Tag Archives: Implementation

Deficit Factors In the Implementation of Educational Policies and Reforms in Bayelsa State, Nigeria (Published)

This paper focuses on deficit factors in the implementation of educational policies and curriculum reforms in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. It is reasoned that the education sector in Bayelsa State has undergone certain reforms guided by public policies at all levels in recent years. However, much as these policies are actions by public officials, there is a significant absence of corresponding results in productivity and performance index. This perhaps may be as a result of the deficits occasioned by exclusion of the policy holders (teachers and students) who are critical to the implementation and reform process that are expected to drive positive educational outcomes. This paper takes an analytical view on the merits of the educational policies and reforms from 2012 till date viz-a-viz teachers’( personnel), exclusion factors, wastages and corruption that have attended these policies and reforms among others. The conclusion is that, these educational policies and reforms in the state do not have a buy-in of the critical stake- holders with resultant effects of aparthy, absence of commitment, indifference attitude and stagnation in performance. The paper recommends among others that, there must be deliberate engagement of the critical stakeholders on the types of educational policies and reforms that would ultimately benefit the state without any form of exclusion elements in its planning and implementation.

Keywords: Curriculum, Deficit Factors, Educational, Implementation, Reforms, policies

The impact of public- relations and supervisory duties of school heads on the implementation of universal basic education in south-west, Nigeria. (Published)

The study examined the impact of public-relations and supervisory duties of the school heads on the implementation of Universal Basic Education in South-West, Nigeria. The descriptive research of the survey design was employed. Two sets of validated instruments, “School Heads’ Public-Relations and Supervisory Duties Questionnaire” and “Implementation of Universal Basic Education Questionnaire”, were used to collect data from a sample of 1,367. Proportionate random sampling technique was used to select 643 teachers from primary schools and 514 teachers from Junior Secondary Schools as well as 120 school heads from primary schools and 90 school heads from Junior Secondary Schools. The reliability co-efficient obtained for SHPRASDQ and IUBEQ through test-re-test method were 0.76 and 0.81, respectively. Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis was used to analyse the data. The two null hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that there was significant relationship between public-relations duties of the school heads and the implementation of the Universal Basic Education on one hand, and between supervisory duties of the school heads and the implementation of Universal Basic Education, on the other hand. It was recommended that the school heads should not relent on their efforts at improving upon the level of public-relations and supervisory duties. The government should also continue to lay emphasis on the public-relations and the supervisory duties of the school heads since they were significantly related to the implementation of the Universal Basic Education.

Keywords: Implementation, Public-Relations Duties, School Heads, Supervisory Duties, Universal Basic Education

Teacher Preparedness for Implementation of E–Learning Programmes in Public Primary Schools in Kenya (Published)

The use of ICT in many countries has contributed to improvement of their economies through scientific knowledge and services. In Kenya the policy makers initiated Vision 2030 as a vehicle for industrial advancement and growth of economy. The purpose of this study was to assess teacher preparedness for the implementation of e – learning programmes in Emuhaya Sub-county in Kenya. Objectives that guided this study include: To establish teachers preparedness in terms of knowledge, attitudes and skills for implementation of e – learning in public primary school and to identify challenges which implementers of e – learning are likely to face in public primary schools in Emuhaya Sub-county. The target population of the study was 664 class teachers from 83 public primary schools, each school providing eight teachers. Simple random sampling method was used to select 25 public primary schools from 83 schools in the sub-county. The sample size comprised 200 class teachers as respondents selected from middle and upper primary. Questionnaires were administered to class teachers and their responses presented in frequencies and percentages for the purpose of data analysis. The findings of the study revealed that teachers are not well prepared to implement e-learning programme therefore a lot of resistance to the programme. Teachers require sufficient time to prepare for integration into the new system of instruction. To address the problem teachers need encouragement through pre-service and in-service training. The respondents encounters challenges such as computer illiteracy and phobia, lack of computers and e – learning classrooms, lack of electricity, financing of e – learning programmes, sensitization of stakeholders, accessibility and time for training, old age and attitude. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education should introduce clusters of e – learning centres with instructors to man a group of schools. These centres can be used for training teachers from nearby schools. It is easier and cheap in terms of transport costs and also it is convenient. The private sector which plays a significant role in the development and growth of economy should be encouraged to support the initiative by donating funds to equip schools with computers.

