The Process Model of Conflict Resolution (Published)
This paper is a contribution to the theory, principles and practice of conflict resolution. It takes on the task of publishing a model – a process model of conflict resolution – developed following a research into the resolution of an inter-ethnic conflict. We discussed the process model in terms of conflict resolution dynamics and practices. The discussion outlined the factors, processes and conditions which make resolution possible using the lessons drawn from our research into how one of Ghana’s most intractable conflicts, the Nkonya-Alavanyo conflict in the Volta Region, was resolved. The paper argued that conflict resolution should be understood as a process involving many dynamics including actors, issues, times, resources (finance) and conditions in the context where the conflict occurs. The model stresses the importance of resolving conflict through community structures, highlighting the importance of careful mapping of the conflict in order to identify the dynamics (issues and the actors) involved. We argued that conflict resolution should be approached as a multi-layered dynamic process where the latencies are interconnected, procedural and parallel. We argued that funding is an essential ingredient in conflict resolution as is timing of resolution efforts, trust building, long term commitment and capacity building (confidence building) and sensitivity to local context issues. We put forward the idea that conflict resolution is a multi-dimensional process involving a broad spectrum of actors, activities, processes, and resources.
Assessing the Relationship between Energy Efficient Design Decisions and Energy Performance of Public Buildings in Ghana: Architect Perspective (Published)
As energy is a locomotive sector of the national economy, energy efficient decisions in the construction industry cannot be underestimated. The purpose of the study is to assess the perceptions of Architect on relationship between energy efficient design decisions and energy performance on public buildings in Ghana. Questionnaire was the main data collection tool. The questionnaires were distributed to a randomly selected sample of one hundred and thirty-five (135) registered architects. The data was analysed using inferential statistics such as Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. The study established that there was a significant, positive correlation between building envelope/orientation, site condition related decision and energy performance of public buildings and these has explain 81.7 percent of the variation in energy performance. It was again reveal that factors that contributed significantly to this relationship were Passive solar technique, Natural ventilation, Temperature of the building site, Day lighting technique and Site shading strategy. The study indicates that the most critical constrain to energy efficient design were lack of public awareness followed by client budget and lack of skilled labour. It is recommended that Architects should adopt the EED framework designed as an appropriate strategy in the design of public buildings to improve the energy performance of public buildings.
Understanding Rural-Urban Migration from the Perspectives of Migrants in Agbogbloshie, Ghana (Published)
About half of the urban growth in Africa is accounted for by migrants from rural areas yet we fail to understand migration from the perspectives of the migrants. This paper seeks to understand rural urban migration from the perspective of migrants and how this can inform rural development planning. A mixed research design was adopted to explore the decision making process around migration. In-depth interviews were held with migrants in Agbogbloshie and their families in Yendi where they have come from. The paper found that while rural-urban migration will persist for a long time because of the deprivation in rural areas, migrants have plans to return home. Planning would need to shift from the conventional approaches of general rural development towards a good understanding of rural development problems unique to certain areas.
Gender Differences in Performance in Mathematics among Pre-Service Teachers in the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana (Published)
The purpose of this study was to find out gender differences in performance in mathematics among Pre-service Teachers in the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana. A sample of one hundred pre-service teachers drawn by convenience sampling from the public College of Education was used for the study. The one hundred pre-service teachers which consist of fifty males and fifty females were conveniently selected from the second year form. The design for the study was a descriptive survey and for their performance in mathematics, pre-service teachers’ actual examination scores were collected from the public College of Education and were analysed using the t-test in SPSS. The test was done on performance of pre-service teachers. Based on the findings of this study, there was a significant difference in their performance. Finally, it was also recommended that administrators and mathematics tutors in the public College of Education in the Brong-Ahafo Region should adopt strategies that suggest to pre-service teachers that they have what it takes to go through their studies successfully, and should focus their attention on how to reduce skills disparities among pre-service teachers.
