This study was conducted to investigate the attitudes of college students toward mobile phone usage in Nigeria. Six hundred and forty randomly selected 300- and 400- level students of the University of Ibadan, Oyo State and the Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Ogun State were involved in the study. The study was conducted in a classroom environment during the schools’ continuous assessment (CA) week. After information was collected from the students, their test scores were obtained from their faculties. The test scores were compared to the scores obtained from the questionnaires. It was realized that the academic discipline of the college students as well as their area of residence do not make them perceive or use their mobile phones differently. Also, gender was found to be an important determinant of mobile phone usage among the students. In addition, no significant relationship was established between the mobile phone usage and their academic performance. It was then recommended that operational involvement and practical prevention programs, which would discourage mobile phone addiction in students, should be developed and configured in all cell phones. Also, management of colleges must constantly inform and reorient their students about the negative and positive effects of their mobile phone uses. In addition, authorities of the schools as well as policy makers must formulate rules for students to concentrate on their lectures totally without fiddling with their mobile phones during lectures
This paper is an exploration of Bangladeshi college students’ attitude towards English language learning. Learners’ attitude towards any language can be either positive or negative. Students with positive attitudes put more efforts into the job of learning a foreign language and therefore learn it better, faster and easier than those with negative attitudes towards the same language. Therewith, gender could be one of the factors influencing students’ attitudes towards ESL / EFL learning. The present piece of research was undertaken on 50 Bangladeshi college (higher secondary) students with a view to finding their behavioral and emotional attitudes towards English language learning and the study came up with a finding that the students hold positive attitude and there is no statistically significant difference in attitudes between males and females. In this research a questionnaire survey on participants’ behavioral and emotional attitudes was carried out and the colleted data were put in SPSS and thereafter the statistical results were interpreted. A Mann-Whitney U Test was performed to get the result of the difference of attitude on the basis of gender. The findings are expected to add significance to the body of research done in the relevant area and help teachers and syllabus designers re-set the pedagogical principles of English language learning and teaching at college level in Bangladesh in particular.
This paper will investigate the subtle and sensitive questioning of Women’s condition in Pakistan in Farooqi’s novel, The Story of a Widow. Farooqi’s title is misleading and leads one to think that this book too will portray the subjugated position of women in a patriarchal society but on closer investigation it is seen that Farooqi points towards the hindering and cowardly mindset of women in giving and supporting independence to their own kind. The portrait of the dead husband symbolizes the patriarchal presence. It is important to see that the judgmental attitude of the man is perceived by the wife even when he is no more. This is indicative of how powerfully the society is entrenched in the myth that man is wiser and more capable than the woman and therefore must remain in the driving seat. Despite the complete physical absence of Akbar Ali, Mona’s deceased husband, he continues to figure prominently in her thoughts. What is worth appreciating is the resilience of Mona with which she continues to defy and rise above the looks of rebuke and chastisement that Akbar Ali’s portrait continues to impart. After widowhood, Mona gains money as well as the liberty to make her own decisions yet she is, throughout the novel, cowed down by her sister and her daughters, relations that one would otherwise expect to be supportive and understanding. Through the struggle of Mona, Farooqi highlights the importance of self-growth and self –autonomy which can only be obtained by making ones own decisions, shouldering the burden of error, living through agony and finally coming out not triumphant but stronger and wiser i.e like the men.
