Tag Archives: Farmers

Settler- Indigene Relations in Nigeria, 1920- 2014 (Published)

This study highlights the interaction between settler migrant farmers and their host societies in the Western cocoa producing areas and some food producing areas of central part of Nigeria between the 1920s and ­­­­2014. The choice of date is informed by the time of the introduction of commercial cocoa production in Western Nigeria while 2014 is the year in which the dislocation of the peace in the food producing area, occasioned by the Chibok girls kidnap saga began. Using extant literature and field data in the study areas, the paper asserts that contrary to popular generalisations in some literature that ethnicity, economic interest, cultural and religious differences have engendered conflicts among indigene-settler relations, the people in our study area have coexisted peacefully. The paper examined the geo-economic imbalance in the distribution of resources which necessitated migration; the common need for capital formation to exploit the resources; use of non-economic methods like kinship ties, ethnic affiliations, and some customary obligations have remained important indicators in the rural social and economic life. It is the observation of this paper that the rural farming societies of our investigation, though an agglomeration of different ethnic nationalities, yet maintained a symbiotic economic and social cooperation in a system-devised method of absorbing the shocks and sometimes strained relationship among them, in a participatory way.

Keywords: Farmers, Indigene, Labour, Migration, Rural, Settler

Socio-Economic Factors Influencing the use of Coping Strategy among Farmers and Herders Affected by Conflict at Giron Masa Village, Kebbi State, Nigeria (Published)

This study was conducted at Giron Masa village, located 30km from Yauri town. The study determines the Socio-economic Factors influencing the use of coping Strategy among Farmers and Herders during post-conflict situation. Simple random sampling technique was used to select one hundred (100) respondents (50 farmers and 50 herders) from the study area. Logistic regression (LR) analysis was used to ascertain the socioeconomic variables that influenced the use of the coping strategy among the farmers and herders affected by conflict. The results of the study shows that age, income, family size and farming experience were significant and thus influenced the use of POCS among farmers.  Annual income and production system influenced the use of Problem Oriented Coping Strategy (POCS) among herders. Age, farm size and farming experience were found to be significant in influencing the use of Emotion Oriented Coping Strategy (EOCS) among farmers. Specifically, years of herding experience increased the use of emotion oriented coping strategy among herders. The use of Social Support Coping Strategy (SSCS) among farmers was influenced by educational level; farm size and farming experience, while the variables are not collectively significant in influencing the use of SSCS among the herders. The research recommends the adoption of communal coping that entails the application of cooperative problem solving processes within the family and other social units dealing with stressful life events should be used as coping strategy in the event of farmer-herder conflict

Keywords: Conflict, Coping Strategy, Farmers, Herders

Loan Repayment Behavior among Member of Farmers Multipurpose Cooperative Societies in Anambra State (Published)

This study examined the loan repayment behavior of farmers multipurpose cooperative societies in Anambra State. The famers are poor and cannot raise the money needed for farming and when they obtain loan repayment is usually poor. The study specifically examined the range of amount of loan applied for, amount approved, amount disbursed and repaid by the cooperative farmers. It investigated the socioeconomic factors affecting the farmers’ credit repayment ability and ascertained major problems affecting the farmers in loan repayment using t-test statistics and a multiple econometric model of the Ordinary Least Square (OLS). Findings revealed that there is a significant difference between the amount of loan received and amount repaid by the cooperative farmers. The joint effect of the explanatory variable in the model account for 91.9% of the variations in the factors affecting the farmers’ credit repayment ability. Four coefficients (educational qualification, farm size, loan application cost, and collateral value) are significant. Age, membership duration and income of the farmers are not significant but they show a positive relationship with loan repayment. Factors affecting the farmers’ credit repayment ability are significant at 0.000 significant level. The study therefore recommends among others that cooperative societies should endeavour to educate the farmers on financial discipline and management because it has proven to significantly influence loan repayment. Lending institutions should ensure that whoever they are lending to meets a minimum threshold in asset value before loans are accessed. This will help to reduce defaulters.

