Tag Archives: Environment

Do Drivers of Corporate Governance Influence shareholder Value (Published)

This study examines effect of drivers of corporate governance on shareholder value. Data from annual financial reports of listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria were analysed and tested using panel dynamic ordinary least square model and panel unit root tests. Most variables used as proxies for shareholder value responded positively to variations in audit independence while there is a non-significant effect of audit independence on all variables used as proxies for shareholder value. Board independence has a positive and non-significant effect on shareholder value whereas board size and audit size negatively and non-significantly affect shareholder value.  The study further reveals that audit size, board size and board independence have negative and non-significant impact on the economic value added which represents the market value of shareholder assets. Only audit independence has a positive and non-significant impact on economic value added. Corporate governance drivers are efficacious but do not influence shareholder value significantly.   

 

Keywords: Audit Committee, Board size, Corporate Governance, Environment, Independence, Shareholder value

Evaluation of Some Indicators of Gasoline and Diesel Products, Imported In the Republic of Albania (Published)

The development of the transport sector after 2000 in the Republic of Albania is accompanied by growing consumer trends in fossil fuels, diesel and gasoline, which are mainly provided by imports. This trend is associated among other things with negative impacts on the environment, especially in urban areas due to emissions of CO2, SO2, VOx or heavy metals, such as Pb, etc., which are created as a result of fuel combustion in vehicles.The aim of this study is to assess the environmental parameters of the lead content and Octane Number in gasoline and the sulfur content in diesel, in order to recognize the situation of qualitative petroleum market in Republic of Albania, the comparison with the limits set in the Albanian Standards, influence of European Legislation on the quality of these imported products and the effects of laboratory control. Are studied the results of testing in Customs Laboratory for 230 gasoline samples and 333 diesel samples.

Keywords: Environment, Octane Number, diesel, gasoline, lead content, sulfur content

Integrated Factors Correlating Undergraduate Academic Achievement In Bayelsa State, Nigeria (Published)

The consistent poor academic performance of students in public secondary schools can be regarded as a serious social problem, all stakeholders in education; have concluded that students’ academic performance in public secondary schools falls short of the desired standard. The study investigated the integrated factors determining academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research design was adopted and purposive sampling technique was used to select subjects of over 2506 students and 800 teachers in Sagbama. 80 teachers and 242 students were randomly selected from eight public secondary schools to participate in the study. A peer validated questionnaire was used for data collection at r=.92. Data was analysed based on four research questions using simple percentage counts. Results revealed that integrated factors such as teachers, societal, parental, peer group, etc. had positive impacts. It was recommended that teachers and the civil society should contribute positively to the academic performance of public secondary schools students’ in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Keywords: Environment, Integrated factors, Social problem, Students’ academic achievement and Students’ academic performance

Impact of University Motivated Environment on Students Learning (Published)

Purpose: This research paper aims to examine the Impact of University Motivated Environment on Students Learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: Keeping in view the objectives the University Motivated Environment factors has been taken. The study sample of 300 students randomly selected from different departments of Albaha university. The use of the likert scale and a questionnaire containing 35 items related to the university motivated factors were used to measure the impact. Popular statistical T-test ANOVA was applied by using SPSS software highlighting more detailed findings of the study. Findings:  The results shows that students are not satisfied with the university motivated learning environment  because the services and support  provided by the university related to Library, Computer, Parking, Cafeteria, Bus, Air Conditioning, Sports, Lab equipments, Cleanliness, Light, Guidelines, Track Complaints,  Website, Internet Wi Fi environment, Training and placement, Update curriculum according to need of Industry, Scholarships, Sufficient number of staff to serve students, Recruiting staff according to the need of students, etc are not proper or given  which affect students learning environment. Statistical analysis shows that Hypotheses is accepted in all cases. Originality/value – The value of this research is that the university will improve the services from which students are not satisfied.