This study investigates the effect of gender on the quality of interpreting by 30 Iranian BA students of English translation and interpreting. In the experiment, the control group (7 males, 8 females) received the routine instruction of the interpreting curriculum. The experimental group (7 males, 8 females) spent less time on the routine syllabus and instead received explanation of prosodic concepts and did prosodic exercises as participants in the two groups were matched on the basis of their scores on a pre-test of general English proficiency. Interpreting performance was assessed in a post-test by having three experts rate ten aspects of interpreting quality. Then, t-tests were run on the male and female subsamples to see whether gender affects the performance of participants in the pre- and posttest and in the difference between the two test scores. There is a slight (but statistically insignificant) advantage for women both in the pre-test (8 points better on average on the scale from 0 to 700,) and in the post-test (3 percentage points, but again insignificant). These results have implications for designers of curricula for training interpreters, material producers and all who are involved in foreign-language study and pedagogy
Gender Differences in the Use of ICT among Teachers in Model Primary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
The study sought to determine gender differences in the use of ICT among Teachers in Model Primary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. It was a descriptive study with a sample of 200 teachers drawn from 25 functional model primary schools in two local government areas (LGA) of Rivers State namely Port Harcourt City Council and Obio-Akpor. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The findings showed that there was no significant difference between the mean scores of the male and female model primary school teachers in the use of ICT and no significant difference between the mean scores of female model primary school teachers in Port Harcourt City Council and Obio-Akpor Local Government Areas in the use of ICT. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which included that the Federal, State and Local Governments in Nigeria should equip more schools with ICT facilities and training should be given to both male and female teachers to enable them effectively utilize ICT in their various schools.
Gender influence on the attitudinal disposition of junior secondary school students toward Cooperative Learning Method in Port Harcourt, Nigeria (Published)
This study explored the impact of gender on the attitudinal disposition of junior secondary school students toward Cooperative Learning Method in Port Harcourt. The quasi-experimental design was adopted. A total of 240 JSS II students took part in the study. There was a total of 120 JSSII students in the experimental and control groups respectively which gave a total of 240 respondents. Only the result of 120 students in the experimental groups was presented in this study. A validated 10-item instrument, Students Attitude towards Cooperative Learning Method Scale (SATCLMS) was used for data collection. The test-retest method was used to determine the reliability of SATCLMS to obtain an index of r=0.78. One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research question whereas independent sample t-test was used to test the hypothesis. The findings of the study indicated that the attitude of the male students was slightly more positive than the attitude of the female students towards cooperative learning methods. However, the observed mean difference not statistically significant across sexes. It was recommended among others that teachers of social studies should endeavour to adopt CLM to impact on the attitudes of students in social studies.
The Issue of Gender in Elementary Schools’ Hebrew textbooks for the Arab Sector in Israel (Published)
The educational system in the 21st century is still a sociological representative preserving the social and gender structure in society. The school is a ‘greenhouse’ for strengthening and refinement gender stereotyped identity already in young age, by teaching and imitating the behavior described in the textbooks This article examines the status of women and female students in the Hebrew textbooks in the elementary school studied in the Arab sector in relation to two aspects: the method of teaching of the Hebrew language in the past and in present time, in relation to women’s status. The examination was made by texts and illustrations of textbooks.This study examined the third grade book of ‘Mifgash’ (meetings), it also tested 11 texts in four textbooks from the series of “Ivrit Laderech” (Learning Hebrew) from the third to the sixth grade, in which women have a central leading role.
Xenophobia in Iraqi EFL Learning Context (Published)
This study is an attempt to investigate Iraqi EEL learners’ conception of xenophobia and whether it has a negative effect on their learning English as a foreign language. The study hypothesizes that: (1) it is fair to speculate that xenophobia has been at least partially responsible for hindering deep-level learning and students who undergo xenophobia are likely to be pessimistic as regards the foreign language, (2) learners’ attitudes toward English as a foreign language differs depending on whether they are rural or urban, (3) the disposition of female learners towards the term xenophobia differs in comparison to that of male learners. To this end, a questionnaire is administered to 50 Iraqi undergraduate EFL learners at the University of Babylon/College of Education for Human Sciences/Department of English during the academic year (2016-2017) by which students were asked to report on their perception and interpretation of the term xenophobia.
In most novels for teens in Iran, one or more major or minor characters of the story are adolescents who each have their own speech and behavior. It seems that the authors pay attention to Iranian life style in the novels primarily to draw attention of adolescents to the text and secondary to reflect Iranian life style in their text. In this paper, lifestyle of teenage characters in the text of teenage novels during 2010– 2012 based on the pattern of Iranian lifestyles is analyzed with regard to the four indexes (traditional, leisure, cultural and managerial-care). The findings of the content analysis show that all indexes of Iranian life style are noted in young adult novels, and the most attraction was directed to the traditional index. In addition, the use of indices between girls and boys is different in the novels.