Keywords: E-learning, Implementation, Preparedness

An Exploration of Practical Challenges of Implementing Feasibility Studies IN SMES in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This paper situates the implementation of feasibility studies within the context of SMEs using 61 randomly selected small and medium sized firms in Calabar metropolis, Cross River State. Regression result showed effective and efficient implementation of feasibility studies areconstrained by myriad of internal and external factors. These include inexperience,stakeholders’ pressure, unpredictability of policy and regulatory frameworks, unreliability of data/ information and paucity of funds. Overcoming these challenges requires among others, bridging the dichotomy between conceptualization and implementation offeasibility studies, consideration of broader stakeholders’ interests other than profit and organizational flexibility to enable the firms adapt and cope with environmental dynamics. 

Keywords: Conceptualization, Environmental Dynamics, Feasibility Studies, Implementation, Organizational Flexibility, Pressure, Regulatory Framework, Stakeholders

Nature of Collective Agreements in Nigeria: A Panoramic Analysis of Inherent Implementation Challenges (Published)

This paper x-rayed the fate of employees in Nigeria against the backdrop of incessant renege and socioeconomic setbacks associated with the dearth of implementation of duly concluded and perfected collective agreements in Nigeria. The paper examined the decision in Osoh and Ors Vs. Unity Bank Plc. which distilled common law principle on collective agreement vis-à-vis the extant provisions of the said Trade Disputes Act 1990 and finds that in the said Osoh’s case, the trial, lower and Supreme Courts failed to address the extant requirements for enforcement at law of a collective agreement but rather relied heavily on common law principle which regards collective agreement as a gentleman agreement. The paper also finds that both under statutory and common laws, the employees in Nigeria are usually treated unfairly due to dearth of political will, absence of governance structure and timely budgetary provisions with which to implement collective agreements timeously or at all. Therefore, the paper recommends, among other things, that inherent implementation challenges of collective agreements could be corrected if the government, employers, employees’ unions and the courts subject themselves to the rule of law and due process driven by the interests of both the employer and employees

Keywords: Collective Agreements, Employees, Employers, Implementation, Trade Disputes Act

Comparative Assessment of the Implementation of the Early Childhood Education Curriculum in Public and Private Schools in Rural Areas of Ogun State Nigeria (Published)

Early years are remarkable period of growth and development in the lives of children. Early Childhood Education (ECE) is therefore an important educational activity geared towards giving early positive experiences to children. In achieving this, Curriculum of Early Childhood Education becomes a key factor. It is however worrisome that the implementation of this curriculum in Nigerian pre-primary school is too low despite its importance. This study was therefore conducted to compare ECE curriculum implementation in private and public schools in the rural areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 240 educational instructors as the sample size for this study. Data were collected with the aid of questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, and t-test.  Result of the study showed that majority (66.6%) of the respondents was between 21 – 40 years and the mean age was 36.6 years. Most (91.2%) of the respondents were female, married (78.8%), and had National Certificate in Education (48.8%) and Bachelor of Education (16.7%). The mean year of teaching experience was 12.4years. Most schools in the study area has teacher-pupil ratio of 1:35. Old curriculum was available (94.2%) and always used (78.8%) for teaching. Also, English Language (79.6%) constituted major means of communication and teaching of the children. Results of chi-square showed that significant association existed between ECE availability and ECE curriculum implementation in public and private schools (χ2 = 13.86, df = 3, p = 0.03) at p < 0.05 level. t-test analysis revealed that significant difference existed in the ECE curriculum implementation in private and public primary schools (t = 15.2, p = 0.00). The study established that implementation of ECE curriculum was generally low as most schools especially public primary schools lack basic school facilities and instructional materials and had no current edition of ECE curriculum. The study recommends that instructional materials should be adequately provided by the government, school management, individual proprietors and other stakeholders in the education sector, and Ministry of Education should ensure that new curriculum is in circulation and encourage its utilization for teaching in the study area.

