Tag Archives: Food Security

Chemistry Education and Enhancement of Agricultural Production: Implications for Food Security in Nigeria (Published)

This paper discussed the indispensible role of Chemistry Education in agricultural production and food security in the context of economic realities in Nigeria.  Nigeria is faced with food crisis as a result of internal problems of insecurity, political conflicts, poor youth orientation, and dwindling national economy among others. The price of staple foodstuff such as rice, garri, maize, wheat are beyond the average Nigerians. The imbalance between agricultural food supply and food intake has forced the growing population to increasingly become dependent on imported foods. The challenges of food security demands effective application of Chemistry Education to change students’ orientation and mind-set towards applying the scientific knowledge and skills acquired to agricultural production and other agricultural businesses. The situation calls for a real exploit of the scientific knowledge via crop improvement; smarter use of agro chemicals like fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides and effective management to ensure increased productivity and food security. Chemistry Education constitutes an excellent tool to catalyse the development of the necessary know-how, creative skills and attitudes among youths for enhancement of agricultural productivity. The onus of this paper therefore, lies in the identification and support processes and linkages that promote technological and attitudinal change towards agricultural production as well as the implications of using Chemistry Education to attain food security in Nigeria.

Keywords: Agricultural Production, Chemistry Education, Enhancement, Food Security, Scientific knowledge

Contributions of Organic Farming to Environmental Sustenance and Food Security in West Africa: Policy Recommendations (Published)

The article examines contributions of organic farming (OF) to environmental sustenance and food security and identifies policies to enhance the implementation. Scientific literature on environmental damage and stress on food security caused by conventional agriculture and climate change, and benefits of OF in adaptation and mitigation of climate change were synthesized and used for the study. Results show that OF helps in keeping the environment clean by making use of refuse and wastes in the environment to produce healthy foods.  Composting in organic farming brings nutrients back from the cities to the farmland. Compared to production of inorganic fertilizer it takes less energy, and when managed in an aerobic condition eliminates methane production reducing the generation of greenhouse gases and climate change. It therefore reduces environmental pollution and promotes the renewed uptake of nutrients from the soil which is what happens under the traditional farming and fallow systems. It supports biodiversity of indigenous fauna and is an advanced form of sustainable agriculture. Organic manure improves the physical properties of soil, biological status of soil, soil fertility and consequently crop yields. Organic manures are general soil amendments and do not burn or harm plants and have long term positive effects on the soil without damaging ground water. Organic manures are also perfect choices for a garden that has many different plants among other advantages. Some of the policies recommended include training extension workers in OF practices, encouraging farmer-to-farmer exchanges, compiling and disseminating emerging indigenous OF knowledge skills, technologies and crop varieties, etc.

Keywords: Contributions, Food Security, Organic Manure, environmental sustenance, farming

Enhancing rural food security and conserving natural environment through improved Beekeeping in Asano koto watershed, Ethiopia (Published)

The role of bees in agriculture, in maintaining biodiversity and in sustainable livelihoods and food security has been widely demonstrated. Nevertheless, the potential of beekeeping is far too often not exploited in forest activities and development programmes, because the benefits of bees and beekeeping are not well known to stakeholders. This paper is aimed to provide farmers and stakeholders in the beekeeping on the conservation sector with information and arguments to convince them to view beekeeping as a viable commercial and protective measure that should always be considered in conservation programmes. The study revealed that by increasing beekeeping skill, honey producers in the watershed realized the value and the need to conserve watershed as they obtained alternative income from honey production as high value commodity. Adoption of beekeeping was realized to be appropriate adaptation measures following the fact that it improved livelihood of local people and enhanced sustainable conservation of the natural environment. Therefore, if watershed conservation and livelihood preservation are to occur, it is important to bring the voices of honey producers to the forefront of watershed conservation efforts. The study also determined several factors that have been barriers to wider adoption of beekeeping at Asano koto watershed. These include lack of appropriate beekeeping skills among local people, financial constraints and environmental factors. To promote and sustain beekeeping among rural communities at the watershed, improvement of extension services, tree planting campaign and microfinance services have been suggested.

