Tag Archives: Implementation

Implementation of ICT in Kenya Primary Schools in the Light of Free Laptops at Primary One, Challenges and Possibilities (A Case Study of Teachers in Nandi County Kenya Implementing ICT into their Teaching Practice (Published)

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been touted as being potentially powerful tools that can be used to facilitate the implied educational change and reform. Implementation of ICT in primary school learning environments is a complex task for both Teachers and learners, but also management and administration. To facilitate the change processes better the first step is to actually understand what problems and challenges realization of ICT leads to and how it affects practice. Although classical instructional methods will continue to be used in the teaching-learning process, it is also true that Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) can be harnessed to become powerful pedagogical tools. Proceeding from the premise that there are many ways to use new technologies for teaching and learning, the paper presents literature on the possibilities and challenges of integrating ICT into teaching-learning, the rationale for adopting and using ICTs for learning-teaching, as well as the key factors that influence the adoption and use of ICTs in teaching and learning both from a general perspective and in a technical education context.  The paper then outlines and discusses findings of a study designed to investigate the possibilities and challenges of using Information Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching-learning procedures in primary school institutions in Kenya using data obtained from a Tinderet District  school in the Rift valley region of Kenya. It examines views in pertinent literature as well as teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of integrating ICT into teaching-learning, the success factors and obstacles encountered in their endeavours to do this.  Conclusions are drawn and suggestions made to address the challenges and improve on the use of ICT for teaching-learning in teaching institutions.

Keywords: Challenges, ICTs, Implementation, Possibilities, Teaching-Learning

Life Skills Education Curriculum Implementation: Appropriateness of Teaching Methodologies Used By Secondary School Teachers in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)

Life Skills Education was introduced into school curriculum in 2009 by the Kenya Institute of Education. The examined the role of teachers’ pedagogical competences in the implementation of Life Skills Education in public primary schools in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Based on the study this paper explores the appropriateness of the teaching methodologies used by the teachers in implementation of life skills curriculum. The study was guided by Overcoming Resistance to Change (ORS) theory. It employed the descriptive survey research design using stratified sampling and purposive technique to recruit participants. To this end, stratified sampling technique was used to select 80 head teachers and 290 teacher representatives. On the other hand, purposive sampling technique was used to select one County Education Officer and 5 QUASO Officers. The research further used questionnaires and interviews to collect data. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the quantitative data while qualitative data was analysed by arranging the responses thematically in line with the objectives of the study. The study established that inadequate homework and exercises given to learners, lack of adequate presentations for evaluations and lack of end-term examinations had hindered the implementation of life skills education curriculum in public primary schools. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers need to adopt appropriate teaching methodologies in their implementation of life skills education. Appropriate methodologies are those that focus on achieving the best learning outcomes among students. Since life skills education is a relatively new subject area, school administrators in collaboration with the Ministry of Education and other government agencies should provide specialized in-service training to help teachers master the best methods for effectively teaching life skills education.

Keywords: Appropriateness, Implementation, Life Skills Education Curriculum, Teaching Methodologies

Factors Influencing Teachers’ Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education Programme in Lugari District, Kenya (Published)

This study sought to establish factors influencing teachers’ implementation of Early Childhood Development Education programmes in Lugari district. The study used descriptive survey design. Fredrick Froebel theory was used for the study. Using a sample of 15%, stratified and proportionate sampling techniques, a total of 61 ECDE centers and 89 ECDE teachers, 61 primary school head teachers were selected from the three divisions of Lugari district. The study established that there was low level of training among the ECDE teachers in the district and that some of the crucial educational resources were lacking in ECDE centres. The study recommended that ECDE trained teachers should be absorbed by the Teachers Service Commission and that public advocacy to inform parents about the positive impacts of ECDE pedagogy should be conducted.