Keywords: Environment, Impact, Learning, Motivation, Students, University

Effects of Industrial Effluent on the Environment Using Allium Cepa and Zea Mays As Bioindicators (Published)

Indiscriminate handling and disposal of industrial effluents into the environment represents one of the major sources of environmental pollution which invariably affects the health of man, plants and animals. The toxic effect of effluent from a candy-producing industry was investigated in terms of root growth inhibition and overall phytotoxicity using bio-indicator plants; Allium cepa and Zea mays. The presence and concentrations of some metals of environmental concern as well as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the effluent were also determined. The Allium cepa and Zea mays tests were carried out at concentrations of 1, 5,10,25,50 and 100% of the untreated effluent. There was statistical significant (P<0.05) inhibition of root growth in both plants, the shoot length measurement also showed significant difference (P<0.05) at the different concentrations of the effluent as compared with the control. Morphological abnormalities were observed in the roots of the bio-indicator plants, it is therefore recommended that industrial effluents be treated before being disposed into the environment.  

Keywords: Allium Cepa, Bio-Indicators, Environment, Industrial Effluent, Phytotoxicity, Zea Mays

The Mediating Effects Of Home Learning On Student Achievement In Mathematics: A Longitudinal Study In Primary Schools In Ghana (Published)

The home learning environment as mediated by parental education and income is an important determinant of child learning outcomes. As part of a longitudinal study on teaching effectiveness in Ghana, this paper examines the joint effects of multiple variables related to  home learning environment that interconnect to impact on child academic performance in mathematics. A representative sample of 73 primary schools in Ghana was selected and written tests in mathematics were administered to all grade 6 students of the school sample both at the beginning and end of the school year 2013–2014. Data on student background factors were also collected. Our analytical techniques (i.e., multilevel modelling) take into account the hierarchical structure of schools (i.e., students nested within classes, and within schools). Controlling for the more basic student background factors, we find that the provision of learning resources at home, whiles ensuring that children are offered learning opportunities after school time were important.  Implications of findings are drawn.

Keywords: Achievement, Environment, Home, Learning, Student

Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) As a Strategry for Solving Environmental Problems in Niger Delta Region: A Study of Bonny Island, Rivers State, Nigeria. (Published)

Environmental issues are meant to be operationalized through the formulation of actor-specific environmental actions plans, which define priority action that will convert strategy into practice. The Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) process which is an increasingly popularized strategy of solving the myriads of problems affecting the environment in contemporary world. The study examines the use of  Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) process as a strategy of solving environmental problems in Bonny Island, Rivers State, Nigeria by investigating the perception of the general public on the state of the environment in the area, level of participation of people in compliance to existing environmental strategies, causes of ineffective environmental management in the area and assessing community satisfaction with existing environmental management approach using well structured questionnaires administered to sampled households. Questions were related to socio-economic characteristics of households, willingness to participate by the community in the EPM process, perceived level of environmental degradation in the area, level of compliance of oil and gas companies to environmental laws and the role of Government environment protection agencies in protecting the environment of the study area. The results confirm that the level of damage from oil exploration, gas activities, pollution and pipeline vandalizations is chronic and cumulative, which has resulted to the degradation of the environment, routine of facilities and compliancy to environmental management approaches are not regular, facilities and equipment were found be grossly inadequate therefore proper inspection can not be well carried out,  the community expressed dissatisfaction with the existing environment approach which they attributed to the inability of fully implementing the environmental approach, the community indicated that given the opportunity they are willing to participate in evolving an effective environmental management approach.  Recommendations were made for the effective and efficient application of the EPM process in the study area.

Keywords: Bonny Island, Degradation, Environment, Environmental Planning and Management

Effects of Industrial Effluent on the Environment Using Allium Cepa and Zea Mays as Bioindicators (Published)

Indiscriminate handling and disposal of industrial effluents into the environment represents one of the major sources of environmental pollution which invariably affects the health of man, plants and animals. The toxic effect of effluent from a candy-producing industry was investigated in terms of root growth inhibition and overall phytotoxicity using bio-indicator plants; Allium cepa and Zea mays. The presence and concentrations of some metals of environmental concern as well as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the effluent were also determined. The Allium cepa and Zea mays tests were carried out at concentrations of 1, 5,10,25,50 and 100% of the untreated effluent. There was statistical significant (P<0.05) inhibition of root growth in both plants, the shoot length measurement also showed significant difference (P<0.05) at the different concentrations of the effluent as compared with the control. Morphological abnormalities were observed in the roots of the bio-indicator plants, it is therefore recommended that industrial effluents be treated before being disposed into the environment.  

