Socially division of human being into male or female is gender. Therefore, gender is about men and women. Unfortunately, gender differentiation is very common in a patriarchal set up where one group of people feels superior while the other is deemed inferior, anatomically weak and subordinate. However, the term itself is quite controversial, especially among peace and conflict managers. This paper therefore, examines gender issues and violence, such as sexual harassment, forceful marriage, women genital mutilation, trafficking in women, physical torture, discriminating, etc., against women in Nigeria in general and particularly Akwa Ibom State. The study adopted qualitative research and documentary method of data collection. Its revealed that, their families and friends may be affected in the case of intimate partner violence, there is increasing evidence of the negative impact on children of exposure to violence in the family. Society suffers economically, both in the use of resources and in the loss of productivity due to fear and injury. It recommended among others that government should organize workshops and seminars in both urban and rural areas. Also non-governmental organizations should make wider their sensitization projects to the rural areas through electronic and print media. to ensure that the awareness of violence against women permeates the grassroots, and endeavour to work with Ministry of Social Welfare and Woman Affairs.
Despite widespread democratization in most countries and the struggle by the feminist movements for the integration of gender balancing in the national politics of countries over the world however, women who constitute about 50% of Nigeria population still remain systematically alienated from politics and decision, making process in the country. Poor systems of governance result in widespread discrimination related to sex, race, colour, religion and political opinion. This paper tries to points out the efficacy and the role of gender equality and participation in good governance which has a trickling down effect on development. The study adopted qualitative research and documentary method of data collection. Its revealed a positive correction between gender, good governance and development in Nigeria, hence the need for it and its application. Also, women who constitute about 50% of Nigeria population still remain systematically alienated from politics and decision, making process in the country. It recommended among others that government should engage the support of the mass media and partner with women’s movement NGOs and Civil society for vehement complaint against women subordination, discrimination and stigmatization in the society.
Gender Metamorphoses in the Use of ICT Tools: A Case Study at Offinso College of Education (Published)
The role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education cannot be overemphasized, hence teachers as agents of education are expected to acquire the essential skills to help train the 21st century child to survive in the current competitive and technologically driven world. The study aimed at the impact of ICT on Male and Female student-teachers in Colleges of Education in Ghana. The Mixed research design which takes into consideration the various factors that influence ICT access and usage in Colleges of Education was used. It outlines the various factors that militate against successful integration of ICT tools in teaching and learning. The extent to which student-teachers are embracing technology in their learning have been analysed. The study used questionnaire and participatory observation of classroom activities to collect data from hundred and forty (140) Student-teachers at Offinso College of Education. The findings show no significant difference in access and usage of ICT tools among male and female student-teachers. The study revealed lack of technical support and maintenance as a significant impediment to the development of ICT in the College of education. However, there was no significant difference in access and use of ICT tool since student-teachers share similar backgrounds.
Multiple Roles And Burden of Working Mother in Informal Sector (Case Study: Mother as a Seller the Area of North Sumatera University (Usu), Indonesia (Published)
This research is based on gender issues that are increasingly widespread in so many aspects that it has implications for behavior change in women. One that looks striking is the removal of the limits of space for women who are no longer just taking care of the house and can be free to work outside the home. This condition has an impact on increasing the work force of women in the formal and non formal sectors. But in this study will focus on the informal sector in order to examine the double roles and the double burden of working mother accurately. When compared to working mothers in the formal sector who have better salaries and education then they can pay for Home Assistant services to lighten their dual roles and burdens at home. While mothers working in the non-formal sector with lower salaries and education should feel their own dual roles and burdens. Researchers interested with the phenomenon of working mothers in the University of North Sumatra as a street vendor (PKL) which often involved clashing with officials from Satpol PP and the Department of Transportation. Although there are often clashes caused by the curbing by the related parties, the street vendors keep selling by risking their own security and wares. Not infrequently the mothers of street vendors get unfavorable treatment and have to lose money because of confiscated merchandise. But this does not change the decision of the mothers of street vendors to keep working in the sector. The main factor is the limited skills and also the limitations of the economy. This research uses qualitative approach and descriptive method by conducting interview and direct observation to informant.