Keywords: : Loan Repayment, Farmers, Multipurpose Cooperative, Nigeria

Resource-Use Efficiency of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfariaoccidentalis) Production as Aid To Poverty Alleviation in South-South Part Of Nigeria (Published)

The rural areas in Nigeria are worse hit by poverty which is a ban on the standard of living on the people. Fluted Pumpkin (TelfariaOccidentalis)  is a crop produced for the economic importance of its leaves, fruits, seeds to the citizenry. This study therefore sought to examine the Resource-Use Efficiency of Fluted Pumpkin (TelfariaOccidentalis) Production as aid to poverty alleviation in Isoko South Local Government Area, South-South part of Nigeria.  Cross-sectional data were obtained through well structure questionnaire administered to 60 fluted pumpkin farmers drawn using simple random sampling technique from the study area during the 2015 production season. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, poverty line analysis, efficiency ratio analysis, and a 3-Point Likert Scale Rating. Results showed that majority (40%) of the respondents were within the age bracket of 31>40 years, with mean age of 38.9years while 66.7% of the respondents were females. 53.3% had farming experience of 1-5years, with mean value of 4.88years. 58.3% had 1-4 persons in their household size, with mean value of 4 persons. The efficiency ratio of hired labour (0.683), quantity of seed used (0.167), quantity of herbicide used (0.109), portrayed that these resources were over-utilized. Also the efficiency ratio of family labour (1.474 ) and quantity of fertilizers used (6.087 ), showed that the farmers were inefficient in the use of these resources.The poverty level analysis indicated that 20% of the studied population was within the extremely poor group while 70% were within the moderately poor group and only 10% fell within the group of non-poor. The results also revealed the major constraints faced by farmers to include: lack of access to credit facilities, high cost of transportation, lack of storage facilities, and scarcity of viable seeds; it is therefore recommended that the government and financial institutions should provide credit  facilities to the farmers for improved yields and efficient resource-use of inputs in the production  of fluted pumpkin in the study area.

Keywords: Farmers, Fluted Pumpkin, Nigeria, Poverty analysis, Resource Use

Application of a Stochastic Frontier Production Function to the Measurement of Technical Efficiency of Commercial Poultry Egg Production in Nigeria (Published)

Some studies on poultry production in Nigeria focused on problems and prospects of poultry production, part time commercial poultry farming, technical efficiency of small scale poultry-egg production and none on the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Nigeria This study therefore examined the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using a set of well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the study. First, five (5) major towns were randomly selected from the nine (9) major towns in the Local Government Area. Secondly, six (6) commercial poultry egg farmers were randomly selected from each of the five (5) major towns to make a total sample size of 30 farmers for the 2011 production cycle. Data collected were presented and analyzed using tables, frequency count, percentages and stochastic frontier production function. The stochastic frontier production function was specified and estimated, using maximum likelihood estimation. The results showed that majority of the respondents were found to be between the age range of 31-50 years old (60%), 56% of them were males, 50% of them had first leaving school certificates and 50% of them had 5-6 family members, 60% had 3-5 years of poultry rearing experience and 53% of them used hired labour for their operations; 60% of the respondents adopted the deep litter system of management. The results also revealed that the coefficients of expenditure on flock size (0.755), expenses on feed intake (0.851), expenses on medication and vaccination (0.220), expenses on labour (0.201), and cost of capital (0.562) were significant determinants of output of commercial egg production at 5% level of significance in the study area. The mean technical efficiency was 58% and ranges between 0.559 and 0.909. The sigma squared (σ2) of 0.65 for the commercial poultry farmers were statistically significant and different from zero at 5% level of significance. The variance ratio (gamma) was estimated as 0.52 for the farmers and were also significant at 5% level which implied that about 52% variations in the output of the farmers were due to the inefficiency of inputs. The study revealed that a national policy and programme  to strengthen the commercial poultry production is required in the area of finance and inputs. It can therefore be recommended that capital should  be channelled to commercial  poultry production through the provision of macro-credits and formulation of policies and programmes by the Government to direct financial institutions to grant a definite and a reasonable  proportion of loan-able funds to commercial poultry farmers. Programmes on economic production of major poultry feed ingredients like maize and soya-beans be instituted for least cost poultry feed production. Potent medicine and vaccine should be provided in sufficient quantities, easily accessible and enlightenment programme on mode of administration be embarked upon by the government to commercial poultry farmers in the study area. Exotic poultry parent stocks and fertile eggs imported should be screened and certified to be of good quality at the point of entry into the country by controlling bodies. Poultry equipment manufacturers should be encouraged by the Government with provision of credit facilities and subsidies.