Keywords: Ethiopia, Food Security, Siltie zone, integrated beekeeping, watershed conservation

Contributions of Organic Farming to Environmental Sustenance and Food Security in West Africa: Policy Recommendations (Published)

The article examines contributions of organic farming (OF) to environmental sustenance and food security and identifies policies to enhance the implementation. Scientific literature on environmental damage and stress on food security caused by conventional agriculture and climate change, and benefits of OF in adaptation and mitigation of climate change were synthesized and used for the study. Results show that OF helps in keeping the environment clean by making use of refuse and wastes in the environment to produce healthy foodsComposting in organic farming brings nutrients back from the cities to the farmland. Compared to production of inorganic fertilizer it takes less energy, and when managed in an aerobic condition eliminates methane production reducing the generation of greenhouse gases and climate change. It therefore reduces environmental pollution and promotes the renewed uptake of nutrients from the soil which is what happens under the traditional farming and fallow systems. It supports biodiversity of indigenous fauna and is an advanced form of sustainable agriculture. Organic manure improves the physical properties of soil, biological status of soil, soil fertility and consequently crop yields. Organic manures are general soil amendments and do not burn or harm plants and have long term positive effects on the soil without damaging ground water. Organic manures are also perfect choices for a garden that has many different plants among other advantages. Some of the policies recommended include training extension workers in OF practices, encouraging farmer-to-farmer exchanges, compiling and disseminating emerging indigenous OF knowledge skills, technologies and crop varieties, etc.

Keywords: Contributions, Food Security, Organic Manure, environmental sustenance, farming

Nigerian Universities’ English Teachers’ Education Programme and its Relevance to Senior Secondary School Reading Class (Published)

The study assessed the English teachers’ education programme in Nigerian Universities for senior secondary school reading class. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of English education programme of some teachers on their service delivery; to look into adequacy of English curriculum in effective teaching and inculcation of reading skills to secondary school students, and to examine the factors affecting the reading curriculum implementation in secondary schools among other things. To achieve this, Twenty 400 level students of University of Ibadan grouped as pre-service teachers; and another twenty tagged as service teachers who were graduates from the same university; currently teaching in secondary schools; were randomly sampled for the study. Structured Interview as well as questionnaire in five point likert -type – scale was designed to collect data for the study. The results showed that English education programme offered for teachers empower their logical presentation of reading skills in classroom and also strengthen their level of reading. However, incompetence of some English teachers and inappropriate teaching methods affect implementation of reading curriculum. To further strengthen reading curriculum however, some pre-service teachers interviewed were of the opinions that readability and reading methodology should be included in the curriculum. Moreover, non – provision of reading textbooks is having negative effects on students’ learning. The results reflect the opinions of some pre-service and service teachers who from their experiences in English classroom have seen that most students especially in public schools do not possess English textbooks. Recommendations were made based on the results..

Keywords: Food Security, Technical skills, cocoa production

Technical Skills Required In Cocoa Production by Senior Secondary Students for Promoting Food Security (Published)

This study was carried out to determine the extent of technical skills acquired in cocoa production by senior secondary students for promoting food security in Cross River State. The study adopted survey research design. Four purposes of study and four corresponding research questions, as well as two hypotheses guided the study. The instrument used for the study was a structured questionnaire which has four points rating scale of Highly Acquired (HA), Acquired(A) Rarely Acquired(RA) and Not Acquired (NA) with their nominal values of 4,3,2, and 1 respectively. The instrument which contains 27 items was validated by three experts from the university of Calabar. The specialists’ observations and corrections were incorporated at the final stage of the production of the instrument. The reliability of the instrument was determined by using cronbach alpha to analyse the result of the preliminary test, and 0.92 was obtained as the reliability coefficient. The data collected with the instrument were analysed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions while t-test was used to test the hypotheses formulated. The result of the analysis revealed that the senior secondary students of agricultural science in Cross River State acquired technical skills in pre-planting operations, post-planting operations as well as harvesting and post-harvesting operations. On the basis of the findings, the following recommendations among others were that in the teaching of crop production the teachers should lay more emphasis on those skills in cocoa production

Keywords: Food Security, Technical skills, cocoa production

Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change into Policy and Development: Case Study on Agriculture and Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh (Published)

Our proposed study set up a long-term national climate adaptation framework for Bangladeshi policy makers. Outcomes of this research absolutely lead to measure the public perception, attitudes and understanding of the level of knowledge and the aspirations and expectations of publics with regard to how they adapted to a changing climate.  This study also identify if there are significant relationship between public perceptions and attitudes of climate change and efficient adaptation framework and plans to introduce some ideas. and concepts on the challenges toward the perceptions and policies as tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.  More specific outcomes are a) understanding of public perceptions, attitudes towards climate change and their adaptation capacity in agriculture, industry and service sectors b) achievement of efficient national  adaptation framework c) enhanced knowledge on future climate change impacts and better capacity building on the long run integrated economic development and finally and d) recommendations and policy tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.