Gender Role in Commercial Vegetable Farming (Cvf) In Chitwan District, Nepal (A Case Study of Gunjanagar and Sharadanagar Vdcs) (Published)
A study was conducted to assess the gender role in commercial farming and household income in Chitwan, Nepal in 2012. The survey research design was used whereas purposive and simple random sampling was followed to select the respondents. The study was conducted in Gunjanagar and Sharadanagar Village Development Committees (VDCs) of the Chitwan district. A total of 112 respondents were selected from commercial vegetable growing farmers, 61 respondents from Gunjanagar and 51 respondents from Sharadanagar VDC. A pre-tested and standard interview schedule was employed for household survey to collect primary information. And various documents of the governmental and non-governmental organizations were used for secondary information. The findings of the study revealed that vegetable farming has major contribution in household income. It was explored that joint decision making done in crop selection and marketing activities rather than just one gender. However, technology related and direct money related activities were decided more by male. Most of the activities related to commercial vegetable farming are performed jointly. However, laborious activities like nursery bed preparation, field preparation were done by male and tedious works like manure mixing; intercultural operations were done by female. Various household resources like land, capital, were controlled by male members than female members of the household. Moreover, female farmers have lesser access to agriculture extension services than their male counterparts. The findings also revealed that commercial vegetable farming was not new enterprise for them and most of the farmers were highly motivated by their neighbors, they have started growing vegetable commercially as soon as the highway and feeder roots were made. And the findings also revealed that vegetable production have major share in household income in comparison to other components like livestock, cereal crops and fruits. Almost all farmers were found satisfied with their income and have very positive attitude towards Commercial Vegetable Farming, Due to good income, majority of youths were engaged in this commercial vegetable farming and all farmers are satisfied with this job. Thus, with commercial vegetable farming, gender role has been changing overtime and it has created a good employment opportunities for youths. So, with proper management of the roles of gender, supply of inputs and trainings enhance the commercial vegetable farming in Chitwan district.
Effect of Gender Factor on Teacher Trainee Students’ Attitudes towards the Study of Science in the Colleges of Education-Ghana (Published)
Students’ participation and performance in Science depend on the kind of attitude students’ show towards science. This kind of attitude exhibit by students’ is caused by some factors. This paper therefore seeks to investigate the effect of gender as a factor on teacher trainee students’ attitude towards the study of science and make recommendations for college authorities. The instrument used was a structured questionnaire which consisted of a four-point Likert scale items. Data for the study was obtained by administering 140 questionnaires to 140 students’ from five (5) public Colleges of Education. The respondents were sampled using stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques. Twenty-Eight (28) respondents from each of the colleges were selected to make up the total number of 140 respondents. All the questionnaires were fully answered and returned. The data obtained was analysed using frequency counts and percentages.
Gender Differences on Medical Students’ Perception of Peer Tutoring Learning Strategy on Clinical Skills Training At Macarthur Clinical Skills Laboratory (MCSL) (Published)
The study investigated medical students’ perception of peer tutoring learning strategy on clinical skills training at Macarthur Clinical Skills Laboratory (MCSL) during their Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) sessions. It adopted the descriptive survey design. The population of the study was 98 medical students, 66 of these students were randomly selected .Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The instrument titled Peer Tutoring and Clinical Skills Training (PTCST) was used to collect data and a reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha. Data was collected after exposing the students to clinical skills practical sessions for two weeks. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation and the null hypotheses were tested using independence sample t-test. The findings of the study revealed that there is no significant difference between male and female medical students’ responses on their perception on the influence of peer tutoring on clinical skills training during Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM); irrespective of their gender, practicing among classmates enhanced their retention of the basic clinical do –steps, build up their confidence level as well as determined their proficiency level through the instant feedbacks. It was also revealed that during this practice sessions the medical students were sensitive to their gender differences and wished to maintain their dignity during clinical skills practical sessions. The researchers therefore recommends that Peer tutoring learning strategy should be adopted in clinical education while a chaperon should be made available for students during clinical skills practical sessions.
