Tag Archives: Higher Education

Implementing Quality and Accreditation in Higher Education in Five European Countries (Published)

The national Quality Assurance Agencies of most European countries have developed accreditation criteria considering the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG, 2015). The paper reports the findings of a comparative study of the national accreditation criteria for programme evaluation which are in use in five European countries, namely Greece, Denmark, Austria, Britain and Ireland. The official published documents available on the Agencies’ websites were reviewed and analyzed. The paper presents and discusses the variation of the criteria additions and omissions from the ESG model for each individual case. The reported comparisons show that a ‘general model’ is followed since the agencies of the five countries operate in substantial compliance with the ESG. However, each country places emphasis on different criteria.  

Keywords: European Standards and Guidelines, Higher Education, Quality Assurance, Quality Management, accreditation criteria, national systems

The Challenges Encountered by the Selected Private Universities in Kenya in Implementing Strategies that Would Lead to a Financially Sustainable University (Published)

Great expectations of high quality education are held by many people due to a high demand of tertiary education in private Kenyan universities. Higher education in Kenya has experienced a lot of numerical growth of the number of universities chartered. As of November 2015, Kenya had a total of 70 chartered universities. Of these, 17 were private chartered ones which had grown in number from 3 to 17 in just two decades (CUE 2015, Chacha 2004,4). That notwithstanding, private universities face numerous challenges, which if not addressed, their sustainability will be threatened.  This paper therefore seeks to explore the challenges encountered by selected private universities in Kenya, in implementing strategies that would lead to a financially sustainable university. These challenges were classified into two categories: the internal and external challenges. The internal challenges, experienced from within the university included: inadequate finances, university leadership and structures while the external ones include: government funding, government regulations and donor support. Qualitative grounded theory design was used in which an  interview guide and a self-developed interview schedule were used in data collection. Twenty respondents were involved from four theological private universities. A fifth university was used for a pilot study. Data was organized manually and analyzed qualitatively through the use of codes and formation of categories. The strategies utilized were: students’ recruitment, internal and external funding, program development, review and diversification. The findings show that different universities are engaging in different strategies without much success in terms of income generated. This was attributed to the many internal and external challenges being faced by these universities. Therefore, this study proposed a financial sustainability system that is based on grounded theory which recommends the need to prioritize income generating strategies – developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams (input activities) that will generate adequate income to overcome the challenges in the system that are a major impediment to implementation of activities (output) that would lead to establishment of a financially sustainable university. This paper concludes by suggesting ways of developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams that will enhance the financial sustainability of the sampled universities. Moreover, it recommends that universities should develop more creative strategies that are not yet in place, review their status and also diversify their strategies to achieve financial sustainability.

Keywords: Challenges, Donor, Financial Sustainability, Higher Education, Private University, Strategies.

Factors Influencing Competence Acquisition through Field Attachment among Makerere University Undergraduate Students of Agriculture in Uganda (Published)

The agricultural sector in Uganda is still underdeveloped partly due to the low competence of agricultural professionals. Universities adopted practical training approaches including field attachment, to train and supply professionals who possess leadership, entrepreneurship, communication, facilitation, negotiation, teamwork and organizational planning competences in addition to their formal knowledge in areas of specialization. However, the extent to which graduates acquire these competences through field attachment remains unclear given continued reports of limited work-related competences among agricultural graduates. This study assessed the learning process, motivations as well as constraints to competence acquisition through field attachment using the experiences of undergraduate students of the School of Agricultural Sciences (SAS), Makerere University – Kampala.  Data were collected through document review of 437 students’ field attachment reports and individual interviews with 65 students.  Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and thematic content analysis. The findings showed that trough field attachment, students participated in agricultural field activities and acquired both technical and work related competences.  However, most placement organizations had a limited span of value chain activities; the attachment duration was deemed very short; the timing was inappropriate and the quality of supervision was low.  These challenges limited skills acquisition to basic crop and animal husbandry and less of the value addition, entrepreneurship and marketing competences.    To enhance the quality of field attachment, duration of the programme ought to be reviewed to at least a full semester or a year.  Strengthening collaboration with other stakeholders could be helpful to improve programme financing and supervision. It is critical to ensure that the university result into graduates with the right knowledge, attitudes and skills to make meaningful contribution to agricultural development.