Areas of Male Dominance: Experiences of Married Women in the Mozano Community in Ghana (Published)
The purpose of this study was to assess the experiences of married women on male dominance in Mozano Community in the Central Region of Ghana. The study therefore sought to ascertain the ways married men dominate their wives. Qualitatively, phenomenological design with one-on-one interviews and focus group discussions were employed for collection of data. The population for the study was the married couples in Mozano community. Since Mozano attracts pilgrims and visitors on daily basis, only couples who attend Mozama Disco Christo Church (MDCC) and are permanent residents in Mozano were purposively sampled for the study. In terms of the study, the researchers ensured that the participants meet the following inclusion criteria: (1) availability and willingness to participate in the study; (2) couples who have married for five years and above; and (3) permanent residents in Mozano who attend the MDCC. The study involved 20 participants. This comprised fifteen married women and five married men who were heads of their households. The study revealed that most men dominate their wives in the area of reproduction because most women are ignorant of their reproductive rights. Most men decide on the number of times they will have sex, the number of children they will have and when to have a child without the consent of their wives. Most men see no need to involve their wives in decision making because they think women on their own cannot take or contribute to any meaningful or responsible decision. Religious factors and the doctrines of the MDCC have contributed to male dominance on married women in the community and lack of descent and profitable jobs for women in the community have made them to be dominated by their husbands. It was therefore recommended that married women in the Mozano community should make a personal choice to develop their capabilities to the maximum degree without regard for culturally and religious obstacles. There is also the need for gender education by the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection to organise seminars and symposia for men in the Mozano community on the need to involve their wives in decision making at all levels.
Gaps between Literature Portraying Child Rearing Practices and Young Offenders’ Views of Their Growing Up Experiences (Published)
This paper discusses growing up experiences of juvenile and young offenders and advances the argument that literature characterized by essentialist views seeks to predominantly establish that child rearing practices are homogenous. In contrast, the narratives of youngsters collected do not only depict varied growing up encounters outside the family, but also show that youngsters construct diverse meanings from their differentiated experiences. Whereas this is a small-scale study and cannot lend itself to generalisations or constitute a basis for refuting such literature accounts, the empirical data of the study nevertheless establishes that there is seldom familial contact for the children who engage the attention of this study. This paper also highlights aspects of youngsters’ friendships feature prominently in the narratives of youngsters, yet remain underrepresented in Ghanaian scholarly work on children. Discussions draw on a sociological research conducted from 2009 to 2011 with children in correctional institutions.
Issues and Options for Using Multimedia to Improve Pre-Service Mathematics Teacher Education in Ghana (Published)
It is well documented that the overly theoretical coursework in conventional mathematics teacher education programs does not effectively challenge pre-service mathematics teachers’ preconceived ideas about the teaching of mathematics. In addition, field experiences provided for pre-service teachers have been shown to have inherent limitations. Consequently, several mathematics educators have drawn attention to the need to engage pre-service mathematics teachers in experiences that present actual teaching practices and make it possible for them to study or critique those practices reflectively. In the developed countries like the US there appears to be a growing interest in the potential of multimedia systems to bring this type of reflective and critical thinking about the teaching of mathematics. In the developing countries such as Ghana, very little of such efforts, if any, is being done to improve mathematics teacher education. This paper looks at the potential of these multimedia environments to improve education of prospective mathematics teachers in Ghana. It focuses on how multimedia programs fit into contemporary theories of teacher learning and supports this with a discussion of empirical research efforts at using multimedia programs to facilitate education of prospective mathematics teachers. Implications for pre-service mathematics teacher education in Ghana are also presented.
English Expressions in Ghana’s Parliament (Published)
This paper takes a look at the English language spoken on the floor of parliament by Ghanaian parliamentarians. It attempts to ascertain the English features of Ghanaian parliamentarians and whether the identified features can be described as Ghanaian English. The study was guided by the syntactic features given as typical of WAVE (Bokamba, 1991) and the grammatical description of African Englishes (Schmied, 1991) and a careful reading of the Hansard which is the daily official report of parliamentary proceeding. It is revealed that the English spoken by Ghanaian parliamentarians has identifiable Ghanaian features that can support the claim that their English is typically Ghanaian.
