The principle of relative effect of the contract with regards to third parties is presented as a limit and also a guarantee of freedom of contract.The direct effects are only those created by the stipulation in favour of third parties. The indirect effects are, on the one hand, those effects on third parties which result from the legal activity of another. English law reflects the principle of relative effect of contracts in the Doctrine of Privity of Contract. The aim of this paper is to show how this principle finds placein Community law and in national law. European law is centred on the protection of third parties to the contract constituting the company. In the Unidroit Principles, the principle only appears from an a contrario.In some legal systems, the effect ofthe contract with regard to third parties is particularly strongly regulated. In others it is only through the sanctioning of the violation of third party rights that these effects are taken into account.Within the Common law systems, it is generally admitted that the contract only produces effects between the parties, and the situation of third parties is rarely studied. The approach is different once again in those systems that are today essentially still based on Roman law.
This study was designed to identify the effects of tax evasion on government revenue generation in Oyo State. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of one hundred and sixty five (165) respondents who were randomly selected across the state while secondary data were gathered from National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), Office of Budget and Economic Planning, and Internal Revenue Office using data from 2011- 2016. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics tools with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Science SPSS, window 23. The findings showed that, the amount of Internally Generated Revenue (IGR) between 2011 and 2016 did not meet the estimates revenue as it was expected. The results also revealed that, the tax evasion has adverse effect on government revenue generation in Oyo state which typically results in revenue loss. The implications of these results may cause inevitable distraction to the potential performance of government in the public sector; therefore, threatening its competence to finance public expenditure and undermining legitimacy of government due to non compliance to pay tax become significant to substantial budget deficit. We therefore, recommended that, the government should embark on massive public enlightenment campaign and adequate utilization of tax revenues on public goods to discourage tax evasion and reduction in tax rate
The Effect of Automated Car Park System on Revenue Collection in Busia County Government, Kenya (Published)
In the present-day competitive, fast-paced business landscape, getting the most out of available resources is not an option but a necessity. County governments are taking a highly proactive approach to systems modernization and operations in an effort to increase efficiency and effectiveness in their operations. The study sought to establish the effect of automated financial systems on revenue collection in Busia County Government. Based on the study, this paper examines the effects of automated car park system on revenue collection in Busia County Government. The study used the Meta Theory Model was used as the theoretical framework. The Theory posits that contingency factors, organizational factors and technological factors have an effect on the aspect of task performance. The study adopted ex post facto research design. The study targeted 140 employees who worked at the Busia County Government. The research used random sampling technique to identify respondents who participated in the study. The sample size was 103 respondents. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics (ANOVA, regression analysis and correlation). The study found that there was a statistically significant linear relationship between automated car park systems and revenue collection (p=0.000). The research recommended that Busia County should improve on automated financial systems. Automation of the revenue management process should be improved to enhance efficiency.
Effects and Coping Measures of Flood among Farming Households in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
We explored the ways in which people in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria dealt with the extreme flood that occurred in 2012, with specific attention to the effects which the people were unable to avoid through coping measures. The study combined purposive and random sampling techniques in selecting sixty farming households from three communities that were affected by the flood. The main tool for data collection was questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. We found that 100% of the surveyed households reported crop losses. To deal with the adverse effects, 75% of respondents migrated from their various houses to a place of safety especially to their relations’ houses. The main determinants of coping measures to the flood by the households include gender, farm size, farming experience and access to credit. There is a need for government investments in structural preventive measures.
The Extent to Which the Lives of Women in Conflict Prone Areas Have Been Affected: A Case of West and North Pokot Sub Counties, Kenya (Published)
War affects women and men differently. Whenever there is a conflict, women and children are the most that are hard hit. This paper focuses on the extent to which women in West and North Pokot have been affected by conflicts. The study was carried out in Kanyarkwat location, Katikatmor sub-location and Kopulio location, Nakuyen sub location of West and North Pokot respectively. A survey research design was used, where questionnaires and interviews were the major data collection tools. Observation was used, to provide information and observe actual behavior of the respondents. The findings reveal that women are largely affected by conflicts reporting displacement, sicknesses due to lack of hygiene, losses of family members and property, poverty, lack of schools and lack of medical facilities as being prevalent. Women end up living in a state of hopelessness and helplessness because of conflict related issues. Peace building capacities should be advocated for, with women being fully involved. The government and other stake holders should look for ways of alleviating the illiteracy rate in such areas and create awareness on the importance of peace building campaigns
The Extent to Which the Lives of Women in Conflict Prone Areas Have Been Affected: A Case of West and North Pokot Sub Counties, Kenya (Published)
There is no doubt that war affects women and men differently. Whenever there has been conflict, women and children have been known to be the most that are hard hit. This paper is a focus to determine the extent to which the lives of women in West and North Pokot have been affected by conflicts. The study was carried out in Kanyarkwat location, Katikatmor sub-location and Kopulio location, Nakuyen sub location of West and North Pokot respectively. Participation involved a random sample of two hundred women from each of the two study locations. A survey research design was used employing questionnaires and interviews as major data collection tools. Observation was also used to provide information and aid in observing actual behavior of the respondents. The findings reveal that women are largely affected by conflicts reporting displacement, sicknesses due to lack of hygiene, losses of family members and property, poverty, lack of schools and lack of medical facilities as being prevalent. The women end up living in a state of hopelessness and helplessness because of conflict related issues. Peace building capacities should be advocated for with women being fully involved. The government and other stake holders should also look for ways of alleviating the illiteracy rate in such areas at the same time creating awareness on the importance of being involved in peace building campaigns
It is necessary to differentiate among different types of breach bearing in mind that their legal belongings are not similar when breach of contract takes place. Various forms of Non- performance are taken like actual and anticipatory or non-fundamental and fundamental breach. Although, breach or non-performance may be divided into unintended and deliberate one at the standpoint of will. Who has behaved in bad-faith it cannot be indifferent to obligor by Law. In favor of oblige some legal systems have been changed and upgraded at this end. With special remedies, some of international tools like DCFR, PECL and UPICC deliberate breach have been encountered. This paper examines the fastidious effects of deliberate breach with prominence on above mentioned documents.