Sandwich Programme Enrolment: Policy and Management Implications for Ghanaian Higher Education (Published)
The current study used survey approach to examine sandwich masters students views on factors influencing their decision to enrol in educational administration and management programme at a teacher university in Ghana. Randomisation technique was used in selecting 131 samples from 161second-year session students of the programme with 51% males and 49% female participants with urban students dominating the samples in the study. Questionnaires and open-ended items were used to solicit students’ views that allowed for the use of inferential and interpretivists’ data analysis techniques. Hence, applying logistic and multiple regressions as well as frequency counts, two hypotheses were tested and the results showed that student’ perceptions of their own circumstances and institutional constraints explained 19.4% of variance in decisions to engage with their current programme of study. Also, institutional (GES) factors showed statistical significant difference between male and female students with the odd ratio of 1.12 higher for males than females. Consequently, the study concludes that students’ decisions to study on the educational administration and management programme were significantly related to their employers’ policy and the admission constraints such as faculty attitudes and teaching and living resources. Implications for managerial policy review were discussed in the paper.
ICT Adoption Attitude of Lecturers (Published)
With ex post facto research method, this study investigated the attitude of lecturers towards the adoption of Information and Communication Technology, abbreviated as ICT, in teaching and research in federal and state-owned universities in Nigeria. Four research questions and null hypotheses were respectively, answered and tested. A stratified sample of 400 lecturers (251 males and 149 females) was randomly drawn from one federal university and one state university. A factor analyzed 55 items instrument with high construct validity and three-factor loadings was used for data collection. The reliability of the instrument, using the Cronbach alpha method, showed reliability coefficients of 0.67, 0.62, and 0.51 for attitude, competence, and accessibility factor loadings, respectively. Data analysis was done with the use of independent samples t-test and One-way ANOVA for testing the hypotheses. Results revealed that gender and area of specialization have no significant difference in the attitude of lecturers’ towards ICT adoption in teaching and research. On years of experience, moderately and less experienced lecturers are more competent in the use of ICTs than their highly experienced counterparts. ICT facilities are significantly more accessible the Federal university (University of Port Harcourt) than the State university (Rivers State University of Science and Technology). University management should motivate and encourage lecturers to participate in ICT training programs, lecturers especially highly experienced should be well motivated to develop their ICT competence.
Keywords: Area of specialization, Federal Universities, Gender, ICT, ICT competence, Information and Communication Technology, Lecturers, State universities, Years of experience, and ICT access; Adoption of ICT, attitude
Extent of Hand Washing Practice among Secondary School Students in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)
High incidence of diarrhoeal diseases has been noted among secondary school students in Nigeria. The place of contaminated hands in the transmission of these diseases especially living quarter with close proximity like schools has been observed. These diseases can be prevented if students wash their hands with running water and soap. This cross-sectional survey was designed to determine to what extent secondary school students in Ebonyi State practice proper handwashing. The sample comprised 420 male and female students in both junior and senior classes selected through a multi-sampling method from government schools, located in both urban and rural area of the Ebonyi State were used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a 3-point scaled, 18-item self-structured questionnaire eliciting responses on extent of handwashing with soap and running water in 15 situations requiring handwashing. Face validation of the instrument was obtained by the judgement of 5 experts. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha, which yielded 0.862 reliability coefficient. The copies of the questionnaire were distributed among the students at an agreed upon time with the school by trained research assistance. The extent of handwashing practice was determined using the criterion means of 2.01-3.0 as high extent, 1.01-2.0 as low extent and 0.1-1.0 as very low extent. T-test statistic was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The extent of handwashing was found to be low among secondary school students with a mean score of 1.31. It was found that male students practice handwashing significantly higher than their female counterparts and that there was no significant difference in handwashing practice of student by level of study of students and by location of residence of the students. The findings of the study have implications for the handwashing campaign in Nigeria, the health of the students, method of health education and hygiene education curriculum development. Recommendations were made which included that handwashing be promoted using the mass media, improvement on hygiene education curriculum and its delivery and provision of handwashing facilities for schools to concretize learning.