The study investigated the relationship between bank equity capital and profitability by sampling fourteen (14) banks, using the purposive sampling technique, out of the twentyeight (28) universal banks operating in Ghana at the time, with data covering an eleven- year period (2005-2015). The study adopted the panel data methodology to examine the effect of bank capital on profitability. The random-effects Generalised Least Square (GLS) regression was adopted as an estimation technique for the research. The study revealed that equity capital is significantly and positively related to Net Interest Margin (NIM), and Return-on-Equity (ROE). Bank size is significantly and negatively related to ROE, and insignificantly inversely related to NIM. Regulated bank capital is a disincentive to inclusive financial intermediation in Ghana.
Sources and Effects of Stress on Work Performance, and Coping Strategies among Nurses at University of Cape Coast Hospital, Cape Coast, Ghana (Published)
Stress is part of our everyday life and affects all aspects of our activities. In professions, where encountering hundreds of people is a routine could be very stressful. This is the nature of the nursing profession, with its attendant effects on the physical and psychological wellbeing of the nurse. This study set out to find the sources and effects of stress on work performance among nurses at the University of Cape Coast Hospital, and the coping strategies they adopt. Questionnaire was used to solicit data from the respondents. Using the multi-stage sampling technique, fifty nine nurses were sampled for the study. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated, and answered and tested respectively. Independent t-tests, Analysis of Variance, and means were used in analyzing the data collected. No statistically significant differences were found between the ages of nurses and the type of stress experienced, by gender with respect to how they coping strategies toward stress, and among the various ranks of nurses and the effect of stress on their performance. It was concluded that, nurses in the University of Cape Coast Hospital were aware of the sources of stress among nurses, aware of the effects of stress on their performance, and had devised their strategies for coping with stress.It was therefore recommended that management of the Directorate of University Health Services (UCC) organizes seminars, workshops, forum, among others on incidence of stress and stress management strategies for the nurses. This would help the nurses to be abreast with stress coping strategies thereby alleviating stress on them. It was also recommended that counsellors were brought on to put in techniques that would assist nurses who are going through stressful conditions, which are likely to affect their performance on the work.
The study examined academic motivation and academic performance of Junior High School (JHS) students in Ghana. Differences between the academic motivation of male and female students as well as between students from urban and rural schools were examined. Participants were 756 male and 714 female JHS 2 students randomly selected from 24 Junior High Schools through stratified random sampling using gender and location as criteria for stratification. Two research instruments, the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) with a Cronbach Alpha Reliability Coefficient of 0.75 and Achievement Tests in Mathematics, English Language, Social Studies and Integrated Science were used to collect data. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and t-tests were used in analyzing the data. The results showed a positive relationship between academic motivation and academic performance of JHS students. While the results showed a statistically significant difference between the academic motivation of students in schools in urban and rural areas, there was difference between the academic motivation of male and female students. It was recommended that teachers, parents and all those concerned with the education of children should put in place psychological processes that are intended to boost the ego of students thereby making them have an inner feeling of satisfaction when they accomplish academic tasks.
Ensuring the Effectiveness of Internal Audit Units in Public Sector Institutions in Ghana- MDAs/MMDAs in Perspective (Published)
The article identified and analysed generally accepted factors or best practices that ensure or indicate the effectiveness of an Internal Audit Unit in public and private sector organizations. The aim was to use those factors identified from literature to design a model (conceptual framework) that can be used by public sector organisations in Ghana for measuring and ensuring the effectiveness of Internal Audit Units. The method used, which was only qualitative, was to search through empirical, legal and regulatory and professional literature for those factors that were known to ensure the effectiveness of IAUs. Eight important factors that became the parameters of a new model were identified. It was concluded that there are sufficient provisions that create the desired efficiency of Internal Audit Units in Ghana given the legal and professional environment. It was recommended that MMDAs and the Internal Audit Agency should adopt the model developed here to measure the effectiveness of Internal Audit Units in their organisations.
This paper explores determinants of loan default by Agribusiness entities in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana. Data to examine the causes of loan default was obtained from owners through structured questionnaire and descriptive statistics, Kendall coefficient of concordance and logistic binary regression was used to analyse the data. Financial variables were more significant than demographic characteristics of agribusiness entities to cause loan default. This suggests financial institutions must apply appropriate adjustments to financial variables in order to minimize loan default risk considering the agricultural sector.