Keywords: Commercial poultry eggs, Farmers, Nigeria, Technical Efficiency, stochastic frontier production

Spatial Appraisal of Problems and Prospects of Fertilizer Use for Agriculture on the Environment in Mbieri, Mbaitoli Local Government Area, Imo State Nigeria. (Published)

This study appraises the spatial problems and prospects of fertilizer use in agriculture on the Environment in Mbieri, Mbaitoli Local Government Area of Imo State. Structured questionnaires were sampled in the each villages randomly selected from the seven autonomous communities of Amaike-Mbieri, Awo Mbieri, Ezi-Mbieri, Ihitte Isi-Mbieri, Obazu Mbieri, Obi-Mbieri and Umueze-Mbieri for collection of data. The data were analysed using descriptive statistical tools of tables, charts and graphs. The outcome showed that 71.2% of the farmers do not have University Education. All the kinds of fertilizer in use in the study area contain Nitrogen with NPK 20-10-10 the most sought-after (35%). The major source of fertilizer in the study area is the open market while 54% of the farmers say they prefer the application of fertilizer NPK for replenishing lost soil nutrients. Finally, 60% of the Farmers in the study area use surface broadcast method in application of fertilizer NPK on their farms. However, some of this nitrogen compounds are washed down through surface runoffs causing pollution and eutrophication of the Ecosystems and water bodies. Government should set up research centre for Fertilizer use in Agriculture where farmers can be equipped with adequate knowledge of the best way to use fertilizer NPK while sustaining the environment.

Keywords: Farmers, Fertilizer NPK, Mbieri, Soil fertility, pollution of Ecosystem

Differential Thresholds of Farmers’ and Public Extension Agents’ Perceptions Of Benefits of Cost Sharing in Extension Service Delivery in Benue and Nasarawa States, Nigeria. (Published)

The study was carried out in Benue and Nasarawa States, Nigeria to assess perceived benefits of cost-sharing among farmers and public extension agents. Data was collected from a sample of 346 respondents using interview schedule/questionnaire as well as Focus Group Discussion. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage as well as Mann-Whitney U test were used for data analysis. Majority of the farmers (61.4%) and all (100%) the public extension agents were males, middle aged, having formal education which enabled them to understand possible benefits of cost-sharing in agricultural extension service. Farmers’ and public extension agents’ perceived benefits of cost-sharing practices were observed in the areas of equity participation of stakeholders (18.4%), result orientation of scheme (14.2%), effective monitoring of project (13.9%), demand driven of extension service (12.1%) and meeting of targets of extension service delivery (10.8%), among others. There was a significant difference between Benue and Nasarawa States in terms of perceived benefits of cost-sharing practices by respondents. This was due to the higher average work experience of farmers in Benue State as opposed to their counterparts in Nasarawa State implying that the longer the work life of an individual the better exposed he is to work experiences that would enhance his sense of perception and judgment. The study recommends that farmers be encouraged towards consistency in their primary occupation of farming to improve their cognate experience while efforts are made by service providers to ensure that extension services provided for end users are demand driven and result oriented in order to achieve the objectives of extension service delivery. The need for adequate measures for effective monitoring of extension services for greater efficiency was considered necessary as it will help to encourage stakeholders to participate in cost-sharing.