Keywords: Allium Cepa, Bio-Indicators, Environment, Industrial Effluent, Phytotoxicity, Zea Mays

Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for a Modular Power Plants Project in Menengai, Nakuru County, Kenya: Impact Identification, Evaluation and Risk Analysis (Published)

This paper is an extract from the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment report for the Menengai modular geothermal power plants projects for Geothermal Development Company Limited. Geothermal Development entails exploration drilling, steam collection, construction of power generation units and power transmission lines. Preliminary phase of land acquisition, vegetation clearing, construction and power generation is likely to cause environmental disturbance. Integrated resource utilization and environmental conservation needs an effective and efficient environmental and social management plan in order to facilitate sustainable implementation of the proposed project. Impact identification and risk analysis for any proposed project, are key for they provide useful information to decision- makers.  This paper aims to provide a valuation’s perspective on how to best design and execute the impact identification and risk analysis to achieve results that align mitigation with identified potential impacts of the proposed project activities. The process involved identifying where the interactions were likely to occur between the proposed project activities and the receiving environments. A modified Leopold Matrix (LM) integrated with Lohani & Thanh methods were used to identify and estimate the magnitudes and importance of the potential impacts. Cumulative impacts were estimated using consequence and probability ranking model adapted from the South African Department of Environmental Affairs’ guideline document on EIA regulations of 1998. The model predicts the significance of impacts by considering magnitude, duration, spatial scale and factoring in probability of the impact to occur. Based on results of analysis, the cumulative impacts ranged from minor to moderate and can be mitigated.

Keywords: Cumulative Impact, Environment, Impact Assessment, Modular Geothermal Power Generation Technology, Risk Analysis, Society

Green Chemistry: a Panacea for Environmental Sustainability Agriculture in Global Perspective (Published)

The environment is a very important component necessary for the existence of both man  through agriculture. Agriculture is one of the oldest and global sources of human livelihood. Producing food, transportation, and energy for teeming population  has led to large and widespread increases in the use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuel combustion, resulting in a leakage of N into the environment as various forms of air ,soil and water pollution. Information for the paper was through secondary data,  in which principles of green chemistry, impact of pesticides and inorganic fertilizers were discussed with the confirmation of negative impacts through their applications in agriculture.   Sustainable Agricultural Applications in Green Chemistry was discussed and bio-pesticides  and bio-fertilizers were recommended as an alternative tools . Green Chemistry aims not only for safer products, less hazardous consequences to the environment, saving energy and water, but includes broader issues which can promote in the end Sustainable Development. The beginning of green chemistry is frequently considered as a response to the need to reduce the damage of the environment by man-made materials and the processes used to produce them.

Keywords: Agriculture, Chemistry, Environment, Green, Sustainability

Polyhexamethylene Biguanide Hydrochloride: Features and Applications (Published)

Polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) is a chemical biocide which is a polymer utilized in a wide variety of antimicrobial applications. This review provides a comprehensive literature of PHMB features from synthesis methods,mode of action, antimicrobial effects and safety considerations to both humans and environments. Effectiveness against cellular organisms is due to the basic biguanide group attached to a flexible spacer, a hexamethylene group. PHMB is a disinfectant with a broad spectrum of inducing cell death by disrupting cell membrane integrity. It is an environmentally friendly product noncorrosive and nontoxic to both humans and animals. It is used as a preservative in cosmetics, personal care products, fabric softeners, contact lens solutions, hand washes, and more. In cosmetics, the preservation of fruit and vegetables. It is also used to preserve wet wipes; to control odor in textiles; to prevent microbial contamination in wound irrigation and sterile dressings; to disinfect medical/dental utensil and trays, farm equipment, animal drinking water, and hard surfaces for food handling institutions and hospitals; and to deodorize vacuums and toilets. This agent can work at low concentrations with very fast action with a broad spectrum of action in addition of its wide acceptance and exploitation for potential multi-purpose functional use. It will be promising for advanced environmental treatments including food disinfection, water disinfection, surface disinfection, and meet the criteria for an ideal antimicrobial agent.