Keywords: Curriculum, Early Childhood Education, Implementation, Private Schools, public

Implementation of ICT in Kenya Primary Schools in the Light of Free Laptops at Primary One, Challenges and Possibilities (A Case Study of Teachers in Nandi County Kenya Implementing ICT into their Teaching Practice (Published)

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been touted as being potentially powerful tools that can be used to facilitate the implied educational change and reform. Implementation of ICT in primary school learning environments is a complex task for both Teachers and learners, but also management and administration. To facilitate the change processes better the first step is to actually understand what problems and challenges realization of ICT leads to and how it affects practice. Although classical instructional methods will continue to be used in the teaching-learning process, it is also true that Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) can be harnessed to become powerful pedagogical tools. Proceeding from the premise that there are many ways to use new technologies for teaching and learning, the paper presents literature on the possibilities and challenges of integrating ICT into teaching-learning, the rationale for adopting and using ICTs for learning-teaching, as well as the key factors that influence the adoption and use of ICTs in teaching and learning both from a general perspective and in a technical education context.  The paper then outlines and discusses findings of a study designed to investigate the possibilities and challenges of using Information Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching-learning procedures in primary school institutions in Kenya using data obtained from a Tinderet District  school in the Rift valley region of Kenya. It examines views in pertinent literature as well as teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of integrating ICT into teaching-learning, the success factors and obstacles encountered in their endeavours to do this.  Conclusions are drawn and suggestions made to address the challenges and improve on the use of ICT for teaching-learning in teaching institutions.

Keywords: Challenges, ICTs, Implementation, Possibilities, Teaching-Learning

Life Skills Education Curriculum Implementation: Appropriateness of Teaching Methodologies Used By Secondary School Teachers in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)

Life Skills Education was introduced into school curriculum in 2009 by the Kenya Institute of Education. The examined the role of teachers’ pedagogical competences in the implementation of Life Skills Education in public primary schools in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Based on the study this paper explores the appropriateness of the teaching methodologies used by the teachers in implementation of life skills curriculum. The study was guided by Overcoming Resistance to Change (ORS) theory. It employed the descriptive survey research design using stratified sampling and purposive technique to recruit participants. To this end, stratified sampling technique was used to select 80 head teachers and 290 teacher representatives. On the other hand, purposive sampling technique was used to select one County Education Officer and 5 QUASO Officers. The research further used questionnaires and interviews to collect data. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the quantitative data while qualitative data was analysed by arranging the responses thematically in line with the objectives of the study. The study established that inadequate homework and exercises given to learners, lack of adequate presentations for evaluations and lack of end-term examinations had hindered the implementation of life skills education curriculum in public primary schools. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers need to adopt appropriate teaching methodologies in their implementation of life skills education. Appropriate methodologies are those that focus on achieving the best learning outcomes among students. Since life skills education is a relatively new subject area, school administrators in collaboration with the Ministry of Education and other government agencies should provide specialized in-service training to help teachers master the best methods for effectively teaching life skills education.

Keywords: Appropriateness, Implementation, Life Skills Education Curriculum, Teaching Methodologies

Factors Influencing Teachers’ Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education Programme in Lugari District, Kenya (Published)

This study sought to establish factors influencing teachers’ implementation of Early Childhood Development Education programmes in Lugari district. The study used descriptive survey design. Fredrick Froebel theory was used for the study. Using a sample of 15%, stratified and proportionate sampling techniques, a total of 61 ECDE centers and 89 ECDE teachers, 61 primary school head teachers were selected from the three divisions of Lugari district. The study established that there was low level of training among the ECDE teachers in the district and that some of the crucial educational resources were lacking in ECDE centres. The study recommended that ECDE trained teachers should be absorbed by the Teachers Service Commission and that public advocacy to inform parents about the positive impacts of ECDE pedagogy should be conducted.