Keywords: Cost sharing., Farmers, Perception, public extension agents

Operationalising Cost Sharing As A Sustainable Funding Model in Agricultural Extension Service: Farmers’ and Pubic Extension Agents’ Perception in Benue State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out in Benue State, Nigeria to ascertain the perception of cost sharing as a sustainable funding model in agricultural extension processes among farmers and public extension agents (PEAs). Data were collected using interview schedule/questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were used for analyzing the data. A sample of 174 farmers and 42 PEAs were selected for the study using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Findings of the study indicate that majority of the farmers (62.1%) and all (100%) the public extension agents were males, married, middle aged and had formal education. Majority (56.3%) of the farmers and the PEAs (55.8%) had a high level of awareness on cost sharing. Both farmers (43.0%) and PEAs (42.9%) were of the opinion that cost-sharing is when all stakeholders contribute to facilitate the activities and  maintained that it is when benefitting farmers and government pay for extension services. Majority (82.8%) of the farmers perceived a positive impact of cost-sharing on agricultural extension service delivery if adopted, while most (61.9%) of the PEAs were indifferent about the impacts, among others. However, farmers also preferred that cost-sharing should be in the area of input provision (53.4%), while PEAs preferred advisory services (77.5%) as an area of intervention in the implementation of cost-sharing practices. The study recommends that there should be a gradual commencement of the implementation of cost-sharing practice given the high interest demonstrated by farmers as this will help to achieve the objectives of agricultural extension service. Efforts are also highly needed in the area of provision of farm inputs and advisory services to farmers in order to facilitate the adoption of cost-sharing practices.

Keywords: Agricultural Technology, Cost sharing., Farmers, Nigeria, public extension agents

Relation Analysis of International Cocoa Prices and Indonesian Cocoa Farmers’ Price after Export Tax Policy on Cocoa Beans (Published)

The government of Indonesia imposed export tax on cocoa beans since April 2010. This policy has objectives to guarantee the availability of domestic cocoa beans as raw materials for domestic processing companies at an affordable price. The aim of this paper is to analyse the relation of cocoa prices between international price and farmers’ price after export tax implementation. The method utilized in the analysis is Vector Autoregression or Vector Error Correction depending on the characteristic of the data. The results show that, in the short-run relation and the long-run relation, international price has a significant effect to domestic price. There is strong correlation between the export taxes to farmer’s price as the international price is well transmitted to the domestic price. Farmers has the highest risk. Farmer encounter the uncertainty and it cause on decreasing cocoa beans production. Lack of cocoa beans supply impacts to cocoa processing industry

Keywords: Cocoa, Export Tax, Farmers, Price, Relation

Application of a Stochastic Frontier Production Function to the Measurement of Technical Efficiency of Commercial Poultry Egg Production in Nigeria (Published)

Some studies on poultry production in Nigeria focused on problems and prospects of poultry production, part time commercial poultry farming, technical efficiency of small scale poultry-egg production and none on the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Nigeria This study therefore examined the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using a set of well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the study. First, five (5) major towns were randomly selected from the nine (9) major towns in the Local Government Area. Secondly, six (6) commercial poultry egg farmers were randomly selected from each of the five (5) major towns to make a total sample size of 30 farmers for the 2011 production cycle. Data collected were presented and analyzed using tables, frequency count, percentages and stochastic frontier production function. The stochastic frontier production function was specified and estimated, using maximum likelihood estimation. The results showed that majority of the respondents were found to be between the age range of 31-50 years old (60%), 56% of them were males, 50% of them had first leaving school certificates and 50% of them had 5-6 family members, 60% had 3-5 years of poultry rearing experience and 53% of them used hired labour for their operations; 60% of the respondents adopted the deep litter system of management. The results also revealed that the coefficients of expenditure on flock size (0.755), expenses on feed intake (0.851), expenses on medication and vaccination (0.220), expenses on labour (0.201), and cost of capital (0.562) were significant determinants of output of commercial egg production at 5% level of significance in the study area. The mean technical efficiency was 58% and ranges between 0.559 and 0.909. The sigma squared (σ2) of 0.65 for the commercial poultry farmers were statistically significant and different from zero at 5% level of significance. The variance ratio (gamma) was estimated as 0.52 for the farmers and were also significant at 5% level which implied that about 52% variations in the output of the farmers were due to the inefficiency of inputs. The study revealed that a national policy and programme  to strengthen the commercial poultry production is required in the area of finance and inputs. It can therefore be recommended that capital should  be channelled to commercial  poultry production through the provision of macro-credits and formulation of policies and programmes by the Government to direct financial institutions to grant a definite and a reasonable  proportion of loan-able funds to commercial poultry farmers. Programmes on economic production of major poultry feed ingredients like maize and soya-beans be instituted for least cost poultry feed production. Potent medicine and vaccine should be provided in sufficient quantities, easily accessible and enlightenment programme on mode of administration be embarked upon by the government to commercial poultry farmers in the study area. Exotic poultry parent stocks and fertile eggs imported should be screened and certified to be of good quality at the point of entry into the country by controlling bodies. Poultry equipment manufacturers should be encouraged by the Government with provision of credit facilities and subsidies.