Relationship Among Study Habits, Gender, Marital Status, Age, Parents’ Level of Education and Academic Performance of Nce Students in Kashim Ibrahim College of Education Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria (Published)
The study examined the relationship among study habits, gender, age, and parents’ level of education and academic performance of NCE Students in Kashim Ibrahim College of Education Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Five objectives were raised which include, to determining the relationship between study habits and academic performance of NCE students of Kashim Ibrahim College of education Maiduguri and relationship between gender, age, marial status and academic performance of NCE students. In line with the objectives, five hypotheses were tested. The researchers adopted survey and correlational design for the study.A sample of 142 NCE 2 and 3 students was selected through simple random and stratified sampling techniques. That is, 20 NCE II and NCE III students’ (males 71 and females 71) were involved. The research instrument that was adopted for this study is “Study Habits and Examination Techniques Inventory (SHETI)” Form P, developed by Carew and Hamman-Tukur (1996). Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and Pearson product moment correlation. Results indicate that, there is significant relationship between gender and academic performance (r-value = .419, p value = .006 and P<0.05). However, the result revealed no statistically significant relationship between study habits and academic performance. From these findings, it is recommended that Since there was significant relationship between gender and academic performance, equal opportunity should be given to both males and females in schools and Colleges, particularly in terms of placing students into various courses; they should not be discriminated based on their sex. Married students should not be denied admission in all the schools and Colleges, because marital status is never abarrier to students’ academic performance. Though the result indicated that no significant relationship between study habits and academic performance, study habit patterns should be taught to students because it cannot be divorced from study.
This study examined the adoption of jigsaw and individual personalization instructional strategies for improving the interest of senior secondary school students in mathematics. The moderating effects of students’ gender and socioeconomic status were also examined. The study adopted the pre-test-post-test, control group, quasi experimental design with a 3x3x2 factorial matrix. Two hundred and fifty senior secondary two students from six public schools purposively selected from three local educational districts in Lagos-Nigeria participated in the study. Three research questions were answered and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significant level. Four instruments were developed, validated and used for data collection. Data were analysed using percentages, Bar-charts and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The findings showed that there were significant main effect of treatment, gender and Socio-economic-status (SES) on students’ interest in Mathematics F(2, 231)= 27.88; p<0.05; F(1, 231) = 10.64; p<0.05; F(2, 231) = 5.19; p<0.05 respectively. Students exposed to Jigsaw Strategy had the highest post interest score; males students were above their female counterparts in all groups, while those of high SES had the highest post interest score. It further revealed that the 3-way interactions showed no significant interaction effects of treatment, gender and SES on students’ interest in Mathematics F(4, 231) = 1.27; p>0.05.. It was recommended that Mathematics teachers should be trained to use both Jigsaw and conventional approaches in the classroom, since they were more effective in arousing and increasing students’ interest in Mathematics than the individual personalization instructional strategy.
The successful political revolutionary transformations fulfilled by the Arab Spring of 2010-11, acted as a catalyst for synchronous cultural, social and sexual changes. The ‘double revolution’ heralded the emergence of the new woman, transitioning from the docile and conservative, into a concupiscent hermaphroditic rebel, who dares to demand her sexual rights and freedom, challenge the existing norms and disclose her sexual trauma, pleasures, and desires. The body is ‘revolutionized’ and instrumentalized to resist marginalization and to propound bodily and sexual rights. There is an attempt to establish a relation between the historical events and their literary portrayal. The gender perspective of the Arab Spring is analyzed through examples of Arab women artists, whose works in literature, graffiti, blogs or social media, reflect the changes in the ‘Spring’ woman’s character, thought, and conceptualization of sex. Their opus epitomizes the new feminine subjectivities created through the intersection of gender, class, and nation.