Gender and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Social Studies in Abakaliki Urban Of Ebonyi State (Published)
The study focused on gender and academic achievement of secondary school students in Social Studies. Two research questions such as; what is the effect of gender on students’ mean achievement, and effect of teachers’ gender on the mean achievement of male and female students and null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of this study comprised of three thousand four hundred seventy-nine (3,479) Junior Secondary School II (JSS II) students selected from all the secondary schools in Abakaliki urban of Ebonyi State. The instrument used for data collection was Social Studies Achievement Test (SOSAT), data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for all research questions, and analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that the mean achievement score of female secondary school students was higher than the mean achievement scores of male students. The findings of the study also revealed that: male and female secondary school students taught Social Studies by male teachers obtained higher mean scores than male and female students taught Social studies by female teachers and female students taught Social studies by male teacher performed better than masculine students taught Social Studies by male teacher and vice versa. The study also reviewed that there are significant different in the mean achievement of secondary school students in Social Studies based on gender. Based on these findings, the researcher recommended that Social Studies teachers should re-assess their classroom instructional practice because there is a need for them to shift from instructional practice that will give the students equal opportunities to excel in instructional activities.
The Effectiveness and Teaching Methods of First Aid Module in Paaet-Kuwait (Qualitative Study) (Published)
In this qualitative study, students from both genders were randomly targeted from PAAET. A questionnaire were designed in order to investigate the effectiveness of teaching methods and the benefit from learning First Aid. Results shows that most students strongly agrees that First Aid modules are very important to their life. Students were divided regarding gender and social status. Females were more eager to learn First Aid and married students feel that they need it more than non-married. Forty six percent feel embarrassed when dealing with subjects, and only(63%) believe that they can deal with most cases thoroughly. Females were significantly more capable of rescuing and more confident than males (p<0.00). Significant difference between the firms with respect to student rescue embarrassment was noted, with College of Health sciences responded the least. This study showed some weakness concerning with application capabilities, confidence and personal attitude toward subjects.
The purpose of this study was to establish the self esteem of adolescents in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya and to determine the relationship between self esteem and career variables. A sample of 369 secondary school students were surveyed on career self esteem, career maturity and career locus of control. The current study found that female students scored significantly higher on self esteem and internal locus of control than male students and that male students scored significantly higher on external locus of control. Self esteem was found to be positively correlated to career maturity and internal locus of control and negatively correlated to external locus of control. Using linear regression analyses, self esteem was found to be a significant predictor of career maturity, internal locus of control and external locus of control. Self esteem only accounted for 2% of variance in career maturity, internal locus of control and external locus of control. The results demonstrate that self esteem has a significant role to play in adolescents’ career development.
Influence of Youth Access to Farm Products Markets on Their Participation in Agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County (Published)
Agriculture in Kenya has great untapped potential for providing employment opportunities for youth that would enable them exploit their creativity, economic innovation and access to agricultural product markets in order to spur faster national economic growth. Reducing cereal importation in Kenya through local investment and expanding of markets for agricultural products can effectively create youth employment. A number of youth took part in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub- County with maize being the most preferred crop while poultry keeping the most preferred livestock activity by youth The influence of youth access to markets for agricultural products on their participation in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County was poorly understood and hence the need for this study, which used a cross-sectional design to collect data from 397 randomly, selected youth and 22 youth and agricultural officers. Content validity of the youth and agricultural officers’ questionnaires was ascertained by extension experts while reliability was determined through a pilot test involving 30 respondents. The reliability coefficient were 0.86α and 0.80α respectively, which were above the 0.70 threshold for acceptable reliability. The results showed a statistically significant positive relationship (r=.330, p=.01) between youth access to markets and their participation in agriculture. It also showed that youth access to markets influenced their participation in agriculture with 57.4% of the respondents indicating that poor infrastructures and limited knowledge on market prices reduced their access to markets for agricultural commodities. Youth with easy access to markets for their products had higher participation rates in agricultural activities than those with minimal access to markets. The government and other actors should support formation of organizations that can give youth the necessary bargaining power to interact on equal terms with other market actors in order to reduce transaction costs through economies of scale when buying inputs and selling produce.