Keywords: Agriculture, Bangladesh, Climate Change, Development, Food Security, Policy

Food Insecurity: Causes and Policy Framework in Strengthening Food Security in Kenya’s Agricultural Sector. (Published)

According to  United Nations Food Agriculture Organization and the United States of America  department of agriculture in the World Food Summit in 1996, Food security exists when all people at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food security is basic to the survival of any nation, be it at individual, family or national level. This therefore means that food security should have top priority since no meaningful development in economic, social or cultural sphere is possible without it. However in Kenya, with a population of more than 40 million people, about 10% is classified as food insecure according to United States of America Department of Agriculture – Food Security Analysis March 2009. This is growing at an annual rate of about 30%. Kenya is the largest import market for food and agriculture products in East Africa. Kenya imported about 725 million in agriculture products during 2009, up from 525 million in 2007 in an attempt to mitigate the crisis. This implies that the Government of Kenya should come up with policies that ensure people have access to enough food. This paper examines the role of policy framework in strengthening food security in Kenya.

Keywords: Agricultural Sector, Economic Development, Food Security, Kenya, Policy Framework

Trend Analysis of Rainfall Pattern in Enugu State, Nigeria. (Published)

Rainfall distribution pattern has been a major concern to Climatologists, Penologists, Agriculturist hydrologist and even to the ordinary man in the street. Rainfall is a critical index of climatological investigation and has major impacts on flora and fauna, as well as ecological setting and water resources management of any area.  Following the current moves by the governments to improve on agriculture; the pattern of rainfall is essential for indigenes of Enugu state since they are predominantly farmers. As the moves to encourage agriculture to ensure food security continues to gain ground and acceptability, information on rainfall probabilities is vital for the design of water supply and supplemental irrigation schemes and the evaluation of alternative cropping and of soil water management plans. This study has examined the pattern of rainfall in the state and observed some irregularities in the pattern. For government’s efforts towards improving agriculture to be fruitful, a more advanced technology of ensuring constant rain source is very vital.

Keywords: Agriculture, Enugu State, Food Security, Rainfall, Trend

Analysis of Sum Insured And Co-Operators’ Contribution to Naic Products in Oyi and Ayamelum Local Government Areas of Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

The study investigated NAIC products and the performance of farmers focusing on the sum insured and farmers’ contribution to NAIC products in Oyi and Ayamelum LGAs of Anambra State. Major objectives were to ascertain whether time has significant impact on total sum insured and co-operators’ contribution over the observed period, to determine whether there exist significant difference between sum insured and farmers contribution for Oyi and Ayamelum LGAs and to ascertain the extent of relationship between sum insured and co-operators’ contribution for the two local government areas. Secondary data was used for this case study research. Data for Oyi and Ayamelum LGAs were extracted sfrom NAIC Annual Reports 2010-2013, and were statistically analyzed, using time series models, paired sample T-test analysis and Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient. Result showed that time (month) has significant impact on monthly co-operators’ contribution and time contributed significantly to the behavior of sum insured in the two local government areas. Thus, the seasonal analysis found sum insured to be least in the month of May and highest in October. Analysis showed that co-operators’ contribution to NAIC products was least in the months of May and December. Paired sample T-test revealed the existence of a significance difference in sum insured for Oyi being greater than sum insured for Ayamelum with a mean difference of N3,190,690. 65.8% correlation was found to exist between sum insured for Oyi and Ayamelum LGAs. Paired Sample analysis revealed a significance difference between co-operators’ contribution to NAIC products for Oyi and Ayamelum LGAs. Ayamelum co-operators contributed more to NAIC products than Oyi co-operators with an average contribution, difference of N5,727,550. It is suggested that governments should make effort to adequately fund the financial intermediaries through which credits associated with NAIC insurance cover are provided so as to make the distribution system efficient. Premium paid by Nigerian farmers at 50% for an insurance cover should be reduced to 25% by the federal and state governments to encourage and boost food security in Nigeria.