A Survey on the Perceptions of Co-Operators on Gender Disparity and Financial Viability of Agricultural Cooperative Societies in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
Gender disparity has been a highly debated topic in many discusses and opinion circles for a very long time, yet ,this contentious topic continue to re-vibrate every now and then in many debates. How this topic has affected agricultural cooperative activities in Rivers State has not yet been captured in any literature. More so, the viability of these cooperatives has never been a front burner in the government’s agricultural policies over time. This research work aims to deliberately draw the attention of stake holders to the contentious topic of gender disparity and financial viability of the agricultural cooperatives that may have retarded its growth and development. 30 agricultural cooperative societies were randomly sampled from the council of Nigerian farmers and some unregistered cooperative societies of agric bias using structured questionnaire. The result showed evidences of gender disparity and financial insolvency. The injection of credit and elimination of gender disparity were suggested as the way forward.
Parental Variables and Expectations towards Public and Private Secondary Schools in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Published)
The study examined the attitude of parent and their expectations towards public and private secondary schools and factors affecting the choice of secondary schools for their wards. Three null hypotheses were raised to guide the study. The research design was a survey. The sample size was 1,000 parents, drawn through stratified random sampling technique. The bases for stratification were Senatorial Districts. Data collection was done through structured questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings showed significant differences among parents who had children in public and private secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. Based on these findings, it was recommended that the state government should support incentives that will transform the school plant into most conducive environment for academic activities. Similarly, proprietors of private schools should recruit professionally trained teachers for effective teaching and learning activities
This paper presents a simple Gastroenteritis dynamics in Kebbi state, northwestern Nigeria based on age-range and gender in Kebbi state using the data obtained from the Epidemic Control Unit, Ministry of Health, Kebbi State. The results appropriately revealed that Gastroenteritis is more common amongst females especially within the age-range of 1-10 years and confirms that there is no contradiction to the existing researches of the prevalence of the disease within this age group. The study draws attention to the health hazards posed by Gastroenteritis in the studied area. The urgent need for a decisive control intervention to stem this problem cannot be overemphasized.
Socio-Demographic Variables and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd) Among Primary School Pupils in Bonny Island LGA of Rivers State (Published)
This study investigated Socio-Demographic Variables and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among primary school Pupils in Bonny Local Government Area of Rivers State. The investigation was guided by three specific objectives, research questions and hypotheses. The study used a descriptive research design and 250 school pupils were used as the sample size. An instrument known as Socio-Demographic Variables and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Questionnaire (SADHDQ) was used for data collection. The instrument for data collection had reliability index of 0.68. ANOVA and independent t-test were used for analysis of data. The result revealed that there is a significant influence of gender, birth order and socioeconomic status on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among primary school Pupils in Bonny Local Government Area of Rivers State. Based on the findings the study recommends that primary school teachers in Bonny LGA should be trained on how to find out variables that could influence Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children and refer the pupils/patients as timely as possible.
An Evaluation of EFL Students’ Attitudes toward English Language Learning In Terms of Several Variables (Published)
The present study sheds light on the attitudes of Al-Balqa Applied University students towards learning English as a foreign language. The study also investigated the effect of the learners’ gender and field of study on the attitudes they hold. The random sample of 176 students consisted of 68 (38.6%) males and 108 (61.4%) females. 67 (38.1%) of the respondents were majoring in the scientific faculties, and 109 (61.9%) were enrolled in the different faculties of humanities. The descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that the sample students held positive attitudes towards learning English. Gender was found to be an effective variable since females proved to be more positive in their attitudes. No differences were assigned to the students’ academic field of study.