Keywords: Early Childhood Development Education, Implementation, Lugari, Programme, Teachers

Influence of Disbursement Time of Free Primary Education Funds on the Management of Schools by Head Teachers in Uasin Gishu County (Published)

The introduction of Free Primary Education (FPE) policy through the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoEST) in January 2003 in Kenya brought about overwhelming excitement among the public. The policy bore on poor families in particular who could now enroll their children having had no chance to learn due to lack of school fees. Implementation of the new policy directive however fall short of time for preparation resulting in various challenges among them, delayed disbursement of funds.  This paper investigates the influence of time of disbursement of funds on the management of public schools by head teachers. The study focused on Uasin Gishu County adopting a cross-sectional survey design. The target population constituted all the 400 public primary school head teachers in Uasin Gishu County from which a sample of 200 respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Questionnaires were used to collect data after which data was analysed using descriptive (frequencies and percentages) and inferential (Chi-square) statistics with tests done at 0.05 level of significance. The study found out that delay in disbursement of funds significantly influenced the management of schools by the head teachers. The study recommends timely disbursement of funds to schools to enable effective and efficient management

Keywords: Disbursement, Free Primary Education, Funds, Government Grants, Implementation

Human Resource Management Practices and Their Effect on Employee Turnover in the Hotel Industry, Ghana (Published)

The broad aim of the study was to assess human resource management practices and their effects on employee turnover in the hotel industry in Cape Coast and Elmina. Precisely, the study sought to determine the influence of workforce demographics on turnover, assess human resource management practices that account for turnover and analyse the relationship between human resource management practices and employees intention to quit in the hotel industry in Cape Coast and Elmina.  This study adopted the descriptive cross-sectional design. The sample size was determined by using by Krejcie and Morgan (1970) sample size table. In all, 196 non-managerial employees were sampled. The systematic random sampling technique was used in selecting participants. The main instrument used for the collection of data was questionnaire. Data was analysed using measures of central tendencies. Additionally correlation analysis was conducted to establish the relationship between variables. This was set at 95 percent significant level. The findings divulged that compensation boost employees morale and loyalty; hence management should institute measures to provide adequate motivation in the form of prompt payment of salary, allowances, and rewards to hardworking employees.

Keywords: Compensation, Employees and Turnover, Human Resources, Implementation

Implementation of Labour Act in Ghanaian Public Industries – An Empirical Study of the Ghana Water Company Limited (Published)

The purpose this study is to investigate the implementation of the Labour Act, 2003 (Act 651) from the context of Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL). A total of 10 management staff and 206 senior and junior staff of Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL), constituting 216 were sampled for the study.  Out of the 206 questionnaires administered, 149 responded in addition to 5 management staff who were interviewed, giving the total of 154 respondents for the study. Statistically, less than half of the respondents, 74 (48%), admitted that there were a number of challenges in the implementation of the Labour Act while 80 (52%) expressed otherwise. The study established that the implementation of the Labour Act, 2003 (Act 651) at the Ghana Water Company Limited is not up to expectation. It is recommended that a study in the private sector will contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the research topic.

Keywords: Ghana Water Company Limited, Implementation, Labour Act, Public Industries, empirical study

The Implementation of Hygiene Practices in Early Childhood Education Centers in Londiani Sub-County, Kericho County (Published)

Hygiene practices in Early Childhood Education are very essential. It helps the child to be strong, active, responsible, confident and perform well on the day to day activities. The study sought to investigate the implementation of hygiene practices in Early Childhood Education Centres. The study adopted the active learning instructional theory. The study used descriptive survey research design to investigate hygiene practices. The study was conducted in Londiani Sub-County, Kericho County. The target population comprised of eighty (80) early childhood educational centres out of which twenty four (24) were sampled for the study. The random sampling technique was used to sample twenty four (24) headteachers and forty eight (48. Research instruments included Questionnaires, Interviews and Observation schedules. Data was collected, then analyzed using descriptive statistics.  The output was presented by the use of frequency tables, bar graphs and pie charts. The findings established that schools in Londiani have hygiene practices, but they are not fully implemented due to lack of proper facilities. The study concluded that toilets were dirty in majority of the centres which may affect the health status of the children causing absenteeism due to frequent sicknesses.  The study recommended that County government be involved in supporting ECD centres to ensure that funding and purchase of proper facilities are made available in the schools.

