded in SPSS version 22 and presented in tables with frequency counts and simple percentages while the focus group was textually analyzed. The study revealed among other things that entertainment/musical programmes are the most preferred and watched programmes by youths. The study also revealed that youths imitate the hip hop/hippies and makeup/hairstyles shown on television programmes than any other form of dressing and imitating such dressing makes them appear indecent. The study recommends that Universities and other tertiary institutions should take the issue of dress code serious, punishing students who are found wanting. Local Television presenters should dress decently at all times and no matter their kind of programmes they should know that they are role models and whatever they do is easily copied by the young ones.

Keywords: Dress code, Dressing pattern, Influence, Taraba State University, Television programmes

Western Films and Youth Dressing Pattern in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions (Published)

This research is focused on the influence of western films on youths dressing pattern in Taraba State University, Jalingo. The study postulated that it is possible for youths to be dissuaded from indecent dressing projected by western films. The survey design was used to gather the data for the study in which 220 questionnaires were administered among students of Taraba State University, Jalingo and 200 was retrieved and used for the analysis. Findings showed that hip hop/hippies, corporate/cocktail and make up/hairstyle are the most imitated forms/styles of dressings by youths in American films and that such forms of dressing to a large extent influences youths choice of dressing.  Some of the recommendations proffered for reversing the trend are: proper parenting and counseling, uncompromising religious teaching and establishment of dress code by tertiary institutions.

Keywords: American films, Dressing, Influence, Tertiary Institution, Youths

Influence of Foreign Television Programmes on the Westernisation of Nigerian Youths (Published)

Television has been a very influential medium of mass communication, due to its audio and visual potentials. Scholars of communication have always researched into the influence of the various media of communication, particularly television on the society. These efforts provide useful information to individuals, groups and organizations that employ these media on how best to use them. The debate on whether television influences youth’s attitudes and behaviour has attracted diverse views supported by different researches. It is on this basis that this study examines the influence of television on the westernization of Nigerian youths. It is noteworthy that there is a growing worry over the decline of the cultural values of Nigerian youth. This ugly situation is sometimes tied to the influence of foreign television programmes. The foreign programmes do not only undermine the cultural values of Nigerian youths, but also influence the youths’ behaviour as well as the prevalence of foreign attitudes and habits among them. The study is driven by cultivation theory which suggests that heavy television viewing “cultivates” perceptions of reality consistent with the view of the world presented in television programmes. Some youth in Nigeria, considerably perceive that what they view on foreign television programmes is a reality, and to them, there is need to cultivate the habits, attitudes, behaviour and values as demonstrated in television programmes.

Keywords: Foreign, Influence, Nigerian Youths, Programmes, Television

Students’ Academic Achievements in Social Studies: Any Peer Group Influence? (Published)

This work used the causal-comparative research design to explore the relationship between peer group influence and students’ academic achievements in Social Studies. The sample comprised 160 Junior Secondary School (JSS) IIIA students randomly selected from ten out of nineteen secondary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Two instruments were used: The Peer Group Influence Assessment Questionnaire (PGIAQ) on a 4-point Likert and a 50-item multiple choice questions in Social Studies. The instruments were trial-tested and a reliability coefficient of 0.87 obtained. Data generated were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis (r) at 0.05 level of significance. The result permitted the conclusion that there was a significant positive relationship between peer group influence and students’ academic achievements in Social Studies. This underscores the need to study group dynamics from the point of view of the development of students whose needs are, in the main, related to group living. This finding instructs parents, guardians and caregivers to keep a close watch on the companies their children and wards keep as such surely impact significantly on the academic performances of the affected children.

Keywords: : Academic Performance, Group, Influence, Peer-Group, Social Studies

THE INFLUENCE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN A MULTILINGUAL AND A MONOLINGUAL ENVIRONMET – A COMPARATIVE APPROACH” (Published)

The study focuses on the influence of English language in Macedonia, which is a multilingual, multicultural, and multiethnic country, situated in Southeast Europe. More precisely, the study investigates and compares the role of English inside and outside the classroom in two different environments. Firstly, in Tetovo as a multilingual place where quite a lot of people very easily shift from the local languages in use (Albanian, Macedonian and Turkish) and English when necessary, and secondly, in Prilep, as a mainly monolingual place, where from the local languages, mostly Macedonian is used. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative data collection includes learners’ questionnaires. The qualitative data phase includes descriptive research by using interviews. Finally, the study identifies several important issues regarding the positive and negative influence of English and compares the participants’ attitudes towards the role and the influence of English in a multilingual vs. monolingual environment. The findings of the study are expected to be of use to policy makers in the country and wider, the local government, educational institutions, current and future English teachers and students.