Keywords: Biguanide, Biocide, Disinfectant, Environment, PHMB, Polyhexamethylene

Role of Soft Law in Environmental Protection: An Overview (Published)

One of the key features of international law is the outstanding progress of law governing the environment in recent times. From a very reticent start with about no law at law, the global environmental law has developed an enormous complicated field encircling numerous treaties, declarations, general principles, and customary international law rules. It is not clandestine that this significant growth is due to a considerable extent, to the role played by the soft law instruments. Soft law is by its nature the enunciation of a norm in a non-binding written form and is considered to be the charters, resolutions, declarations or recommendations of world community that is not meant to be as binding as the international treaties. It is a core source of international law that has emerged and developed rapidly in the modern era of globalization, particularly to knob the sensitive issues, e.g., trade and commerce, protection of human rights, conservation of environment and so on. Though the idea of soft law has existed for years, scholars have attained at no consensus as to why do states regulate soft law or whether soft law is of a consistent logical category. To some extent, this perplexity replicates a profound diversity in the categories of global agreements and strategic situations that produce them. Despite it is accepted that soft law is a latent device in harmonizing the regime created by hard law and plays a key role in achieving fixed goals regarding the implementation of global environmental law. This article strives to provide a detailed definition of soft law as well as point outs its emergence and development. It also illustrates the legal status, impact, significance, and challenges of soft law. Furthermore, this research focuses on the role of soft law instruments in the conservation of global environment.

Keywords: Environment, Protection, Soft Law, Violation

Assessment Criteria for Ngos In Reference to the Study of Ngos of Nepal (Published)

Introduction: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are working to facilitate and support the development activities in every sector to achieve the development goals of Nepal Government. While facing difficulty to reach different areas, contributions of NGO become the significant and milestone for the change and development of the society. This study was conducted in Karnali Zone, Midwestern Development Region of Nepal. Objective: The objective of this research was to develop the NGO assessment criteria. Methodology: This study was particularly based on the pragmatism philosophy. Deductive approach was used to test the theory. Cross-sectional descriptive and exploratory research design was adopted. Study was conducted among the beneficiaries, NGOs executive board, NGOs staff, Civil Society and Governmental Officials in Karnali Zone. A total of 562 respondents were selected for survey and 45 key informants were interviewed, 15 case studies were prepared, 15 focus group discussions were conducted and 56 observations were done in 56 NGOs and 15 communities. The qualitative analysis was done to develop the criteria. Results: There were four major indicators; structure, environment, value and impact. The total sub-indicators were 25 which finally increased to 33 but main elements were the same. Under the sub-indicators, there were 74 indicators in the Civil Society Index (CSI) which were applied in the field of research as a theoretical guideline of the study. the study developed 137 criterias; 14 indicators came from existing criteria of Civil Society Index, 70 new added, 53 modified and 3 existing criteria was removed. Further researchers can evaluate the impact of performance of NGO by using the NGO assessment criteria developed by this study.

Keywords: Assessment Criteria, Civil Society Index (CSI), Environment, Impact, NGO Structure, Value

Cross River Tourism, History and Environment: A Marriage Contracted In the Womb of Time (Published)

Today, it can be safely argued that Cross River State is noted more for its tourism enterprise than for anything else. Since 1999 to date, there have been sustained efforts by successive administrations to re-engineer and rebrand the State as a tourism spectacle and hub not just in the Cross River Region but in Nigeria and indeed, the West Africa Sub-region at large. This paper seeks to show that there is an organic and inescapable relationship between Cross River’s current tourism efforts and its history and environment. Put differently, we would attempt to demonstrate that the foundation of Cross River tourism is embedded in its history and environment and it is from these pristine bowels that the current initiatives can truly find rhythm, momentum and relevance.