Keywords: Agriculture Insurance, Farmers, Food Security, Sum Insured

Trend Analysis of Rainfall Pattern in Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)

Rainfall distribution pattern has been a major concern to Climatologists, Penologists, Agriculturist hydrologist and even to the ordinary man in the street. Rainfall is a critical index of climatological investigation and has major impacts on flora and fauna, as well as ecological setting and water resources management of any area. Following the current moves by the governments to improve on agriculture; the pattern of rainfall is essential for indigenes of Enugu state since they are predominantly farmers. As the moves to encourage agriculture to ensure food security continues to gain ground and acceptability, information on rainfall probabilities is vital for the design of water supply and supplemental irrigation schemes and the evaluation of alternative cropping and of soil water management plans. This study has examined the pattern of rainfall in the state and observed some irregularities in the pattern. For government’s efforts towards improving agriculture to be fruitful, a more advanced technology of ensuring constant rain source is very vital.

Keywords: Agriculture, Enugu State, Food Security, Rainfall, Trend

Impact of Agricultural Extension on Food Security among Small Scale Farmers in Wareng District, Kenya (Published)

Agricultural extension is one of the effective tools in attaining the millennium development goals related to the reduction and eradication of extreme poverty and hunger in developing countries like Kenya. Despite that extension services were practiced for many years in Kenya, it is evident that these services have declined rapidly. This paper aims to find out the impact of extension on food security among small scale farmers in Wareng District. A survey of 120 smallholder farmers was used in the study. Though there was difference between farmers in different wealth categories, the mean difference is larger at the present compared to the past. Generally extension have played role in improving the living status of farmers in the study area. However, agricultural extension services seems to have an impact on improving food security in the country and increase the wealth gap between farming households and also replace local landraces with improved varieties. The study recommends that the Kenyan government should develop a new and expanded policy agenda for agricultural extension and communication for rural development focusing national attention on food security and income generation of the rural poor.

Keywords: Agriculture, Food Security, crops, extension, livestock’s

Impact of Agricultural Extension on Food Security among Small Scale Farmers in Wareng District, Kenya (Published)

Agricultural extension is one of the effective tools in attaining the millennium development goals related to the reduction and eradication of extreme poverty and hunger in developing countries like Kenya. Despite that extension services were practiced for many years in Kenya, it is evident that these services have declined rapidly. This paper aims to find out the impact of extension on food security among small scale farmers in Wareng District. A survey of 120 smallholder farmers was used in the study. Though there was difference between farmers in different wealth categories, the mean difference is larger at the present compared to the past. Generally extension have played role in improving the living status of farmers in the study area. However, agricultural extension services seems to have an impact on improving food security in the country and increase the wealth gap between farming households and also replace local landraces with improved varieties. The study recommends that the Kenyan government should develop a new and expanded policy agenda for agricultural extension and communication for rural development focusing national attention on food security and income generation of the rural poor

Keywords: Agriculture, Food Security, crops, extension, livestock’s

Determinants of Household Food Security and Coping Strategies: The Case of Bule-Hora District, Borana Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia (Published)

Now a day food security issues become one of the critical concern and top priority area for developing countries. Having clear picture on food security status and its major determinants helps policy makers and planners to devise new policies that enhance food security. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the status of food security in the study area, to identify the major determinants of food security among the rural household, and to identify coping strategies employed by different food security status groups to cope with food insecurity. In order to achieve these objectives biophysical; demographic and socio-economic data were collected from 140 randomly selected households in Bule-hora District of Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 5 PAs. A survey was conducted to collect primary data from sample respondent. Secondary data were collected from various sources. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, percentage and frequency distribution. Univariate analysis such as one way ANOVA and Chi-square tests were also employed to describe characteristics of food secure, food insecure without hunger, food insecure with moderate hunger and food insecure with sever hunger categories. The survey result shows that about 23% of sampled farmers were food secure. Ordered logit regression model was fitted to analyze the potential variables affecting household food insecurity in the study area. Among 14 explanatory variables included in the logistic model, 6 of them were significant at less than 5% probability level. These are; Cultivate Land Size (LAND SIZE), Livestock holding (TLU) and Improved seed (SEEDUSE), SEX of household head, Soil fertility status (SOIL FER) and non-farm income (INCOMEON). The estimated model correctly predicted 85.2% and different recommendations were made based on the findings of the study.