Keywords: Commercial poultry eggs, Farmers, Nigeria, Technical Efficiency, stochastic frontier production

Utilization of Mass Media among Farmers in Ikwere Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

The study analyzed the utilization of mass media by farmers in Ikwere local government area of Rivers state, Nigeria. Specifically, it identified the available mass media in the study area, ascertained the extent of use of these mass media, identified the perceived roles of mass media, assessed the perceived effectiveness of mass media and identified the factors that affect the use of mass media in the study area. A sample of 180 farmers was obtained using multistage sampling technique. Data were elicited from the farmers using a set of structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using percentage count, mean statistic and bar chart. Results show that the farmers were still in their active ages (M = 40 years) with majority (99.1%) of them receiving formal education. It was further revealed that television, radio and mobile phone were the most available mass media in the area

Keywords: Agricultural, Farmers, Ikwere LGS, Mass Media

Challenges of Organic Farming Faced By Nepalese Farmers (Published)

Organic farming can directly contribute in the better health and environment. It may the better alternative for the problem of climate change and environmental degradation. Promotion of organic farming is necessary so the study is going to explore the challenges of organic farming faced by the Nepalese farmers. . The study was conducted in four districts: Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktpur and Dhading. Altogether, 578 organic farmers were selected purposively. Mixed method was used to collect the data. Statistical analysis was done for quantitative data and logical interpretation was done for qualitative data. The study explored the various challenges of organic farming: high investment and price of goods, low production, less selling because of the lack of knowledge among the consumers, limited market, no provision of compensation if production damaged, and lack of certification. Farmers requested to address all these problem of organic farmers to encourage the involvement for coming generation. Nepal government can study on the possible way of solution with the close interaction of organic farmers. 

Keywords: Certification, Challenges, Farmers, Nepal, Organic farming

The Contribution of Farmers Self Help Groups in Enhancing the Smallholder Maize Farmers Income in Southern Rwanda (Published)

Farmers’ Self Help Groups are inclusive of the poor and are charged with the purpose of becoming a market outlet for smallholder farmers in Rwanda. Improving farmers’ income earning capability and agricultural productivity has been an important strategy of Rwanda’s agriculture development policy. However, despite their growing importance, empirical studies on how farmers’ organizations have impacted their members’ income are limited in Rwanda. This study investigates the economic role played by farmers SHGs to their members, the maize production before and after joining the SHG, the income of these smallholder farmers, the saving effects on farm income, and the living standards situation before and after SHGs participation using the sample of 75 smallholder maize producers in Southern Rwanda. The t paired test was used to analyze the situation before and after joining the SHG in terms of Savings, Production and monthly expenses and the Chi Square test was used to test the significance of time of joining the SHG and the opening the bank accounts for savings and accessing to loans. The results revealed that the savings, the production and the monthly expenses increased after joining the farmers SHGs and the time opening of bank accounts for saving, access to loans and other banking activities are significant to time of joining the SHG. Since farmers are resource poor and that farmer Self Help Groups are constrained by various institutional, technical and investment constraints despite their potential, it is recommended that favorable policies should be geared toward smallholder agriculture in Rwanda in order to ensure the success of farmer Self Help Groups. The results show that farmer groups can be an important institution for the transformation of smallholder farming, increase productivity and incomes thereby reducing poverty. Agricultural policies in Rwanda should therefore focus more on the intensification of agriculture and farmers’ Self Help Groups and increase the market orientation of the smallholder farm sector.