Keywords: Hygiene, Implementation, Practices

Language in Education: Barriers and Bridges (Published)

This article explores the implementation of Ghana’s local language in education policy; how it has been received and practiced in public basic schools, and the major challenges and implications. Through the study, the author highlights critical issues within local education practices that suggest a mismatch between education language policy and classroom practice. It is suggested that one of the primary reasons for the poor performance in schools lies in the oral orientation to classroom practices at the foundation stage at the expense of literate ways of thinking and reasoning and that an emphasis on literacy in the mother tongue at the foundation stage may help to shift the focus on student academic development where it belongs.

Keywords: English Language, Implementation, Language policy, Literacy, Mother tongue

Teachers Perception and Practice of Automatic Promotion in English Speaking Primary Schools in Cameroon (Published)

Differences in the perception and outcomes of automatic promotion may be due to discrepancies in its implementation. Automatic promotion was conceived in Cameroon to be accompanied by support mechanisms and it is necessary to find out teachers’ perceptions and practice of automatic promotion especially against a backdrop of the inability of many primary school pupils to read and write. Teachers have a firsthand experience about the outcomes of automatic promotion. Their perception and practice may provide a basis for improving quality. Thus the study was a survey that incorporated a 15-item closed ended questionnaire and an interview. 275 primary school teachers and examiners of the First School Leaving Certificate Examination took part. Data were analyzed descriptively using frequencies and means. Findings revealed a negative perception of automatic promotion and discrepancies between the conception and implementation of automatic promotion which may explain the drop in quality. Implications and recommendations are discussed.

Keywords: Automatic promotion, Implementation, Primary schools., Teacher perception, practice

Evaluation of Barriers to the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice (Ebp) Among Nurses Working At Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (Fetha Ii). (Published)

This research study was designed to evaluate the barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice among nurses working at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, (FETHA II). The objectives of the study were to; ascertain EBP knowledge among nurses; identify their sources of knowledge; ascertain their extent of EBP implementation; and to identify their perceived barriers to reviewing research reports and changing practice on the basis of current best evidence. Four research questions guided the study. Related literature was reviewed and summarized. A descriptive survey method was used in carrying out the study. The study sample consisted of 90 registered nurses selected from a target population of 226, using a stratified random sampling technique. Instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The instrument was validated by the project supervisor and four other health promotion experts in other Nigerian universities. Reliability of the instrument was established by exposing the structured questionnaire twice to a pilot study group of 10 nurses at FETHA 2. Major findings from collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages and tables which showed that; nurses face a lot of barriers to using evidence in practice which include; poor knowledge of EBP  as a concept, use of intuition and reliance upon past training experience in the delivery of care, time constraint, unsupportive staff and management, lack of authority to change practice, among many others .The following recommendations were made; the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (NMCN), should incorporate EBP teachings into the curricula of various nursing training institutions, organising of workshops and seminars on EBP concepts, formation of EBP study clubs, updating libraries and provision of internet access by Nigerian Teaching Hospitals.

Keywords: Barriers, Evidence-Based Practice, Implementation, Nurses

Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Implementation in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects. (Published)