Keywords: Field Attachment, Graduate Competences, Higher Education, Practical Training, Programme Design, Stakeholder Engagement, Undergraduate Students

Competitiveness in Higher Education Practices in Sierra Leone: A Model for Sustainable Growth (Published)

This article has taken a step towards providing an open critical approach for the future of sustainable growth for HETIs in Sierra Leone. The system at the moment needs a complete review and overhaul in order to move forward in competing with HETIs at a global scale. The government on its own cannot continue take up the burden of a 100% funding for HETIs in the country (with increase population growth rate) when the situation across the region, and the world is such that HETIs are developing great plans towards self-sufficiency / sustenance through high quality teaching and learning, and more importantly, competitive research ventures. A model has been worked out for a future sustainable and competitive HETIs in the country, and partnership with TEC, followed by some realistic recommendations for consideration both in the present and the future.

Keywords: Competitiveness, Higher Education, Quality Assurance, Sierra Leone, Sustainable Growth

Does Mind Mapping Enhance Learning (Published)

In a setting whereby, students of the English Department at the College of Basic Education are exposed to course materials across a number of courses, in a language other than their mother tongue, requiring them to read, comprehend and analyse, note taking gets extremely complicated. The current study focuses on such a complex dilemma, with its objective to find out whether mind mapping may successfully be used by our students in order to overcome their linguistic problems. For the purpose, fifty third/fourth year English language students were used as the study’s sample. The students were divided into two groups and trained to use two different note taking techniques. Later they were given a 10 MSCs, each followed by subjective response question: know, remember, guess. In addition, students were asked to write about their experience to obtain qualitative data. Findings of the study suggest a higher level of performance when the students learn their study material using MM as opposed to SNT. More positive attitudes in favour of MM were also elicited from their selection between the three responses (Know, Remember & Guess)

Keywords: Attitudes, EFL, Higher Education, Long-Term Memory, Mind Map (MM), Performance, Short-Term Memory, Standard Note Technique (SNT)

The 4.0 Industrial Revolution Affecting Higher Education Organizations’ Operation in Vietnam (Published)

The 4.0 industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) will affect almost every sector of the economy, but the degree of impact varies. The most influential are labor-intensive industries such as apparel and electronics. These are industries with hundreds or even thousands of workers, so there will be challenges when automation is increasing. In addition, a higher education organization’s success is influenced by factors’ operating in it’s internal and external environment; a higher education organization can increase it’s success by adopting strategies which manipulate these factors to it’s advantage. A successful higher education organization will not only understand existing factors but also forecast change, so that it can take advantage of change within the environments in which it operates. The study results showed that there were 150 persons who are the managers of higher education organization in Vietnam who interviewed and answered about 13 questions. Data collected from March 2016 to March 2017 for higher education organizations in Vietnam. The paper had been analyzed KMO test, Cronbach’s Alpha and the result of KMO analysis which used for multiple regression analysis. Managers’ responses measured through an adapted questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale (Conventions: 1: Completely disagree, 2: Disagree, 3: Normal; 4: Agree; 5: completely agree). Hard copy and online questionnaire distributed among 1.000 managers of higher education organization in Vietnam. In addition, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) results showed that there were three factors, which included of factors following human resource quality (X1), macro environment change (X2), technology capabilities (X3) with significance level 5 percent. In addition, all of three components affecting the higher education organizations’ operation in Vietnam with significance level 5 percent. The research results processed from SPSS 20.0 software.   

Keywords: High Tech, Higher Education, Industry 4.0, Internet, Organization

The 4.0 Industrial Revolution Affecting Higher Education Organizations’ Operation in Vietnam (Published)

The 4.0 industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) will affect almost every sector of the economy, but the degree of impact varies. The most influential are labor-intensive industries such as apparel and electronics. These are industries with hundreds or even thousands of workers, so there will be challenges when automation is increasing. In addition, a higher education organization’s success is influenced by factors’ operating in it’s internal and external environment; a higher education organization can increase it’s success by adopting strategies which manipulate these factors to it’s advantage. A successful higher education organization will not only understand existing factors but also forecast change, so that it can take advantage of change within the environments in which it operates. The study results showed that there were 150 persons who are the managers of higher education organization in Vietnam who interviewed and answered about 13 questions. Data collected from March 2016 to March 2017 for higher education organizations in Vietnam. The paper had been analyzed KMO test, Cronbach’s Alpha and the result of KMO analysis which used for multiple regression analysis. Managers’ responses measured through an adapted questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale (Conventions: 1: Completely disagree, 2: Disagree, 3: Normal; 4: Agree; 5: completely agree). Hard copy and online questionnaire distributed among 1.000 managers of higher education organization in Vietnam. In addition, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) results showed that there were three factors, which included of factors following human resource quality (X1), macro environment change (X2), technology capabilities (X3) with significance level 5 percent. In addition, all of three components affecting the higher education organizations’ operation in Vietnam with significance level 5 percent. The research results processed from SPSS 20.0 software.   