Keywords: Farmers, Self Help Group, Smallholder Farmer’s Income

Comparative Assessment of Cocoa Farmers’ Knowledge and Attitude to Trainings on Good Cultural Management Practices (CMP) in Ogun and Ondo States, Nigeria (Published)

Nigeria is one of the leading cocoa producing countries in West Africa. However, since the discovery of crude oil there has been a decline in cocoa production which resulted in Nigeria losing its leading position as the foremost cocoa exporter to Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana. To revitalize the cocoa production in Nigeria series of efforts are put in place including training of farmers on improved Cultural Management Practices (CMP). This study therefore compared cocoa farmers’ knowledge and attitude to trainings on good cultural management practices in Ogun and Ondo States, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling techniques were used to select 320 cocoa farmers in the study areas. Data obtained were analysed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. Result of the study showed that the mean age of the respondents was 52.8 years with 83.4% of the respondents married and 75.9% of the respondents had primary education. Most (82.8%) of the respondents were male while few (17.2%) were female in cocoa production. Most (83.40%) of the respondents harvested about 10kg/ha from their cocoa farms. The average income generated from cocoa was 44,237/kg. Cocoa farmers always got information from Cocoa Certification Agencies (59.4%), cocoa farmers association (54.4%) and radio/television (50.9%). Most (92.5%) of the respondents had wealth of knowledge in selecting suitable site for cocoa production and minimum tillage practices (98.4%). The result further revealed that majority (65.3%) of the respondents strongly agreed that they would spend more money to participate in future CMP trainings and that the training is beneficial (84.1%) hence, satisfied with it (86.2%). All the respondents affirmed that CMP training is an eye opener to a better cocoa farming practices (100%). Also, almost all the respondents (99.4%) reported that they select suitable land for cocoa production, construct nursery bed, select improved seeds variety, and slash weeds underneath cocoa trees. Above ninety percent of cocoa farmers apply fertilizer at rate of 375kg/ha, spray prescribed insecticides and fungicides, and harvest ripe cocoa pods with sharp cutlasses. Major constraints to cocoa production and CMP in the study areas are poor feeder roads (100%), irregular supply of agro-inputs (90.0%), and instability in government policy (88.4%). Result of linear regression showed a significant relationship between socio-economic and cultural management practices at p < 0.05 level of significance. However, result of the t-test analysis indicated that significant difference did not exist in the cocoa cultural management practices in Ogun and Ondo States (t = 2.42, p = 0.06). The study concludes that majority of the cocoa farmers carried out Cultural Management Practices to obtain good yield, and has positive attitude towards CMP trainings as it is highly beneficial to their cocoa farming.

Keywords: Cocoa, Cultural Management Practices, Farmers, Knowledge, Trainings, attitude

Analysis of Sum Insured And Co-Operators’ Contribution to Naic Products in Oyi and Ayamelum Local Government Areas of Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

The study investigated NAIC products and the performance of farmers focusing on the sum insured and farmers’ contribution to NAIC products in Oyi and Ayamelum LGAs of Anambra State. Major objectives were to ascertain whether time has significant impact on total sum insured and co-operators’ contribution over the observed period, to determine whether there exist significant difference between sum insured and farmers contribution for Oyi and Ayamelum LGAs and to ascertain the extent of relationship between sum insured and co-operators’ contribution for the two local government areas. Secondary data was used for this case study research. Data for Oyi and Ayamelum LGAs were extracted sfrom NAIC Annual Reports 2010-2013, and were statistically analyzed, using time series models, paired sample T-test analysis and Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient. Result showed that time (month) has significant impact on monthly co-operators’ contribution and time contributed significantly to the behavior of sum insured in the two local government areas. Thus, the seasonal analysis found sum insured to be least in the month of May and highest in October. Analysis showed that co-operators’ contribution to NAIC products was least in the months of May and December. Paired sample T-test revealed the existence of a significance difference in sum insured for Oyi being greater than sum insured for Ayamelum with a mean difference of N3,190,690. 65.8% correlation was found to exist between sum insured for Oyi and Ayamelum LGAs. Paired Sample analysis revealed a significance difference between co-operators’ contribution to NAIC products for Oyi and Ayamelum LGAs. Ayamelum co-operators contributed more to NAIC products than Oyi co-operators with an average contribution, difference of N5,727,550. It is suggested that governments should make effort to adequately fund the financial intermediaries through which credits associated with NAIC insurance cover are provided so as to make the distribution system efficient. Premium paid by Nigerian farmers at 50% for an insurance cover should be reduced to 25% by the federal and state governments to encourage and boost food security in Nigeria.