Keywords: Cross River, Environment, Nigeria, Tourism, history

Environmental Management and Control Education in Nigeria (Published)

The application of sophisticated technology in a laissez- faire economy to provide for the diverse needs of ever increasing population led to series of environmental stress and crises. The magnitude and complexity of these environmental problems evoked the raising of alarm from various quarters calling for urgent attention to the myriads of environmental problem issues, if man’s survival will be guaranteed. These alarms created the pressure that later gave rise to environmental management and control discipline and profession. In practical terms, environmental management and control is multi-disciplinary in scope and requires the training of crops of professionals that will be equipped with critical and analytical skills to provide both preventive and corrective measures to address all dimensions of environmental problems. Thus, the environmental and control education aims at training and producing competent personnel that will be intellectually equipped with sufficient and relevant theoretical and technical knowledge as well as skills for dealing with the problems caused by developmental projects and also who will possess the multi-disciplinary perspectives to team up with other professionals to achieve sustainable development in various aspects of human endeavours. Regrettably, it is only 30 out of 107 Universities and other 52 degree/HND/NCE awarding tertiary institutions in Nigeria that offer environmental management and control education. This is abysmally too low and poor which partly explains why environmental problems appear intractable in Nigeria. For sustainable development to become feasible and realizable in Nigeria, environmental education must be made compulsory in all tertiary levels of education as well as in pre-tertiary schools. Environmental management graduates are trained to work in the public and non-public establishments and as well as possess adequate skills to set up their private consultancy firms and become employers of labour.

Keywords: Education, Environment, Management, developmental projects., multi-disciplinary, preventive and corrective measures

Assessment Criteria for Ngos In Reference To the Study of Ngos of Nepal (Published)

Introduction: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are working to facilitate and support the development activities in every sector to achieve the development goals of Nepal Government. While facing difficulty to reach different areas, contributions of NGO become the significant and milestone for the change and development of the society. This study was conducted in Karnali Zone, Midwestern Development Region of Nepal. Objective: The objective of this research was to develop the NGO assessment criteria. Methodology: This study was particularly based on the pragmatism philosophy. Deductive approach was used to test the theory. Cross-sectional descriptive and exploratory research design was adopted. Study was conducted among the beneficiaries, NGOs executive board, NGOs staff, Civil Society and Governmental Officials in Karnali Zone. A total of 562 respondents were selected for survey and 45 key informants were interviewed, 15 case studies were prepared, 15 focus group discussions were conducted and 56 observations were done in 56 NGOs and 15 communities. The qualitative analysis was done to develop the criteria. Results: There were four major indicators; structure, environment, value and impact. The total sub-indicators were 25 which finally increased to 33 but main elements were the same. Under the sub-indicators, there were 74 indicators in the Civil Society Index (CSI) which were applied in the field of research as a theoretical guideline of the study. the study developed 137 criterias; 14 indicators came from existing criteria of Civil Society Index, 70 new added, 53 modified and 3 existing criteria was removed. Further researchers can evaluate the impact of performance of NGO by using the NGO assessment criteria developed by this study.

Keywords: Assessment Criteria, Civil Society Index (CSI), Environment, Impact, NGO Structure, Value

Development of Green Energy Saving Mechanisms (Published)

Geothermal energy is the natural heat that exists within the earth and that can be absorbed by fluids occurring within, or introduced into, the crystal rocks. Although, geographically, this energy has local concentrations, its distribution globally is widespread. The amount of heat that is, theoretically, available between the earth’s surface and a depth of 5 km is around 140 x 1024 joules. Of this, only a fraction (5 x 1021 joules) can be regarded as having economic prospects within the next five decades, and only about 500 x 1018 joules is likely to be exploited by the year 2020. Three main techniques used to exploit the heat available are: geothermal aquifers, hot dry rocks and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). The GSHPs play a key role in geothermal development in Central and Northern Europe. With borehole heat exchangers as heat source, they offer de-central geothermal heating at virtually any location, with great flexibility to meet given demands. In the vast majority of systems, no space cooling is included, leaving the GSHPs with some economic constraints. Nevertheless, a promising market development first occurred in Switzerland and Sweden, and now also is obvious in Austria and Germany. Approximately 20 years of R&D focusing on borehole heat exchangers resulted in a well-established concept of sustainability for this technology, as well as in sound design and installation criteria. The market success brought Switzerland to the third rank worldwide in geothermal direct use. The future prospects are good, with an increasing range of applications including large systems with thermal energy storage for heating and cooling, The GSHPs in densely populated development areas, borehole heat exchangers for cooling of telecommunication equipment, etc. This communication reviews some interactions between buildings and environment. The correct assessment of climate helps to create buildings, which are successful in their external environment, while knowledge of sick buildings helps to avoid unsuccessful internal environments. The sections on energy conservation and green buildings suggest how the correct design and use of buildings can help to improve total environment.