Keywords: Food Security, coping mechanism, logit model

Influence of Access to Land and Finances on Kenyan Youth Participation in Agriculture: A Review (Published)

The Kenya Government prioritized the development of the agricultural sector to achieving the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of sustainable food production. Kenya’s strategic plan, Vision 2030 positions agriculture as a key driver for delivering a 10% annual economic growth and is expected to have an average growth rate of 7% by 2015. Agriculture contributes over 80% of all employment opportunities in the country, but Kenyan youths are not taking advantage of these opportunities since 64% of them are unemployed. To advance the 7% average growth rate, it is pertinent that the Kenyan youth be fully involved in agricultural development. However, agriculture is perceived unattractive to the youth and its potential has not been fully realized. The purpose of this review is to find out the influence of land and finances on youth participation in agriculture and to identify the interventions that can make agriculture attractive to the youth in Kenya. This information will be useful to the government, the farming community, agriculturalists, policy makers and non-governmental organisations in laying strategies that will make agriculture attractive to the youth. This will subsequently enhance youth participation in agriculture resulting in increased food production, employment creation and income generation for the youth. Engaging the youth in agricultural activities will contribute in reducing crime and other social problems attributed to the youth.

Keywords: Agriculture, Economy, Food Security, Kenya, Youth

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING QUANTITY OF MAIZE MARKETED AMONG AGRICULTURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN OYO AND OSUN STATES, NIGERIA. (Published)

This research is a comparative analysis with a focus on the quantity of maize marketed and factors influencing such quantity among agricultural households in Oyo and Osun States of Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed to sample two hundred and twenty (220) maize farmers from Oyo while one hundred and eighty (180) maize farmers were selected from Osun for the study. A structured interview schedule was used to collect primary data from the respondents. Data were obtained on socio-economic characteristics of respondents, production and marketing practices, prices and costs. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, an estimation of Cobb-Douglas regression model and the Chow’s F- test. The result showed that in Oyo state, mean age for respondents was 45.8 years while it is 42.7 years for Osun counterparts. The summary of sex distribution revealed that 70.9 percent of the Oyo respondents are male compared with 57.8 percent of Osun respondents. In addition, 17.7percent of Oyo respondents compared with 14.4 percent of Osun respondents had no formal education at all. The summary of marital status distribution of respondents showed that more than ninety percent of the interviewed farmers from each state were married while the major source of finance for the farmers from both states was personal savings. Regression analysis revealed the R-squared (R2) as 0.734 for Oyo while it is 0.794 for Osun. This showed that 73.4percent of the variation in quantity of maize marketed by respondents from Oyo was explained by the estimated variables while the variables explained up to 79.4 percent for Osun. The Chow’s f-test that was employed to measure the statistical difference between quantity of maize marketed by Oyo and Osun States respondents revealed that there is no significant difference

Keywords: Chow’s f-test, Food Security, Maize Marketing

INFLUENCE OF ACCESS TO LAND AND FINANCES ON KENYAN YOUTH PARTICIPATION IN AGRICULTURE: A REVIEW (Published)

The Kenya Government prioritized the development of the agricultural sector to achieving the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of sustainable food production. Kenya’s strategic plan, Vision 2030 positions agriculture as a key driver for delivering a 10% annual economic growth and is expected to have an average growth rate of 7% by 2015. Agriculture contributes over 80% of all employment opportunities in the country, but Kenyan youths are not taking advantage of these opportunities since 64% of them are unemployed. To advance the 7% average growth rate, it is pertinent that the Kenyan youth be fully involved in agricultural development. However, agriculture is perceived unattractive to the youth and its potential has not been fully realized. The purpose of this review is to find out the influence of land and finances on youth participation in agriculture and to identify the interventions that can make agriculture attractive to the youth in Kenya. This information will be useful to the government, the farming community, agriculturalists, policy makers and non-governmental organisations in laying strategies that will make agriculture attractive to the youth. This will subsequently enhance youth participation in agriculture resulting in increased food production, employment creation and income generation for the youth. Engaging the youth in agricultural activities will contribute in reducing crime and other social problems attributed to the youth.