Pre-Service Teachers’ Use of Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Teaching and Learning Mathematics at Basic Seven in Akatsi District, Ghana (Published)
The purpose of the study is to explore how pre-service teachers’ use their Pedagogical Content Knowledge (teachers’ knowledge of content and students’ thinking process) to identify and diagnose students’ misconceptions in comparing, adding, multiplying and dividing fractions. Pre-service teachers were expected to identify students’ misconceptions, give reasons of students’ misconceptions, and ask specific questions to diagnose students’ thinking processes that lead to the misconceptions. A total of 72 pre-service teachers teaching Mathematics were purposively selected out of 320 students from the schools of practice. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. Data collected were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and means. The study revealed that about 60% of the pre-service teachers could identify the students’ misconceptions but only 17% of them could articulate the reasons for students’ misconceptions clearly. Also about 58% of the pre-service teachers asked probing questions instead of specific questions to diagnose students’ misconceptions and only about 14% of them asked specific questions. It was concluded that most of the pre-service teachers were able to identify students’ misconception but could not give reasons for the students’ misconceptions. In addition, majority of the pre-service teachers could not ask specific questions to diagnose students’ misconceptions. It was recommended that teacher training institutions integrate pedagogical content knowledge in to the curriculum to equip pre-service teachers with skills that would enable them to analyze students’ thinking processes.
Analysis of Poverty Trends in Ghana (Published)
The definition of poverty differs across regions and localities in reference to traditions and what society perceived to be poor characterises of a household. In the past, poverty was defined based on household indices such as income levels, consumption and expenditure patterns among others. However, in our efforts to estimate poverty level of households or communities, one has to take into consideration the multi-dimensional nature of poverty and factors that contribute to poverty including both human and social indices normally drafted into poverty reduction projects and strategies.
Relationship between Professional Development of Head Teachers and Supervision Of Instruction in Ghanaian Basic Schools (Published)
While a number of training programmes are organized to strengthen the supervisory roles of headteachers in Ghanaian basic schools, research suggests that the quality of instructional supervision remains poor. Employing quantitative research paradigm, this study sought to explore the relationship between professional development and supervision of instruction of headteachers in the basic schools of one educational district in Ghana. The study results showed that while engagement in both formal and informal professional development activities correlated with instructional supervision, only the engagement in informal professional development activities significantly predicted supervision and evaluation of instruction. This suggests that informal learning experiences appear to be valuable than formal professional development activities in the selected district. Educational authorities in Ghana therefore need to coordinate and strengthen the existing informal/on-the-job learning strategies in schools to facilitate the supervisory skills of headteachers.
The gambling behaviour of the youth is among the least explored research areas in Ghana. Most previous study focused on youth and employment, youth and development, youth and politics, youth empowerment, youth and education, youth and HIV/AIDS and more recently youth and agriculture. The big question is how much do we know about youth and problem gambling as Ghanaians? This study deployed social learning theory and social conflict theory by Albert Bandura and Karl Max respectively as the underpinning philosophies to assess youth gambling attitude in Ghana in order to fill this knowledge gap. A cross sectional descriptive survey approach was adopted for this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select 200 youth from all the nine sub metro within Kumasi metropolis. Structured questionnaire was the main instrument used in gathering primary data. Data were analyzed with Predictive Analytic Software (PASW) for windows. The results were presented using regression, correlation, ANOVA and percentages. The study revealed that all the factors outlined to predict youth gambling behaviour were significant (R2 = 0.822, ANOVA < 0.05). Furtherance, 1% change in familial factors will bring 70.7% (0.8412) in youth attitude towards gambling. Moreover, 1% change in social factors will bring 22.9% (0.4792) change in youth attitude towards gambling. Also, a unit change in cultural and demographic factors will bring 4.7% (0.2192) change in youth attitude towards gambling. Finally, a unite change in environmental factor will bring 2% (0.1422) change in youth attitude towards gambling. It is recommended that future studies should consider factors such as cognitive and economic factors to determine youth gambling behaviour.