Keywords: Agriculture Insurance, Farmers, Food Security, Sum Insured

Level of Use of Organic Manure by Farmers in Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria (Published)

The study assessed the level of use of organic manure in Isoko North Local Government area of Delta State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to compose a sample size of 427 respondents for the study. Data generated were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the study showed that majority of the farmers were not using organic manure. The reasons adduced for this amongst others were unavailability of organic manure, preference for fertilizer and bulkiness of organic manure. From the logit regression result, three variables, namely, educational level (t=3.645), farm size (t=3.978) and farming experience (t=2.998) were significantly in their relationship with organic manure use. From the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that farmers in the study area should be enlightened on the benefits of using organic manure in their farms.

Keywords: Adoption, Delta State, Farmers, Logit Regression, Organic Manure

Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness of the Economic Importance of Physic Nut (Jatropha Curcas) In Ndokwa East Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)

In recent time, Nigeria Government has shown great interest in Jatropha as a biofuel plants. The aim is to gradually reduce the nation’s dependence on imported gasoline, reduce environmental pollution as well as create a commercially viable industry; which is not yet publicized in the rural areas where the crop is grown. This study, thus focused on the assessment of farmers’ awareness of the economic importance of jatropha curcas in Ndokwa East Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria. Cross-sectional data collected for the study was achieved through the use of well structured questionnaire administered to seventy (70) farmers purposively selected from the study area. It specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, examined farmers awareness of the economic use of the plant, identified farmers source of information on the economic importance of jatropha curcas in the study area. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentage, mean and mode were used to analyze the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers while regression model was used to determine the relationship between the awareness of the economic importance of the crop and their socio-economic characteristics. The result showed that majority (31.43%) of the respondents were within the age range of 41-50years, , 52.86% were males, 61.43% were married, 44.30% were civil servants, 34.29% had farming experience of above 15years, 44.29% had household size of the range of 5-8 persons and 85.71% did not belong to any farmers’ associations. The result also revealed that majority(85.70%) of the respondents’ source of information was from friends and neighbours, majority (94.29%) of the respondents planted the crop for fencing their farmlands and gardens, 84.26% used it for boundary demarcation, 81.43% used it as hedges, 72.86% used it for medicinal purposes, and 70.00% used it for erosion control. The R2 (0.3618) value which is very low shows that only 36.8% of the variation in the awareness of the economic importance of Jatropha curcas was explained by the combined effects of age, sex and educational level of the farmers. The study revealed that majority (82.86%) were not aware that biofuel can be distilled from Jatropha curcas while only 17.14% were aware of this economic importance of the crop. It was therefore recommended that more enlightenment campaign about the production and economic usse of the crop be embarked upon through extension and training programmes by the State Government.

Keywords: Delta State, Economic Importance, Farmers, Jatropha Curcas, Nigeria, Regression Analysis

Application of a Stochastic Frontier Production Function to the Measurement of Technical Efficiency of Commercial Poultry Egg Production in Nigeria (Published)

Some studies on poultry production in Nigeria focused on problems and prospects of poultry production, part time commercial poultry farming, technical efficiency of small scale poultry-egg production and none on the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Nigeria This study therefore examined the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using a set of well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the study. First, five (5) major towns were randomly selected from the nine (9) major towns in the Local Government Area. Secondly, six (6) commercial poultry egg farmers were randomly selected from each of the five (5) major towns to make a total sample size of 30 farmers for the 2011 production cycle. Data collected were presented and analyzed using tables, frequency count, percentages and stochastic frontier production function. The stochastic frontier production function was specified and estimated, using maximum likelihood estimation. The results showed that majority of the respondents were found to be between the age range of 31-50 years old (60%), 56% of them were males, 50% of them had first leaving school certificates and 50% of them had 5-6 family members, 60% had 3-5 years of poultry rearing experience and 53% of them used hired labour for their operations; 60% of the respondents adopted the deep litter system of management. The results also revealed that the coefficients of expenditure on flock size (0.755), expenses on feed intake (0.851), expenses on medication and vaccination (0.220), expenses on labour (0.201), and cost of capital (0.562) were significant determinants of output of commercial egg production at 5% level of significance in the study area. The mean technical efficiency was 58% and ranges between 0.559 and 0.909. The sigma squared (σ2) of 0.65 for the commercial poultry farmers were statistically significant and different from zero at 5% level of significance. The variance ratio (gamma) was estimated as 0.52 for the farmers and were also significant at 5% level which implied that about 52% variations in the output of the farmers were due to the inefficiency of inputs. The study revealed that a national policy and programme to strengthen the commercial poultry production is required in the area of finance and inputs. It can therefore be recommended that capital should be channelled to commercial poultry production through the provision of macro-credits and formulation of policies and programmes by the Government to direct financial institutions to grant a definite and a reasonable proportion of loan-able funds to commercial poultry farmers. Programmes on economic production of major poultry feed ingredients like maize and soya-beans be instituted for least cost poultry feed production. Potent medicine and vaccine should be provided in sufficient quantities, easily accessible and enlightenment programme on mode of administration be embarked upon by the government to commercial poultry farmers in the study area. Exotic poultry parent stocks and fertile eggs imported should be screened and certified to be of good quality at the point of entry into the country by controlling bodies. Poultry equipment manufacturers should be encouraged by the Government with provision of credit facilities and subsidies.