Keywords: Environment, GREEN buildings, Ground Source Heat Pump

The Extent of Response to the Social Responsibility Accounting in Tourism Sector: A Case of Jordan (Published)

This study aims at identifying the extent to which the tourism sector in Jordan responds to the accounting for the social responsibility. In order to achieve the goals of the study, a questionnaire has been used to collect the necessary data from 50 participants who have been randomly selected from the field of accounting in the southern region hotels. The statistical results show that there is a clear response from the tourist hotels toward their social responsibility in human resource development on the one hand and toward the preservation of the environment on the other. The study concludes with a number of recommendations including: the need for continuous efforts to meet the social responsibilities, working to keep up with any new requirements, paying more attention to human resources in the surrounding communities, increasing attention to reserves, and providing more support to the community through having a role in creating some attractive tourist environment such as resorts and artificial lakes that will help in prolonging the period of stay of tourists which in turn will reflect positively on those hotels.

Keywords: CSR accounting, Environment, Ethics, Human resource, Tourist Hotels

Study of Biofouling in Books Stored At the Archive of the Library of Shumen University (Published)

The aims of this paper were to study the biofouling and biodeterioration of books stored at the Archive of the library of Shumen University, Bulgaria, and to carry out the physiological characterization of isolated fungi and bacteria. Also the role of the environmental microbiota in the biofouling formation was studied. Microbial assemblages on documents were sampled by sedimentation method as described by Omeliansky. Biofouling were monitored by microscope and stereomicroscope OPTIKA (Italy). Large microbial assemblages were found at archive with the prevalence of genera Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium. Most of the fungi degraded cellulose and produced pigments and acids, and all of the isolated bacteria had proteolytic and/or cellulolytic activity. In shed a higher concentration of viable bacteria than of fungi was isolated. The existence of this bacterial genus in the Library of Shumen University indicates that the faulty ventilation system needs to be repaired and suitable anti-dust filters to be set.

Keywords: Archives, Biodeterioration, Environment, Microorganisms, Paper

The Influence of Legitimacy and Marketing in the Context of Accounting for the Environment in a Sub-Saharan African Country (Published)

Purpose – The paper intends to serve as a contribution to the requirements for organizations to account for and disclose the social and environmental (SE) consequences of their activities, aspects of the concept of sustainability accounting (SA). In particular, this research study investigates the current practices of environmental accounting (EA), whether it is influenced by the same values as that of society and is used as a marketing tool of the oil and gas sector in Uganda, a less developed country. Design/methodology/approach – The study involved 57 oil and petroleum supply chains. Major data collection methods included a review of 13 annual reports/statements by oil companies and both a structured and a semi-structured questionnaire involving 272 respondents, with a response rate of 57.0%. A mixed-methodological approach was employed to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data together. Findings – (1) There are no detailed archival records related to EA; (2) respondents’ (106) responses to the possible consequences of not accounting for the environment were almost indifferent on issues that influence marketing, indicated by the small differences in the mean (1.83 to 2.50) and standard deviations (0.504 to 0.925); (3) responses on the influence of legitimacy and marketing on accounting for the environment ranged from 8.3% to 90.0%, while the mean ranged from 1.92 to 3.90 and the standard deviations from 0.303 to 1.482; (4) we suggest that EA is currently not being done, which is an indicator of poor management of the environment; (5) the results support that a marketing tool is not a significant determining factor of accounting for the environment, despite having a social role to fulfill; and (6) the results do support the theory of legitimacy, because oil and petroleum products suppliers in the country respond to environmental laws, regulations and guidelines. Originality/value – The highlighted perspective on how organizations account for and disclose the environmental trends of their activities – an aspect of the concept of SA in Uganda, a country with a youthful population, open markets, abundant resources and significant unexploited oil and gas reserves – distinguishes this study from others on similar topics.

Keywords: Environment, Legitimacy., Marketing, oil and gas sector, sub-Saharan Africa, sustainability accounting

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