Keywords: High Tech, Higher Education, Industry 4.0, Internet, Organization

An Investigation into the Factors That Impede Scientific Research in Higher Education in Libya: Time to Act (Published)

Higher education and scientific research hold a key role in promoting development and rapid transformation for countries like Libya which is facing rapid changes and unstable political situation. There is a dire need in the Libyan educational system for a complete re-examination of research policy and planning in order to work towards improving its quality to meet the country’s needs. Given the current crisis in most Libyan universities, this study aims to investigate the factors that impede scientific research in Sabratha University. It also seeks to propose ways to improve research quality in the university. The findings of the study indicate that the lack of strategic plan for research is preventing the university from functioning and preserving its role in society. It also indicates that the lack of resources, fund and proper infrastructure are the main factors that influence scientific research.  

Keywords: Higher Education, Influencing Factors, Scientific Research

Revisiting Student Satisfaction through Servqual: Private Tertiary Education Perspective (Published)

The objective of the study is to explore the relationship between the SERVQUAL dimensions of service quality and student satisfaction. Factor analysis, multiple regression, t-test, and ANOVA were employed to analyze data. A sample size of 119 was gathered from four private universities in Dhaka and respondents were students. Finally, 117 were found suitable for analysis. The study reveals that responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and student quality have significant influence on student satisfaction. Among these, assurance illustrated the strongest influence on student satisfaction followed by empathy and student quality. These findings can be valuable inputs for academic leaders to enhance student satisfaction. In this endeavor, student quality is being incorporated as an additional dimension of SERVQUAL. This realistic contribution may modify academic leaders to think in a progressive way in assessing student satisfaction in future. Finally, the study discloses that overall service quality has a positive significant influence on student satisfaction.

Keywords: Higher Education, Service Quality, Student Quality., Student Satisfaction

This Is Why They Leave You: Workplace Bullying and Insight to Junior Faculty Departure (Published)

Workplace bullying may be an understudied area in higher education, yet the most vulnerable population, junior faculty members, receive even less attention.  Based on a data collection in late 2016/early 2017, this data analysis of 257 graduate students and junior faculty from nine countries considered the question, what is the frequency of workplace bullying for junior faculty and graduate students? A second research question was, does workplace bullying influence career decisions for junior faculty and graduate students.  Findings showed that close to 63% of respondents faced workplace bullying.  Many of their comments revealed shock and dismay that administration turned a blind eye to bullying behaviors. Further, close to 80% of the respondents stated that the organization did not take action when learning about bullying, and 32% considered leaving the higher education sector.  For further consideration, this study included the open-ended comments of junior faculty as they reflected on workplace bullying and how it had an impact on their career trajectory.

Keywords: Higher Education, Workplace bullying, junior faculty

Women Participation in Higher Secondary Education in Bangladesh (Published)

Formal education is a fulcrum of sustainable development. Education allows individuals to develop within their community and country, and allows nations to compete and survive in the global economy. Education plays a critical role in fostering basic intellectual abilities, expanding further educational opportunities that are vital to success in a world where power is closely linked with knowledge. Education is the nourishment of the mind with knowledge and as such it helps in the formation of an integrated personality of an individual. Education has a special significance in the context of a quasi-traditional or transitional society like Bangladesh. In this paper I shall try to delineate the picture of women participation in higher secondary education in Bangladesh. I shall also mention the necessity and factors responsible for women participation in higher education. From the analysis it is observed that there is a skyward trend for the female passed students that lead to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Keywords: Higher Education, Higher Secondary Education, Knowledge, Millennium Development Goals (MDGS), Women, Women Education

Factors Affecting Research Engagement of Foreign Language Teachers in China (Published)

The purpose of the study was to investigate factors which influenced faculty participation in innovation and scientific research. 462 English language teachers from common colleges in China were asked to report the factors hindering their research engagement via a questionnaire, and 20 of them were interviewed face to face. The finding revealed that by addressing the 7 major hindering factors of teachers’ research engagement i.e. lack of research opportunities, lack of motivation, lack of research knowledge and skills, conventional conception of research, time constraint, lack of effective management system and insufficient material and supplies, teachers’ research and innovation in higher education can be enhanced. 