Keywords: Commercial poultry eggs, Farmers, Nigeria, Technical Efficiency, stochastic frontier production

DIFFERENTIAL THRESHOLDS OF FARMERS’ AND PUBLIC EXTENSION AGENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF BENEFITS OF COST SHARING IN EXTENSION SERVICE DELIVERY IN BENUE AND NASARAWA STATES, NIGERIA (Published)

The study was carried out in Benue and Nasarawa States, Nigeria to assess perceived benefits of cost-sharing among farmers and public extension agents. Data was collected from a sample of 346 respondents using interview schedule/questionnaire as well as Focus Group Discussion. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage as well as Mann-Whitney U test were used for data analysis. Majority of the farmers (61.4%) and all (100%) the public extension agents were males, middle aged, having formal education which enabled them to understand possible benefits of cost-sharing in agricultural extension service. Farmers’ and public extension agents’ perceived benefits of cost-sharing practices were observed in the areas of equity participation of stakeholders (18.4%), result orientation of scheme (14.2%), effective monitoring of project (13.9%), demand driven of extension service (12.1%) and meeting of targets of extension service delivery (10.8%), among others. There was a significant difference between Benue and Nasarawa States in terms of perceived benefits of cost-sharing practices by respondents. This was due to the higher average work experience of farmers in Benue State as opposed to their counterparts in Nasarawa State implying that the longer the work life of an individual the better exposed he is to work experiences that would enhance his sense of perception and judgment. The study recommends that farmers be encouraged towards consistency in their primary occupation of farming to improve their cognate experience while efforts are made by service providers to ensure that extension services provided for end users are demand driven and result oriented in order to achieve the objectives of extension service delivery. The need for adequate measures for effective monitoring of extension services for greater efficiency was considered necessary as it will help to encourage stakeholders to participate in cost-sharing.

Keywords: Cost sharing., Farmers, Perception, public extension agents

THE ROLE OF FARMERS SOCIAL NETWORKS AND RURAL RADIO IN CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN OWERRI WEST AREA OF IMO STATE, NIGERIA. (Published)

The study was aimed at analyzing and ascertaining the role of farmers social networks and rural radio in climate change adaptation in Owerri West Area of Imo-State. The specific objectives were to (a) describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondent farmers in the study area, (b) ascertain farmers awareness of climate change, (c) describe the effects of climate change on agricultural activities of the respondents, (d) identify the various social networks in the study area and (e) identify roles of various social networks and radio in farmers adaptation to climate change. A simple random sampling method was used to select one hundred and twenty (120) farmers for the study. Frequency distribution percentages and mean were used in the analysis of data collected. Results of the study showed that majority of the respondents (76.7%) were males with a mean age of 53years. Results indicate that all the respondents were very much aware of climate change. Farmers also ascertain high rainfall, flooding, decrease in crop yield, erosion, storage losses and hot temperature (hot heat) as their observation due to effects of climate change. Social networks include cooperatives, age grades, town unions and religious groups etc. Some recommendations include: (a) Education of farmers about climate change and their modern adaptation measures which could be achieved by organizing seminars, conferences and programmes on climate change regular for them. (b) Government should link and collaborate with the farmers organization (social networks), research institutions and meteorological centres that will help in order to access information, design appropriate and affordable adaptation measures to climate change.

Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Change, Farmers, Radio, Rural, Social Networks

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