This study is a phonological analysis of a kind of spoken discourse. It sheds light on English speeches of tennis players who are from different nationalities, but they speak English as their second or third language. This speech event is important in that a speech is given in a formal setting for a huge number of audience and it is characterized as being unplanned. Immediately after the final game, the two players; the winner of the match and his opponent, are to deliver a short speech. The study aims to examine, phonologically, the speeches of those nonnative players against the BBC accent. It focuses on whether male and female speeches are different or not and to what extent. It is hypothesized that the mismatch lies mainly in allophonic variations, let alone accent and intonation. It analyzes two spoken texts given on the court in the final game. The data are videos taken from “You tube” and they include the final part of championships when the trophies are presented to both players. They deliver a speech to express their feelings and viewpoints. This study is of interest to those interested in second language phonology, gender-based phonological differences and spoken discourse analysts.
Belief in Spiritual Healing, Gender and Adherence to Medication among HIV/AIDS Patients in Benue State, Nigeria (Published)
This study examined belief about spiritual healing, gender and adherence to medication among 143 HIV/AIDS patients attending General Hospital Sankera in Benue State. The respondents were in the age range of 20-67 with a mean age of 33.4 years. Out of this number, 69 (48.3%) were males while 74 (51.7%) were females. Morisky Adherence to Medication Scale (MAMS) and Perceived Potency of Spiritual Healing Questionnaire (PPSHQ) were used for data collection. The results of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that perceived potency of spiritual healing and gender produced main effects on adherence to medication among HIV/AIDS patients. The implications of the study to health professionals were discussed, limitations were highlighted and suggestions for further studies were offered.
Women’s Perception of Males’ Involvement in Maternal Healthcare in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
Men play a significant role in the reproductive life of women, from the pre-pregnancy stages of family planning to pregnancy, birth and post-natal periods. This study was a survey of the perceptions of women on males’ involvement in maternal healthcare in Rivers State. This involved some selected health centres in Rivers State, using a pre-tested and validated questionnaire. Aspects of men’s involvement that were taken into consideration included decision-making, economic and geographic accessibility as well as utilization of maternal health-care services. Responses from a total of 300 pregnant and post–natal mothers who were purposively selected from randomly drawn health centres in the three Senatorial Districts in Rivers State were analyzed. The results showed no significant difference in the perceptions of women with primary or post-primary education, unemployed or employed women as well as those residing in rural or urban areas. In addition, there was a unanimous agreement that joint decision-making was better than a decision solely taken by the man or woman alone. They all agreed that financial empowerment and autonomy were crucial for enabling women to access and utilize maternal healthcare facilities. It was concluded that despite the pivotal role of men in family affairs, their involvement in maternal health process was abysmal and this could be due to some extraneous factors. The study therefore recommended that women empowerment, in terms of education and finances would go a long way towards improving maternal health which, over the years, has been on the decline, despite men’s good intentions.
Home as a Battlefield: Power and Gender in Harold Pinter’s the Collection, the Lover and Old Times (Published)
Harold Pinter has been hailed as a dramatist among the half-dozen best dramatists, able to use his considerable wit in unusual, resonant and riveting ways. The central theme of his work is one of the dominant themes of twentieth-century art: the struggle for meaning in a fragmented world. His characters are uncertain of whom or what they understand, in whom or what they believe, and who or what they are. Pinter’s characters operate by a stark ‘territorial imperative,’ a primal drive for possession. In his plays, the struggle for power is an atavistic one between male and female. Hence sexuality as a means of power and control is our priority in discussing a select set of Pinter’s playscripts. We here examine the element of sexuality in these chosen texts analysing the relationship between male and female characters, as they snipe and sling potshots across the most intimate of all battlefields: our home and castle. The texts are studied individually, in sequence, in an attempt to lay bare the technique and leverage of sexual negotiations in Pinter’s work.