Businesses generally are created or established to maximize profit through effective and efficient management of human and material resources in line with their predetermined vision, mission, policy and goal(s). In the course of maximising profits companies annex natural resources- foreign and local, as a result impacting positively and negatively in the environment where it exists. In other to remedy the problems brought about by the operations of these companies to the people and environment where they operate, the management of these businesses through rendering of some social services in turn pay back to the community, hence the concept corporate social responsibility (CSR). It is in line with the above statement that this paper aims at studying the commitment of foreign as well as local businesses in achievement of corporate social responsibility in Nigeria. The research adopted the qualitative research, as it reviews the literature relating to the problems of implementing CSR in Nigeria. After critical x-ray of related write-ups on the topic under study, we found out that some factors such as inability of Nigeria Government to enforce CSR into Law, corruption and selfishness, lack of interest in implementing CSR, political and social insecurity poses as a serious obstacle to companies to implement CSR effectively and efficiently in Nigeria. Finally the study recommended among other things that the Government of Nigeria should put into law, which is providing a legal framework for companies on Corporate Social Responsibility. This will make CSR to be taken seriously and seen as obligatory as against non-obligatory.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, Implementation, Problems, Prospects

Automated Land Registration in Edo State, Nigeria (Published)

The cadastre is land information system containing up-to-date records of interest in land. This system will normally have a base expressing the location of the land. One of the important components of a cadastre system is the cadastral map, but existing system consisting of paper maps and convention on Land Registry are becoming obsolete and ineffective. For that reason, an automated land registration system, based on digital cadastral map in which attributes and map data on cadastral unit are stored in the same database, should be introduced. This system will provide a potential means for making land records more accessible to commercial enterprises and the general public In addition, automated land registration provides efficient document and reduces the need for paper record duplication. This article traces the evolution of Edo State Cadastre Systems, appraises current practice and shortcomings. It compares the old systems of land registration and automated approaches of designing and implementing cadastre system. On the other hand, the possibility of interest based in land registration is also explored. The article advises that Edo State and other states in Nigeria can make substantial progress along the evolutionary path by using automated method to overcome the observed shortcomings of only the paper work.

Keywords: Automation, Cadastre System, Implementation, Records

Teachers’ Perception on the Challenges of 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum Implementation in Edo State. (Published)

This study is carried out to find out the challenges faced in the implementation of the revised 9-year BEC in Edo state. The population for the study comprises all the school teachers from Lower, Middle and Upper Basic teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A total population of two thousand eight hundred and eighty-four (2884) was focused for the study in Akoko Edo Local Government area. The sample of this study was six hundred (600) respondents selected across the state from public Lower, Middle and Upper Basic schools. Purposive sampling technique was used to group the state in terms of Senatorial District in the state.Random sampling techniques was used to select two (2) Local Government each from each senatorial district. Proportional sampling techniques was used to select five (5) schools in each Local Government making thirty schools (30). Strategfied sampling technique was used to select twenty (20) respondents from each schools selected in all the Local Government respectively. A total number of 600 respondents was selected from the 30 schools in the six (6) Local Government for the study. The research hypothesis there is no significance difference on the perceived challenges by teachers’ on the implementation of the revised 9-year BEC on the basis of year of experience was accepted and adequate recommendations were made.

Keywords: 9-year BEC, Challenges, Implementation, Perception, Teachers

Exploring Total Quality Management (TQM) Approaches in Higher Education Institutions in a Globalized Environment- Case Analysis of UK and Sweden (Published)