Keywords: Factor analysis, Higher Education, Teachers’ research engagement

Down the Road to “Bahrain 2030”Internship Programs and Graduates’ Employability (Published)

This paper aims at identifying how the higher education internship programs affect meeting the demands of labor market in Bahrain and contribute to the employability of graduates. A designed survey was developed and distributed among a sample of the Bahraini higher education graduates, the analysis of which showed that the Internship Programs adopted by the different Bahraini higher education institutes contribute to meeting the demands of the labor market in Bahrain. Quantitative data was supported by qualitative information gathered through structured interviews with officials in charge of the internship programs in some of the higher education institutes to help explain the quantitative results. The study recommended the sustainment of the coordination and integration between the higher education from one side and the labor market from the other, to develop academic and internship programs that are compatible with the skills required by the labor market. Moreover, the study recommended a periodical evaluation for the higher education institutes to assure the provided internship programs are aligned with the labor market’s objectives and strategies, in addition to the contribution such programs have to the Kingdom’s development aimed by its 2030 vision.

Keywords: Bahrain 2030 Vision., Graduate Attributes, Higher Education, Internship Programs, Labor market

The Practical and Theoretical Underpinning of Inclusion for College Students amidst Diverse Intersectionality (Published)

American higher education is facing another major transition with escalating costs, an influx of diverse students, and an over all question about the return on investment for higher education.  Within these complexities, this essay will consider the practical history and theoretical underpinning which inform the experience for students with complex intersectionality.  After reflecting on the higher education legal issues and Duboisian theory, the essay will provide recommendations for students and higher education personnel

Keywords: Higher Education, intersectionality, race

The Degree of Commitment of the Higher Education Institutions in Jordan to the Strategic Planning Standards (Published)

The main purpose of the present study is to identify the importance of strategic planning, the strategic planning standards and the obstacles against the commitment to strategic planning in the higher education institutions. Thereafter, to shed light on the degree of commitment of the higher education institutions in Jordan to the strategic planning standards. The study has produced a cluster of results and recommendations, the most significant of which is that the higher education institutions in Jordan are highly committed to the strategic planning standards. The researcher also recommends conducting more spaced out studies on all the educational institutions in Jordan to specify the best strategies used in those institutions to be generalized on the rest of the educational institutions.

Keywords: Degree of Commitment, Higher Education, Institution, Jordan, Strategic Planning

Students’ Life Goals, Their Awareness Category and Cognizance on the Benefits of Higher Education (Published)

This study aims to determine the level of participants’ perception on the different life goals. This paper would like to  investigate  also the level of participants’ awareness on the benefits of higher education,  and the most dominant category of  their  awareness  are also be looked  into in this  paper.  The descriptive design of research was utilized in this investigative work. The survey checklist form was administered to the students who are enrolled in the first semester of the academic year 2015-2016 in one of the private colleges in Muscat, Oman. The findings of the study declared that the participants’ goals in life like career, pleasure, and public service are reasonably important while their family is important only at some extent. Furthermore, knowledge on the benefits of higher education is at a reasonable extent and they are aware that they could develop their skills through higher education. It is also learned that mastery is the most dominant category of their awareness level and followed by experience category. This finding leads the researchers to conclude that these group of participants had a liberal perception.   It is delightfully found that they are judiciously aware on what higher education could contribute to their life as they continue to grow in the field of their forthcoming professions. Moreover, the category of their awareness level when wisely utilized coupled with their experiences could pave the way and lead them towards their brighter future.