THE EFFECTS OF TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS AND ATTITUDES ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN KCSE ECONOMICS EXAMINATION (Published)
Economics is a very important subject in the school curriculum. However, since the adoption of 8-4-4 system of education in Kenya in the mid 1980’s, the number of students registering for economics in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) has been steadily dropping. This has been attributed to the unsatisfactory student’s performance in KCSE economics. This paper sought to examine the effect of teacher characteristics and attitudes on student performance in Economics subject. The study is a field based survey conducted in secondary schools offering economics in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. Simple purposive sampling was used to get the representative sample for the study. The representative sample, constituted all the fourth form students of economics in all the secondary schools in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya, Inspectors of schools in districts where economics was being offered and teachers from the schools where the subject was offered. A total of 187 students, 32 teachers and 4 district inspectors took part. Data was collected from the sample using questionnaires. The data collected was analysed using Excel software program. Basic statistical techniques were used to analyse various items in the questionnaire. These include calculating the averages, frequencies, percentages and totals. These statistical techniques were used to make comparisons in the various data collected. Conclusions on the variables analysed were finally drawn from these comparisons. The study concludes that teachers have a positive attitude towards the subject thus poor performance could be attributed to other factors than teacher attitudes. The author expects that teachers of economics will benefit from the findings on the identified factors that influence the instructional procedures and strategies and hence improve the performance of the subject in the national examinations.
EFFECT OF LAND COVER CHANGE ON FRESH WATER ECOSYSTEM IN CALABAR MUNICIPALITY, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
The study examined the resultant effects of land cover changes on Anwatim River Located in Nkonib Clan, Calabar municipality. Anwatim River being a fresh water ecosystem that once served as a major source of drinking water and domestic water supply in the area is now lost due to land use and land cover changes. Data for the study was obtained from aerial photographs and was considered from 1980-2013. However, an interval of 10 years was used in determining the changes that have occurred alongside effects on the river size. Remote sensing and geographic information systems (Arc view GIS 9.3 software) technology was used in change detection analysis. From the study, it was revealed that from 1980-1989, the land cover was about 3,198,553.7 square meters with a river size of 883,463.5 square meters. Between 1990 and 1999, the land cover was reduced to 2,765,521.2 square meters which then reduced the stream size to 782,124.0 square meters. Similarly, in the years 2000-2009, further depreciation in land cover was observed to be 415,732.9 square meters. In 2013, land cover area of 72,390.4 square meters is now what is left with a corresponding river size reduction to 3677.9 square meters. Therefore, the total land cover loss of 3,126,163.3 square meters to built-up areas (housing and industrial development) have led to a total loss of 3,194,875.7 square meter of Anwatim River in size and extent.
A TECHNIQUE FOR N2¬K FACTORIAL DESIGNS (Published)
This article developed an appealing technique for n2k factorial designs that would generate more compact and more efficient computational results on n2k complete experiments that would be of immense benefit to students and researchers.
The article leveraged on existing body of knowledge on 2k factorial designs to contrive and exploit a series of orthogonal and block diagonal matrices, which formed the basis for the statements and proofs of envisaged results on complete n2k experiments.
The research effort culminated into statements and proofs of what the researcher referred to as Ukwu’s theorem and its corollary. These would elucidate the design process, offer computational advantages on the prosecution of complete n2k experiments, as well as enhance their mathematical appreciation. The utility and applicability of the results of the investigation should be multi-disciplinary in nature and scope.
Occurance of Climate Change and its Effects on the Fishing Activities in the Coastal Region of Ondo State Nigeria (Published)
This paper establishes the occurrence of climate change and its effects on the day to day activities of the artisanal fisherfolks in the coastal region of Ondo State, Nigeria. The current knowledge of the artisanal fisherfolks on climate change was also assessed. Data for climate variables in the study area were got from Explore Satellite and reanalyzed. Extractions of all meteorological variables of interest were done using Linux / Ferret. This model was used to establish the fact that climate change has occurred in the coastal region of Ondo State, Nigeria. Kruskal Wallis test was also used, to assess the current knowledge of the artisanal fisherfolks on climate change. There was a noticeable cycle of annual rainfall amount but the steepness of such cycles increased beginning from 1979. Between 1902 and 1910 were years below average temperature followed by above average temperature distribution between in 2003 and 2009. This confirmed the fact that climate change has occurred in the coastal region of Ondo state, Nigeria. It was observed that the fisherfolks in the study area had various inadvertent and intentional adaptation strategies adopted for maximum fish production/catch.