Universally, the role of Higher Education is changing and getting becoming more and more integrated with the process of economic development and prosperity by contributing to the intellectual capital of many a country and act as a source of physical and social capital. This integrated global phenomenon is throwing multitudes of critical challenges in terms of developing qualitative approach towards managing higher education in a global platform with a clear objective to bring uniformity in many critical areas and reduce the gap of discrimination in terms of quality of education towards knowledge and skill building. This prudent approach and quality focus will make higher education not only more integrated with the global standards but also contribute to the talent equation of any country perfectly ready to take on global challenges and contribute towards economic growth and prosperity. The genesis of this research comes from the above backdrop which added to my quest to explore Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to Higher Education in a globalized environment with special focus on practices in United Kingdom and Sweden and analyze the practices of University College in Sweden. The quest to adopt TQM approach is to make the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) more qualitative in the knowledge generation and dissemination as measured in the three most critical areas of Teaching, Research and Consulting as a part of extended activities. Total Quality Management (TQM) is inevitably common factor that will shape the strategies of Higher Education Institutions in their attempt to satisfy major stakeholders like students, industry, society etc. This research is an attempt to explore adoption of Total Quality Management (TQM) in HEIs as adopted by various industry and created bigger and better value delivery to its’ respective stakeholders and contributed richly to the economic development and prosperity of the nation. The adoption of Total Quality Management in education sector will have profound impact on the critical dimensions such as: Consistency, Fitness to purpose, Value for money, Transformative. The evolution of various internationally recognized quality agencies like EQNA in Europe and QAA (Quality Assurance Agency) in United Kingdom is making the tough task of bringing and managing quality in Higher Education Institution possible and creating a framework for meeting the increasing expectations of stakeholders in alignment with the changes in external environment. Last but not the least, TQM is a general management technique can be applied to Higher Education Institutions to define and attain quality with a focus to meet and exceed the expectations of stakeholders by instituting the process of continuous improvement. Over the last few years, TQM has been applied in the education industry. Majority of the applications have been in the administrative side of the institutions, but some institutions have applied TQM to curriculum development and delivery area.

Keywords: Culture, Customers of higher education, Higher Education Institutions, Implementation, Models of implementation, Quality in Higher Education, Total Quality Management, Transformations


The study investigated the financial management skills required of principals for the implementation of the Universal Basic Education programme in Ebonyi State junior secondary schools. Three research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated for the study. The population of the study was 2,221 junior secondary school principals across urban and rural areas of the state. Disproportionate simple random sampling technique was used to select 1,000 junior secondary school principals for the study. The study adopted descriptive survey method. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire known as Financial Management Skills Questionnaire (FMSQ). Data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation. t-test statistic was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that junior secondary school principals require budgetary skills for financial management for the implementation of the UBE programme in Ebonyi State junior secondary schools. Based on the findings it was recommended among others that government should organize workshops and seminars for junior secondary school principals to update their knowledge more on financial skill management

Keywords: Implementation, Junior Secondary., Universal Basic, financial management


In Kenya, basic education is provided through public and private institutions. . This paper focused on class 4 pupils admitted in class 1 the year 2003 when Free Primary Education (F.P.E.) programme was implemented. The purpose of this study was to compare the academic performance of these pupils in Private and Public Primary Schools. The research made use of ex post facto research design. Simple random sampling was used to select eight public and eight private primary schools in Kitale Municipality. A test was given to class four pupils of the year 2006 in both private and public primary schools and used to assess academic performance. The study used descriptive statistics to compute data for academic performance. The tests of significance showed disparity in academic performance of both boys and girls in private school from those of the public. There is need for education and policy assurance officers to step up inspection to enhance effectiveness among public primary school teachers.

Keywords: : Academic Performance, Comparison, Free Primary Education, Implementation, Private Primary Schools, Public Primary Schools


The purpose of the study was to investigate performance contract implementation issues and strategies in Kenya, a case study of Moi University.The objectives of study were to; investigate performance contract implementation issues in relation to staff performance review; asses performance contract issues in relation to consequences of signing performance Contract ;establish staff issues in relation to implementation of performance contract policy for lecturers.A case study was used to guide this study which utilized mixed method approach. The target population was 761 academic staff and 994 non academic staff. Purposive sampling was used to select 19 staff of high cadre. Proportionate stratified sampling was used to get 50% of the departments from each school and from departments in the administrative unit. A total of 170 academic staff and118 non academic staff participated in this study. Data was collected using questionnaires and interview shedules. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics whereby frequencies and percentages were used. The study found out that employees were not allowed to participate and contribute in setting targets at the beginning of the contract period. Furthermore, it was found out that signing of performance contract led to improved service delivery,greater job satisfaction and customer satisfaction. However, good work is not noticed, recognized and rewarded and no sanctions were made at the end of the contract period. It was recommended that the institution should ensure that staff are allowed to participate and contribute in setting the realistic and achievable targets in their departments at the beginning of the contract period. The government through universities should design a reward or sanction system as they implement the signing of Performance Contract in government institutions. It was further recommended that; for proper implementation, more training on the content of the performance contract should be done. It is hoped that the findings of this study will form a basis for formulation of policies on strategies for effective implementation of performance contract in gorvenment institutions. Furthermore, policy solutions will be provided on challenges of implementing performance contracting. .