Keywords: Classroom, English, Environment, Influence, monolingual, multilingual

VIEWERSHIP OF BIG BROTHER AFRICA REALITY TV SHOW AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE MORAL CONDUCT OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY, ABAKALIKI, NIGERIA (Published)

Big Brother Africa’ is a reality television show in which a group of persons are brought together in secluded large house, isolated from the outside world, and made to live together while being continuously watched by television cameras. According to Chikafa (2012), the concept was borrowed from George Orwell’s novel of 1984 titled ‘fictional dystopia of Oceania’ in which he described a world of never-ending surveillance. In the novel, the dictator who watched over the citizens of Oceania was called Big Brother; his terrifying slogan was ‘Big Brother is watching you’. In the Big Brother television show, contestants confined in the house compete to escape eviction in order to win the prize money. The reality TV show debuted on the African continent in 2003 and has remained an annual event till date. This study investigated the viewership of the programme and its influence on the moral conducts of undergraduate students of Ebonyi state university, Abakaliki, Nigeria. The study adopted both qualitative and quantitative research designs, using a triangulation of data collected with survey questionnaire and oral interviews. A total of 350 copies of questionnaire were distributed to students of the four campuses of the university using cluster multi-stage and simple random sampling techniques. A structured 20 items questionnaire of the modified five-point Likert scale of very high, high, average, low and very low was used to generate data. Findings suggest that Big Brother Africa has wide viewership among Ebonyi state university undergraduate students and it influences their perception and attitude towards decency and morality. Some of them learn technical kidnapping skills while others learn to cohabit with the opposite sex in their off campus hostels, and this contributes to the many cases of rape, teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, abortion and abortion related deaths among this vulnerable group. The work recommends mass education on media ratings and encouraging producers of BBA to adhere to the principles, and calls for restructuring of the programme to reflect more indigenous way of life

Keywords: Big Brother Africa, EBSU Undergradua Students., Influence, Moral Conducts, Viewership

THE INFLUENCE OF TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS ON DROP OUT OF STUDENTS FROM SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MARAKWET DISTRICT, KENYA. (Published)

The study examined the influence of teacher characteristics on drop out of students from public secondary schools. The researchers set out to establish the influence of the teacher characteristics on the drop out of students from secondary schools. The study was based on Tinto’s (1975) student integration model (SIM). The objectives of the study were to: establish the influence of lesson load and managerial responsibilities on dropout of learners, find out the extent to which teachers give attention to slow learners and finally to investigate the extent to which teachers check students work. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The respondents were 28 teachers drawn from 14 secondary schools. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the 14 schools. Purposive sampling was used to obtain 2 teachers who had stayed for the longest time in each of the selected schools. The reason for this was that those teachers who had stayed long in the selected schools had enough reasons as to why students drop out of school. A teacher questionnaire, head teacher interview schedules and documentary analysis were used to obtain necessary data for the study. The questionnaire was validated through test- retest technique. Data was analyzed quantitatively using descriptive statistics with the help of SPSS programme. Results from the study was tabulated in frequency tables and converted to percentages. The independent variable was teacher characteristic while the dependent variable was drop out of students from school. The study established that: too much work and managerial responsibilities assigned to teachers, limited attention given to slow learners by teachers in class and the failure of teachers to check students work are some of the factors that were found to influence student drop out in secondary schools. The study recommends first, teachers should give attention to slow learners so that they do not feel neglected and hence opt to drop out of school, second, teachers should frequently check students work in class in order to identify learners with problems so that they can be assisted. Third the government should establish an effective evaluation and monitoring programme to ensure that the school administrative policies do not contribute to wastage and dropout in schools.

Keywords: Drop Outs, Influence, Slow Learners, Teacher Characteristics

MODELLING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CAREER CHOICE OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL STUDENTS (A CASE STUDY OF TAKORADI AND HO POLYTECHNICS) (Published)

The study focused on modelling the factors that influence Polytechnic students’ career choice of technical and vocational courses. A stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of 430 students. The researcher developed factor analytically derived questionnaire. Items one to three dealt with the bio data of the respondents. Items four and five sought after the parental occupation of the respondents. Item six examined how the respondent’s career choice was influenced by close relations on a five point Likert scale and the last item on the questionnaire examined the level of importance attached to various factors influencing the career choice of technical and vocational students in the polytechnics on a seven point Likert scale. Multivariate factor analysis method was used in the analysis. The results showed that there are three salient factors that influence career choice of technical and vocational students in the Polytechnics. These were Job security factor, Gender and close family relations factor as well as Financial and societal influence factor. This results confirmed earlier researches that sought to investigate the factors that influence students’ choice in Technical and Vocational courses. It is therefore recommended that entrepreneurship mindset and independent decision should be emphasized in career counselling programs for Technical and Vocational students in their course selection.