Keywords: Early Childhood Development Education, Implementation, Lugari, Programme, Teachers

Influence of Disbursement Time of Free Primary Education Funds on the Management of Schools by Head Teachers in Uasin Gishu County (Published)

The introduction of Free Primary Education (FPE) policy through the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoEST) in January 2003 in Kenya brought about overwhelming excitement among the public. The policy bore on poor families in particular who could now enroll their children having had no chance to learn due to lack of school fees. Implementation of the new policy directive however fall short of time for preparation resulting in various challenges among them, delayed disbursement of funds.  This paper investigates the influence of time of disbursement of funds on the management of public schools by head teachers. The study focused on Uasin Gishu County adopting a cross-sectional survey design. The target population constituted all the 400 public primary school head teachers in Uasin Gishu County from which a sample of 200 respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Questionnaires were used to collect data after which data was analysed using descriptive (frequencies and percentages) and inferential (Chi-square) statistics with tests done at 0.05 level of significance. The study found out that delay in disbursement of funds significantly influenced the management of schools by the head teachers. The study recommends timely disbursement of funds to schools to enable effective and efficient management

Keywords: Disbursement, Free Primary Education, Funds, Government Grants, Implementation

Human Resource Management Practices and Their Effect on Employee Turnover in the Hotel Industry, Ghana (Published)

The broad aim of the study was to assess human resource management practices and their effects on employee turnover in the hotel industry in Cape Coast and Elmina. Precisely, the study sought to determine the influence of workforce demographics on turnover, assess human resource management practices that account for turnover and analyse the relationship between human resource management practices and employees intention to quit in the hotel industry in Cape Coast and Elmina.  This study adopted the descriptive cross-sectional design. The sample size was determined by using by Krejcie and Morgan (1970) sample size table. In all, 196 non-managerial employees were sampled. The systematic random sampling technique was used in selecting participants. The main instrument used for the collection of data was questionnaire. Data was analysed using measures of central tendencies. Additionally correlation analysis was conducted to establish the relationship between variables. This was set at 95 percent significant level. The findings divulged that compensation boost employees morale and loyalty; hence management should institute measures to provide adequate motivation in the form of prompt payment of salary, allowances, and rewards to hardworking employees.

Keywords: Compensation, Employees and Turnover, Human Resources, Implementation

Implementation of Labour Act in Ghanaian Public Industries – An Empirical Study of the Ghana Water Company Limited (Published)

The purpose this study is to investigate the implementation of the Labour Act, 2003 (Act 651) from the context of Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL). A total of 10 management staff and 206 senior and junior staff of Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL), constituting 216 were sampled for the study.  Out of the 206 questionnaires administered, 149 responded in addition to 5 management staff who were interviewed, giving the total of 154 respondents for the study. Statistically, less than half of the respondents, 74 (48%), admitted that there were a number of challenges in the implementation of the Labour Act while 80 (52%) expressed otherwise. The study established that the implementation of the Labour Act, 2003 (Act 651) at the Ghana Water Company Limited is not up to expectation. It is recommended that a study in the private sector will contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the research topic.

Keywords: Ghana Water Company Limited, Implementation, Labour Act, Public Industries, empirical study

The Implementation of Hygiene Practices in Early Childhood Education Centers in Londiani Sub-County, Kericho County (Published)

Hygiene practices in Early Childhood Education are very essential. It helps the child to be strong, active, responsible, confident and perform well on the day to day activities. The study sought to investigate the implementation of hygiene practices in Early Childhood Education Centres. The study adopted the active learning instructional theory. The study used descriptive survey research design to investigate hygiene practices. The study was conducted in Londiani Sub-County, Kericho County. The target population comprised of eighty (80) early childhood educational centres out of which twenty four (24) were sampled for the study. The random sampling technique was used to sample twenty four (24) headteachers and forty eight (48. Research instruments included Questionnaires, Interviews and Observation schedules. Data was collected, then analyzed using descriptive statistics.  The output was presented by the use of frequency tables, bar graphs and pie charts. The findings established that schools in Londiani have hygiene practices, but they are not fully implemented due to lack of proper facilities. The study concluded that toilets were dirty in majority of the centres which may affect the health status of the children causing absenteeism due to frequent sicknesses.  The study recommended that County government be involved in supporting ECD centres to ensure that funding and purchase of proper facilities are made available in the schools.

Keywords: Hygiene, Implementation, Practices

Language in Education: Barriers and Bridges (Published)

This article explores the implementation of Ghana’s local language in education policy; how it has been received and practiced in public basic schools, and the major challenges and implications. Through the study, the author highlights critical issues within local education practices that suggest a mismatch between education language policy and classroom practice. It is suggested that one of the primary reasons for the poor performance in schools lies in the oral orientation to classroom practices at the foundation stage at the expense of literate ways of thinking and reasoning and that an emphasis on literacy in the mother tongue at the foundation stage may help to shift the focus on student academic development where it belongs.