Keywords: Implementation, Issues, Performance Contract, Service delivery, Strategies.


This paper is on human resource management and effective curriculum implementation in senior secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. It is a survey research which employed a descriptive design. The study sampled 113 teachers drawn from 1045 English language teachers using stratified random sampling which include the principals, vice principals and deans of studies in Ebonyi State. Questionnaire was used as the instrument. A trial test was carried out and ascertained the validity and reliability of the instrument and a value of 0.89 was obtained from the test. Responses from all the questionnaire indicated that adequate human resources such as teachers language laboratory operators and school administers, motivation of teachers and school location can improve English language curriculum implementation in senior secondary schools in Ebonyi State. The hypothesis indicated that there is no significant difference in the opinion of teachers in the urban and rural areas. Some of the recommendations given were that the government should embark on recruitment of qualified English language teachers, workshops be organized for teachers and allow them attend other workshops organized outside their schools. Wages of secondary school teachers should be reviewed and that teachers should show more commitment in discharging their duties.

Keywords: Curriculum, English Language, Human Resource Management, Implementation, Motivation, Teacher


One of the primary and most important service industries in the public sector and communities is education. It is the quality of education that forms an enduring wealth and security of the societies and their people (Babbar, 1995). During the last two decades, the preservation of high quality and standards in education has become a major concern for educational institutions and the government. Consequently, the demand for explicit quality evaluation and assurance processes has been increased rapidly. The enormous funds which the government allocates to this sector makes it very important for those who manage education to ensure that the quality of education imparted in schools and other institutions of learning is of the required standard. During the 2012-2013 financial year, the government allocated Ksh 200 billion to the Ministry of Education in the budget (2012-2013 budget, GOK, 2012). This paper examines the challenges facing the implementation of Total Quality Management in Schools. The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which Total Quality Management principles are practiced in secondary schools in Eldoret East District.The study was carried out in Eldoret East District, Kenya. The study employed use of a survey research design and utilized the stratified random sampling technique for data collection. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaires and document analysis. The target populations used were principals, directors of studies and heads of departments of the selected schools. A total of 15 secondary schools in Eldoret East District participated in the study. The findings of the study revealed a number of challenges in the implementation of TQM as; Lack of commitment by the management and some staff members, Organizational culture in the school, Poor documentation, Insufficient training of key team players, Ineffective communication. The study is aimed at giving Academic scholars and implementers a practical view of the implementation process of Total Quality Management with the involved loophole. Those who wish to further their education will find new information, which will contribute to the building of their scholarly abilities and growth. It also gives a model to minimize these challenges.

Keywords: Challenges, Implementation, Secondary Schools, Total Quality Management (TQM)


The study was carried out to determine strategies for revitalizing the implementation of entrepreneurship education in Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) to enhance self-employment in Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population was made up of 61 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) administrators and 96 entrepreneurs in Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs in the geo-political zones covered by the study. The instrument was face-validated by five TVET experts in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha was used to establish the reliability and a reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data collected. The study found strategies for revitalizing the implementation of entrepreneurship education in TVET as well as the basic entrepreneurship skills for self-employment and the challenges of revitalizing entrepreneurship education implementation in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should create an enabling environment for smooth running of the laudable entrepreneurship education programme Teachers in TVET should adapt to changes by making themselves available for training and re- training on the nitty-gritty of entrepreneurship education

Keywords: Entrepreneurship education, Implementation, Revitalizing, Self-employment, Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET).

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