Keywords: Communalities, Decision, Influence, Salient factors., Technical and Vocational Education

MODELLING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CAREER CHOICE OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL STUDENTS (A CASE STUDY OF TAKORADI AND HO POLYTECHNICS) (Published)

The study focused on modelling the factors that influence Polytechnic students’ career choice of technical and vocational courses. A stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of 430 students. The researcher developed factor analytically derived questionnaire. Items one to three dealt with the bio data of the respondents. Items four and five sought after the parental occupation of the respondents. Item six examined how the respondent’s career choice was influenced by close relations on a five point Likert scale and the last item on the questionnaire examined the level of importance attached to various factors influencing the career choice of technical and vocational students in the polytechnics on a seven point Likert scale. Multivariate factor analysis method was used in the analysis. The results showed that there are three salient factors that influence career choice of technical and vocational students in the Polytechnics. These were Job security factor, Gender and close family relations factor as well as Financial and societal influence factor. This results confirmed earlier researches that sought to investigate the factors that influence students’ choice in Technical and Vocational courses. It is therefore recommended that entrepreneurship mindset and independent decision should be emphasized in career counselling programs for Technical and Vocational students in their course selection.

Keywords: Communalities, Decision, Influence, Salient factors., Technical and Vocational Education

AGRICULTURAL MESSAGE INFLUENCE ON FOOD PRODUCTION PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIA (Published)

Food security demands that citizens participate actively in food production. How to persuade people to participate in food production programmes is the task for agricultural messages. The “Imo Food Basket Programme” in Nigeria was used to determine why messages were ineffective in persuading long-lasting participation in food production. A sample of 325 was drawn purposively from the population of the five zonal farm clusters in the state. The triangulation method used both observation and survey to obtain data, while the Likert scale and simple percentage were used to analyze them. It was found that a message which does not satisfy its audience expectation cannot persuade intended action. It was also found that the agricultural message set the food production agenda but was ineffective in determining how recipients responded to it. Finally, it was observed that some other motives stimulated participation in food production, other-than the presented message. It becomes advisable that agricultural messages must specify accruable benefits in food production participation if it expects to achieve the desired objective. Interest can only be substantiated where disposition controls action.

Keywords: Agricultural Message, Food Production, Influence, Participation

AGE AND GENDER INFLUENCE ONINMATE PERCEPTION OF PRISON REFORMS: A CASE OF ELDORET GK PRISON IN RIFT VALLEY PROVINCE OF KENYA (Published)

In the 18th century, prisons were, in the words of Henry Fielding, “sewers of idleness”. Prisons were farmed out to private persons whose object was simply to make a profit. Women were thrown in the same common ward as men; first offenders with hardened recidivists; inoffensive civil debtors with muggers… ten year old boys with homosexual rapists (Hughes,1987). The need for a gender-sensitive approach to female prisoners has been underlined by penal reform experts in countries worldwide. For example, a national survey conducted in the United States during 1993 and 1994 pointed to the need of a different style ofmanagement for women prisoners (Morash et al., 2006). To this end, it is worth establishing whether in one way or another, aspects of inmates’ age and gender have any influence on how they perceive prison reforms.This study is therefore set to investigate theinfluence of inmates’ age and gender on their perception of prison reforms. The study was undertaken in Eldoret GK Prison in Uasin Gishu County of Kenya. Survey and causal comparative designs were adopted in this study as quantitative research methods. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 310 participants for the study. Data was collected by use of biographical form and questionnaires and analyzed by both descriptive and inferential statistics by use of SPSS. The study found that the female inmates had a more positive perception of prison reforms than the male inmates. However, the age of inmates had no significant relationship with their perception of prison reforms. Finally, the study recommends that urgent measures be taken to help reduce the reported congestion in the male prisons. This will help improve the overall perception of the male inmates on the prison reforms

Keywords: Age, Gender, Influence, Inmates, Perception, Prison Reforms

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