Keywords: English Language, Implementation, Language policy, Literacy, Mother tongue

Teachers Perception and Practice of Automatic Promotion in English Speaking Primary Schools in Cameroon (Published)

Differences in the perception and outcomes of automatic promotion may be due to discrepancies in its implementation. Automatic promotion was conceived in Cameroon to be accompanied by support mechanisms and it is necessary to find out teachers’ perceptions and practice of automatic promotion especially against a backdrop of the inability of many primary school pupils to read and write. Teachers have a firsthand experience about the outcomes of automatic promotion. Their perception and practice may provide a basis for improving quality. Thus the study was a survey that incorporated a 15-item closed ended questionnaire and an interview. 275 primary school teachers and examiners of the First School Leaving Certificate Examination took part. Data were analyzed descriptively using frequencies and means. Findings revealed a negative perception of automatic promotion and discrepancies between the conception and implementation of automatic promotion which may explain the drop in quality. Implications and recommendations are discussed.

Keywords: Automatic promotion, Implementation, Primary schools., Teacher perception, practice

Evaluation of Barriers to the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice (Ebp) Among Nurses Working At Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (Fetha Ii). (Published)

This research study was designed to evaluate the barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice among nurses working at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, (FETHA II). The objectives of the study were to; ascertain EBP knowledge among nurses; identify their sources of knowledge; ascertain their extent of EBP implementation; and to identify their perceived barriers to reviewing research reports and changing practice on the basis of current best evidence. Four research questions guided the study. Related literature was reviewed and summarized. A descriptive survey method was used in carrying out the study. The study sample consisted of 90 registered nurses selected from a target population of 226, using a stratified random sampling technique. Instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The instrument was validated by the project supervisor and four other health promotion experts in other Nigerian universities. Reliability of the instrument was established by exposing the structured questionnaire twice to a pilot study group of 10 nurses at FETHA 2. Major findings from collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages and tables which showed that; nurses face a lot of barriers to using evidence in practice which include; poor knowledge of EBP  as a concept, use of intuition and reliance upon past training experience in the delivery of care, time constraint, unsupportive staff and management, lack of authority to change practice, among many others .The following recommendations were made; the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (NMCN), should incorporate EBP teachings into the curricula of various nursing training institutions, organising of workshops and seminars on EBP concepts, formation of EBP study clubs, updating libraries and provision of internet access by Nigerian Teaching Hospitals.

Keywords: Barriers, Evidence-Based Practice, Implementation, Nurses

Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Implementation in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects. (Published)

Businesses generally are created or established to maximize profit through effective and efficient management of human and material resources in line with their predetermined vision, mission, policy and goal(s). In the course of maximising profits companies annex natural resources- foreign and local, as a result impacting positively and negatively in the environment where it exists. In other to remedy the problems brought about by the operations of these companies to the people and environment where they operate, the management of these businesses through rendering of some social services in turn pay back to the community, hence the concept corporate social responsibility (CSR). It is in line with the above statement that this paper aims at studying the commitment of foreign as well as local businesses in achievement of corporate social responsibility in Nigeria. The research adopted the qualitative research, as it reviews the literature relating to the problems of implementing CSR in Nigeria. After critical x-ray of related write-ups on the topic under study, we found out that some factors such as inability of Nigeria Government to enforce CSR into Law, corruption and selfishness, lack of interest in implementing CSR, political and social insecurity poses as a serious obstacle to companies to implement CSR effectively and efficiently in Nigeria. Finally the study recommended among other things that the Government of Nigeria should put into law, which is providing a legal framework for companies on Corporate Social Responsibility. This will make CSR to be taken seriously and seen as obligatory as against non-obligatory.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, Implementation, Problems, Prospects

Automated Land Registration in Edo State, Nigeria (Published)

The cadastre is land information system containing up-to-date records of interest in land. This system will normally have a base expressing the location of the land. One of the important components of a cadastre system is the cadastral map, but existing system consisting of paper maps and convention on Land Registry are becoming obsolete and ineffective. For that reason, an automated land registration system, based on digital cadastral map in which attributes and map data on cadastral unit are stored in the same database, should be introduced. This system will provide a potential means for making land records more accessible to commercial enterprises and the general public In addition, automated land registration provides efficient document and reduces the need for paper record duplication. This article traces the evolution of Edo State Cadastre Systems, appraises current practice and shortcomings. It compares the old systems of land registration and automated approaches of designing and implementing cadastre system. On the other hand, the possibility of interest based in land registration is also explored. The article advises that Edo State and other states in Nigeria can make substantial progress along the evolutionary path by using automated method to overcome the observed shortcomings of only the paper work.