Keywords: Agriculture, Economy, Food Security, Kenya, Youth

Food Sovereignty in the Era of Land Grabbing: An African Perspective (Review Completed - Accepted)

Food is a basic human right. One of the humanity’s significant achievements has been to produce adequate food for the largest growing population. However, the co-existence of chronic hunger and malnutrition with presence of adequate capacities and appropriate mechanisms to address it is one of the gravest paradoxes of our time. In one-third of African countries the average daily calorie intake remains below the recommended level of 2100 kcal. The need and importance for greater food sovereignty has emerged out of broader concerns over the negative impact of globalized world’s food system on food security and environmental sustainability. Adoption of the food sovereignty principles are essential to address hunger since they empower local communities to have greater control over their productive resources, use and sustain ecologically friendly means of production, and access local markets as well as nutritious and culturally accepted food. The majority of African farmers (many of them are women) are smallholders, with two-thirds of all farms below 2 hectares and 90 % of farms below 10 hectares. However, the existing trend of land grabbing especially in Africa seriously affects food sovereignty in an unprecedented level. The introduction of intensive agricultural production, due to land grabbing often based on a transformation of complex and diversified smallholder farming systems for export and commercial purpose can seriously threaten biodiversity and land and water resources. This paper explores different dimensions of the complex relationship between food sovereignty and land grabbing within the perspective of African countries

Keywords: Desertification, Food Security, Food Security Governance, Food Sovereignty, Land Grabbing

Determinants of Food Security in Female-Headed Households Involved In Individual Tenure System in Abia State, Southeast Nigeria (Published)

This study on determinants of food security in male and female-headed households involved in individual tenure system in Abia State, Southeast Nigeria was carried out to determine the quantities of cassava demanded and supplied by gender in individual tenure systems in the area and identifying the factors affecting food security of female-headed cassava-based farming households under individual tenure system. A multi-stage random sampling technique was adopted for this study while data were collected through primary sources. The sample size consists of male and female headed households for individual tenure respectively making a total of 234 cassava farming household respondents. Descriptive statistics as well as multiple regression technique were employed in analyzing the field data. Male headed households demanded and supplied more cassava tubers than the female headed households. Again, quantity of cassava tubers demanded were higher than that supplied in male headed households than their female counterparts. Results show that farm income, farm size, farming experience, membership of co-operative organisation, access to credit, extension contact and extent of produce commercialization were factors that affect food security among female headed households involved in Individual Land Tenure System. Land policies should be aimed at making land free for female headed farm households for farming.

Keywords: Abia State, Food Security, Tenure system

Comparative Analysis of Factors Influencing Quantity of Maize Marketed Among Agricultural Households in Oyo and Osun States, Nigeria (Published)

This research is a comparative analysis with a focus on the quantity of maize marketed and factors influencing such quantity among agricultural households in Oyo and Osun States of Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed to sample two hundred and twenty (220) maize farmers from Oyo while one hundred and eighty (180) maize farmers were selected from Osun for the study. A structured interview schedule was used to collect primary data from the respondents. Data were obtained on socio-economic characteristics of respondents, production and marketing practices, prices and costs. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, an estimation of Cobb-Douglas regression model and the Chow’s F- test.

The result showed that in Oyo state, mean age for respondents was 45.8 years while it is 42.7 years for Osun counterparts. The summary of sex distribution revealed that 70.9 percent of the Oyo respondents are male compared with 57.8 percent of Osun respondents. In addition, 17.7percent of Oyo respondents compared with 14.4 percent of Osun respondents had no formal education at all. The summary of marital status distribution of respondents showed that more than ninety percent of the interviewed farmers from each state were married while the major source of finance for the farmers from both states was personal savings. Regression analysis revealed the R-squared (R2) as 0.734 for Oyo while it is 0.794 for Osun. This showed that 73.4percent of the variation in quantity of maize marketed by respondents from Oyo was explained by the estimated variables while the variables explained up to 79.4 percent for Osun. The Chow’s f-test that was employed to measure the statistical difference between quantity of maize marketed by Oyo and Osun States respondents revealed that there is no significant difference.

 

Keywords: Chow’s f-test, Food Security, Maize Marketing

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