Gender and Academic Performances (Published)
Academic performances of male and female students were compared using grades obtained the various levels. The student t-test and Regression analysis were used. The result shows that: The female students score high in the upper grades A’s, B’s and C’s while the Male student have more of D’s, E’s and F’s. Both Male and Female students are putting in more efforts over the years in increasing the number of A’s and B’s they obtain. There is a reduction the number of C’s, D’s and F’s. On the number of E’s, the female students are decreasing the number they get so as to bring up their FCGPA, whereas the male students are increasing theirs thereby decreasing their FCGPA. The rate of improvement over the years is faster for the female students than the male students. The female students have a higher FCGPA than the male students. Female students perform better than their male counterparts
This study was conducted to investigate the attitudes of college students toward mobile phone usage in Nigeria. Six hundred and forty randomly selected 300- and 400- level students of the University of Ibadan, Oyo State and the Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Ogun State were involved in the study. The study was conducted in a classroom environment during the schools’ continuous assessment (CA) week. After information was collected from the students, their test scores were obtained from their faculties. The test scores were compared to the scores obtained from the questionnaires. It was realized that the academic discipline of the college students as well as their area of residence do not make them perceive or use their mobile phones differently. Also, gender was found to be an important determinant of mobile phone usage among the students. In addition, no significant relationship was established between the mobile phone usage and their academic performance. It was then recommended that operational involvement and practical prevention programs, which would discourage mobile phone addiction in students, should be developed and configured in all cell phones. Also, management of colleges must constantly inform and reorient their students about the negative and positive effects of their mobile phone uses. In addition, authorities of the schools as well as policy makers must formulate rules for students to concentrate on their lectures totally without fiddling with their mobile phones during lectures
This paper is an exploration of Bangladeshi college students’ attitude towards English language learning. Learners’ attitude towards any language can be either positive or negative. Students with positive attitudes put more efforts into the job of learning a foreign language and therefore learn it better, faster and easier than those with negative attitudes towards the same language. Therewith, gender could be one of the factors influencing students’ attitudes towards ESL / EFL learning. The present piece of research was undertaken on 50 Bangladeshi college (higher secondary) students with a view to finding their behavioral and emotional attitudes towards English language learning and the study came up with a finding that the students hold positive attitude and there is no statistically significant difference in attitudes between males and females. In this research a questionnaire survey on participants’ behavioral and emotional attitudes was carried out and the colleted data were put in SPSS and thereafter the statistical results were interpreted. A Mann-Whitney U Test was performed to get the result of the difference of attitude on the basis of gender. The findings are expected to add significance to the body of research done in the relevant area and help teachers and syllabus designers re-set the pedagogical principles of English language learning and teaching at college level in Bangladesh in particular.
This paper will investigate the subtle and sensitive questioning of Women’s condition in Pakistan in Farooqi’s novel, The Story of a Widow. Farooqi’s title is misleading and leads one to think that this book too will portray the subjugated position of women in a patriarchal society but on closer investigation it is seen that Farooqi points towards the hindering and cowardly mindset of women in giving and supporting independence to their own kind. The portrait of the dead husband symbolizes the patriarchal presence. It is important to see that the judgmental attitude of the man is perceived by the wife even when he is no more. This is indicative of how powerfully the society is entrenched in the myth that man is wiser and more capable than the woman and therefore must remain in the driving seat. Despite the complete physical absence of Akbar Ali, Mona’s deceased husband, he continues to figure prominently in her thoughts. What is worth appreciating is the resilience of Mona with which she continues to defy and rise above the looks of rebuke and chastisement that Akbar Ali’s portrait continues to impart. After widowhood, Mona gains money as well as the liberty to make her own decisions yet she is, throughout the novel, cowed down by her sister and her daughters, relations that one would otherwise expect to be supportive and understanding. Through the struggle of Mona, Farooqi highlights the importance of self-growth and self –autonomy which can only be obtained by making ones own decisions, shouldering the burden of error, living through agony and finally coming out not triumphant but stronger and wiser i.e like the men.
This study investigates the effect of gender on the quality of interpreting by 30 Iranian BA students of English translation and interpreting. In the experiment, the control group (7 males, 8 females) received the routine instruction of the interpreting curriculum. The experimental group (7 males, 8 females) spent less time on the routine syllabus and instead received explanation of prosodic concepts and did prosodic exercises as participants in the two groups were matched on the basis of their scores on a pre-test of general English proficiency. Interpreting performance was assessed in a post-test by having three experts rate ten aspects of interpreting quality. Then, t-tests were run on the male and female subsamples to see whether gender affects the performance of participants in the pre- and posttest and in the difference between the two test scores. There is a slight (but statistically insignificant) advantage for women both in the pre-test (8 points better on average on the scale from 0 to 700,) and in the post-test (3 percentage points, but again insignificant). These results have implications for designers of curricula for training interpreters, material producers and all who are involved in foreign-language study and pedagogy