Keywords: Automation, Cadastre System, Implementation, Records

Teachers’ Perception on the Challenges of 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum Implementation in Edo State. (Published)

This study is carried out to find out the challenges faced in the implementation of the revised 9-year BEC in Edo state. The population for the study comprises all the school teachers from Lower, Middle and Upper Basic teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A total population of two thousand eight hundred and eighty-four (2884) was focused for the study in Akoko Edo Local Government area. The sample of this study was six hundred (600) respondents selected across the state from public Lower, Middle and Upper Basic schools. Purposive sampling technique was used to group the state in terms of Senatorial District in the state.Random sampling techniques was used to select two (2) Local Government each from each senatorial district. Proportional sampling techniques was used to select five (5) schools in each Local Government making thirty schools (30). Strategfied sampling technique was used to select twenty (20) respondents from each schools selected in all the Local Government respectively. A total number of 600 respondents was selected from the 30 schools in the six (6) Local Government for the study. The research hypothesis there is no significance difference on the perceived challenges by teachers’ on the implementation of the revised 9-year BEC on the basis of year of experience was accepted and adequate recommendations were made.

Keywords: 9-year BEC, Challenges, Implementation, Perception, Teachers

Exploring Total Quality Management (TQM) Approaches in Higher Education Institutions in a Globalized Environment- Case Analysis of UK and Sweden (Published)

Universally, the role of Higher Education is changing and getting becoming more and more integrated with the process of economic development and prosperity by contributing to the intellectual capital of many a country and act as a source of physical and social capital. This integrated global phenomenon is throwing multitudes of critical challenges in terms of developing qualitative approach towards managing higher education in a global platform with a clear objective to bring uniformity in many critical areas and reduce the gap of discrimination in terms of quality of education towards knowledge and skill building. This prudent approach and quality focus will make higher education not only more integrated with the global standards but also contribute to the talent equation of any country perfectly ready to take on global challenges and contribute towards economic growth and prosperity. The genesis of this research comes from the above backdrop which added to my quest to explore Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to Higher Education in a globalized environment with special focus on practices in United Kingdom and Sweden and analyze the practices of University College in Sweden. The quest to adopt TQM approach is to make the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) more qualitative in the knowledge generation and dissemination as measured in the three most critical areas of Teaching, Research and Consulting as a part of extended activities. Total Quality Management (TQM) is inevitably common factor that will shape the strategies of Higher Education Institutions in their attempt to satisfy major stakeholders like students, industry, society etc. This research is an attempt to explore adoption of Total Quality Management (TQM) in HEIs as adopted by various industry and created bigger and better value delivery to its’ respective stakeholders and contributed richly to the economic development and prosperity of the nation. The adoption of Total Quality Management in education sector will have profound impact on the critical dimensions such as: Consistency, Fitness to purpose, Value for money, Transformative. The evolution of various internationally recognized quality agencies like EQNA in Europe and QAA (Quality Assurance Agency) in United Kingdom is making the tough task of bringing and managing quality in Higher Education Institution possible and creating a framework for meeting the increasing expectations of stakeholders in alignment with the changes in external environment. Last but not the least, TQM is a general management technique can be applied to Higher Education Institutions to define and attain quality with a focus to meet and exceed the expectations of stakeholders by instituting the process of continuous improvement. Over the last few years, TQM has been applied in the education industry. Majority of the applications have been in the administrative side of the institutions, but some institutions have applied TQM to curriculum development and delivery area.

Keywords: Culture, Customers of higher education, Higher Education Institutions, Implementation, Models of implementation, Quality in Higher Education, Total Quality Management, Transformations

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