This study examined the prevalence of domestic violence in the socio-economic and political context in Ghana. The study conveniently sampled 200 women within Kumasi metropolis as participants. Data for the study came from both primary and secondary sources. Structured questionnaires were face-to-face administered to the respondents. The data were analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows. The study revealed that the prevalence of Cultural factors had been agreed by respondents as scourge of domestic violence. Acceptability of violence as means to resolve conflict (M=4.7), bride price and dowry (M=4.2), Cultural definitions of appropriate sex roles (M=4.25), Belief in the inherent superiority of males (M=4.3). Prevalence of economic factors were agreed by respondents as follows: Women’s economic dependence on men (M=5.0) limited access to employment in formal and informal sectors (4.26) discriminatory laws regarding inheritance, property rights, use of communal lands (4.2). Prevalence of Political factors were agreed by respondents as follows: Under-representation of women in power, politics, media and in the legal and medical profession (M=4.17), Risk of challenge to status-quo/religious laws (M=4.35). Legal factors included: laws regarding divorce, child custody, maintenance and inheritance (M=4.31) insensitive treatment of women and girls by police and judiciary (M=4.91). More than halve of the respondents indicated that they have even been assaulted by men. The study revealed a significant association between ever been assaulted and employment status (X2=76.9, p-value<0.05, df =6). Again there is a significant relationship between ever been assaulted and education attainment (X2=35.25, p-value<0.05, df =8). There are relationship between females ever been assaulted and age X2=21.13, p-value<0.05, df =8). Policy intervention and reinforcement of the existing legislation is imperative in the civility of these findings.
Plagiarism Is A Crime: Towards Academic Integrity in Higher Educational Institutions in Ghana (Published)
Admittedly, students’ academic plagiarism comes in different forms. Surprisingly, little is known about the most common form of student’s plagiarism due to inadequate research. This study was aimed to fill this knowledge gap by empirically examined the most common forms of students’ academic plagiarism in the Wa municipality of Ghana. The choice of the study sitting was influenced by the increasing educational activities in the area. The population of the study comprised of all tertiary students in the municipality. The positivist (quantitative) research design was deployed. Convenience sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents. Data for the study were elicited from both primary and secondary sources. Questionnaires were the main interment used in gathering primary data. The constructs for the questionnaires were adopted from Sentleng and King (2012) which was modified to address the objectives of the study. The data were analyzed with the aid of Predictive Analytics Software (PASW). The results were presented using Means (M), Standard Deviations (SD), Relative Important Index (RII) and Chi-square Test. The study revealed the most frequent forms of students plagiarism as follows: Invented or altered data (M=4.16, SD= 0.9), Writing an assignment for your friend (M=4.10, SD=0.9),Copy a text without acknowledgement (M=4.05, SD=1.3), Submitted someone’s work without their permission (M=3.41, SD=1.4), Paraphrased without acknowledging the source (M=2.41, SD=1.7), Summarizing a text without acknowledgement (M=2.73, SD=1.4).Chi-square Test revealed that there is a significant difference between Gender and age of students (χ2 -value = 17.98, df =3, p-value<0.05). Moreover, there is significant difference between religion and age (χ2 -value = 6.55, df =3, p-value=0.05). It is concluded that the most common forms of plagiarism among the students were paraphrased without acknowledging the source (Patchworks), Copy a text without acknowledgement, Invented or altered data (Sham),imitating friends work (Pastiches) and. Training on academic writings need to be intensified.
An Examination of Customers’ Evaluation of the Justice Theory as a Basis For Understanding the Process of Service Recovery and Satisfaction With Recovery in the Provision of National Health Insurance in Ghana (Published)
This study examined thoroughly customers’ evaluation of the justice theory as a basis for understanding the process of service recovery and satisfaction with recovery in the provision of National Health Insurance in Ghana. Field responses were gathered from the Clients (Subscribers’). In all, 2000 self -administered questionnaires were sent to Subscribers in each of the four Schemes (making a total of 8000). Based on the responses gathered from the field, it was revealed that all the four Schemes studied can be described as being unfair when it comes to their quests of applying the justice theory to responding to service failures. The findings further conclude that majority of the respondents do not agree that the Schemes studied provide satisfaction with recovery and are not satisfied with overall firms (Schemes).