Keywords: Awareness Category, Benefits, Higher Education, Life Goals

Graduate Employment Type In Relation To Areas of Specialisation: A Case Study of a Selected Higher Learning Institution in Botswana (Published)

The purpose of this paper was to determine whether graduates of a selected higher learning institution (HLI) in Botswana got jobs in their areas of specialisation. The issue of graduates who are not employed in their field of specialisation has gained prominence in national debates world over. The mismatch between graduate employment types in relation to graduates’ fields of specialisation has created a dichotomy which has generated growing interest for governments, ministries of education, regulatory authorities, institutions of higher learning, industry, students, and parents at large. With a bigger chunk of the national fiscus in Botswana going to funding education, the dichotomy has turned into an issue of national interest. The study employed the case study research design while the research approach was quantitative. Survey strategy was used for data collection. This study’s target population was all former full time students at the selected HLI in Botswana who graduated between 2007 and 2014. Since the study was a quantitative one, convenient sampling procedure was adopted. The sample size adopted for this study was 250. The study revealed that across gender, more graduates were employed in their fields of expertise when compared to those employed in fields they did not specialise in. Gender-wise, there were more female graduates employed in areas of expertise when compared to male graduates.

Keywords: Higher Education, Human Resource Development Council (HRDC), graduate employability, graduates

The Evil that Men Do in Academics: Understanding Plagiarism and Its Extenuating Circumstances (Published)

This study was premised to explore the causes of plagiarism and its extenuating circumstances in Higher Educational Institutions in Ghana. The study focused on Tertiary Students in the Kumasi and Sunyani Metropolis and Municipality respectively, 200 students were selected deploying a cluster sampling technique. The underpinning research paradigm was a cross sectional descriptive survey. Questionnaires were the main instrument used in eliciting primary data for the study. Secondary data were obtained from academic journals databases including EBSCO, and Google Scholar. The analyses were presented using Means, Standard Deviations, Unweighted Means, Relative Important Index (RII), Frequencies and Percentages. The study discovered the causes of student’s plagiarism as follows; poor writing skills, to obtain better marks, poor understanding of plagiarism, cost of quality education materials, Pressure from family and friends to offer help. The plagiarism extenuating factors were also discovered as follows; educate students on writing methods, assign different questions to different individuals, give tests quizzes or assignments more, assigning more in-class activities, not allowing students make up tests, rotate curriculum and trust building. It is recommended that deploying plagiarism detective software under covert study will help understand the causal factors better in order to inoculate student’s plagiarism effectively. 

Keywords: Causes, Extenuating Circumstance, Ghana, Higher Education, Plagiarism

Graduate Employment Type In Relation To Areas of Specialization: A Case Study of a Selected Higher Learning Institution in Botswana (Published)

The purpose of this paper was to determine whether graduates of a selected higher learning institution (HLI) in Botswana got jobs in their areas o specialisation. The issue of graduates who are not employed in their field of specialization has gained prominence in national debates world over. The mismatch between graduate employment types in relation to graduates’ fields of specialization has created a dichotomy which has generated growing interest for governments, ministries of education, regulatory authorities, and institutions of higher learning, industry, students, and parents at large. With a bigger chunk of the national fiscus in Botswana going to funding education, the dichotomy has turned into an issue of national interest. The study employed the case study research design while the research approach was quantitative. Survey strategy was used for data collection. This study’s target population was all former full time students at the selected HLI in Botswana who graduated between 2007 and 2014. Since the study was a quantitative one, convenient sampling procedure was adopted. The sample size adopted for this study was 250. The study revealed that across gender, more graduates were employed in their fields of expertise when compared to those employed in fields they did not specialize in. Gender-wise, there were more female graduates employed in areas of expertise when compared to male graduates.

Keywords: Higher Education, Human Resource Development Council (HRDC), graduate employability, graduates

Instructional Leadership In Higher Education: How Does It Work? (Published)

Instructional leadership is in a separate place from the other forms as it has a key role in the effective teaching and learning processes together with the changing social structure and idea. The roles of the faculty members in the higher education institutions are one of the important factors for the success within the institution. In this study it is aimed to determine the opinions related to the instructional leadership of the faculty members working in higher education institutions. Within the scope of the study, thirteen faculty members were interviewed. The data of the study was obtained through qualitative research method. In addition, the study was carried out with phenomenological method which is one of the qualitative research methods and in the study semi-structured interview technique was utilized.  As a result of the study, it was understood that the faculty members’ opinions about the instructional leadership are based more generally on some ideas such as attributing importance on using visual materials and method variety in their courses, trying to participate in the national and international activities in order to obtain a professional development, keeping in touch with their colleagues for raising the students’ success level and being a role model for students through their behavior and attitudes.

Keywords: Faculty members, Higher Education, Instructional Leadership

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