The relationship between South Africa and Nigeria dates back to 1960s during the Apartheid era. Nigeria played an instrumental role in ending apartheid and upon the collapse of the apartheid regime, migrants from Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria swamped into the country as a result of investment opportunities. However, the current challenges facing South Africa such as unemployment, poor border control, lack of education caused deep resentment amongst the locals and resulted in xenophobic attitudes and violence. This paper thus, is informed by the rise in the attacks on Nigerians in South Africa and takes a critical analysis of the impact of xenophobia on Nigeria students in South Africa. In achieving this, data was collated using a 12 item questionnaire titled “Impact of Xenophobia on Nigerian students in South Africa” across 30 randomly selected Nigerian students using sampling technique rated on a 4point likert scale. The findings of this study indicates that Nigerian students face discrimination from fellow students, locals and immigration and government officials while the rise of xenophobic sentiments has impacted the economy and investment opportunities of South Africa. Awareness campaigns by stakeholders, policies that boost employment and the economy as well as partnership by both governments were recommended by the study.
This survey study investigated research anxiety among education undergraduates in University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The population was 1,467 final year education undergraduates while the sample was 500 students drawn through proportionate random sampling technique. One research question was posed and 3 null hypotheses were formulated. Data for analysis were collected through the administration of copies of “Research Anxiety Scale” developed by the researchers on the respondents. The reliability of this scale was established through the test re-test method with an interval of two weeks. The obtained reliability co-efficient for the 4 sub-sections of section B were 0.81; 0.78; 0.76 and 0.81. The research question was answered with mean and standard deviation while the null hypotheses were tested with t-test of one sample mean. The results show that research anxiety is pervasive among education undergraduates. It also shows that instructional, weak computation ability and research supervision factors contribute significantly to research anxiety among education undergraduates. These results were discussed, their counselling implications stated and recommendations were also made. One of the recommendations is that lecturers should be exposed to periodic seminars, workshops and conference to update their knowledge of research.
Vocational and Technical Education Orientation and Instruction for Job Creation among Youths and the Unemployed in Nigeria (Published)
The paper looked at vocational and technical education orientation and instruction for job creation among youths and the unemployed in Nigeria. Vocational and technical education is the foundation upon which the skills of workforce are built, without a great further progress in vocational and technical education orientation and instruction, we cannot hope for future employment and reliant graduates with the required skills and flexibility for a fast growing industry in the global age. Vocational and technical education as an instrument for job creation for youths and unemployed in Nigeria. It is on this recognition that the researcher focused attention on the following sub-headings to address the topic: Rationale for vocational and technical education orientation and instruction; vocational systems packages for instruction; utilization of equipment and facilities for instruction for job creation; vocational and technical education orientation and instructional methods for job creation among youth and unemployed; and problems of vocational and technical education orientation and instruction. It was based on these reviewed literature that recommendations were made for job creation for youths and unemployed, It was recommended that adequate fund should be made available to fund the orientation and instruction of vocational and technical education programme for job creation for youths and unemployed among others.
The Influence of the Levels of Education and Knowledge on the Performance of Community Health Workers in Soy Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
Community health workers (CHWs) the world over help to alleviate the shortages of health workers in the health sector. They are involved in the delivery of health services to the community and constitute the first point of contact on health-related issues in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The performance of CHWs is often hampered by various factors. The purpose of the study was to investigate the socio-cultural factors influencing the performance of CHWs in Soy Sub-County. Based on the study, this paper explores the influence of CHWs’ level of education and knowledge on their performance in Soy Sub-County. A correlation research design was used in the study with systematic sampling method being used to identify the respondents. In total, 98 respondents were given questionnaires to fill. Qualitative data was also collected from 7 heads of community health management team (CHMT) using key informant interviews. The collected data was then presented using frequency distribution tables while inferential statistics were computed using regression and correlation to determine the relationship between socio-cultural factors and performance of community health workers. Qualitative data was analysed manually to generate trends, sub-themes and themes from which conclusions were inferred regarding the performance of CHWs. The research findings showed that there was a significant (p= .000; α = 0.05) relationship that exists between education and knowledge and CHWs’ performance. Based on the findings, it was recommended that a strategy should be developed to incorporate all the stakeholders that affect the performance of community health workers in coming up with a training programme for CHWs. Moreover, there should be a policy shift in Kenya to encourage male CHW to scale up delivery of health services at community level. The findings of the study support decision-making on CHWs’ training programmes and also constitute the basis of transformation of implantation of community strategy in Soy Sub-County.
There are many challenges affecting how we can better achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Since the factors that affected our poor performance during the MDGs which include unmanageable population, pervasive poverty, ignorance and superstition, religious dogmatism, corruption and economic mismanagement, lack of political will, authenticity of collected data are still largely with us in Nigeria. Apart from those issues pertaining to Nigeria, we need to be able to manage some existing global threats to sustainable development. These threats include the continuous advancement towards finding or making more potent biological, chemical, nuclear, cyber and other weapons of mass destruction. United Nations need to improve on legislation to prevent these proliferations and also improve on how to coordinate scientific efforts towards better achievement of the Sustainable Development goals. Finally the importance of education in its entire ramification was identified as key to achieving the SD goals better.
Sustainable development and good living condition in the modern world are determined by people who possess more than normal reasoning abilities. The present Nigerian socio-political, economic and technological dilemma therefore results from the redundancy of mind paved by gross deficiency in logic and critical thinking competencies. This deficiency broadly stems from Nigerian poor educational system which has neglected acquisition of reflective and critical reasoning skills in theoretical and practical terms. This hampers critical competence, and results to irrational judgments, biased policies and dishonest governance. Consequently, problem solving and critical competence in various sectors of Nigerian existence have remained a mirage resulting to unsustainable development. This paper analytically investigates the meaning, cradle, essence, relevance and state of logic and critical thinking in Nigerian higher education and existence. The research finds that logic and critical thinking has been negligently relegated to one of those optional General Studies’ courses rarely needed to make up the required credit load. As such, not every department of education in Nigeria offers logic and critical thinking. This is coupled with the fact that in some Nigerian Higher Institutions, logic and critical thinking is managed by unqualified staff. The paper as well finds that knowledge of logic and critical thinking is indispensable in the daily human expressions, decisions, right choices and actions. For deficiency in reasoning skills paves way for errors, deceptions, violence and false democracy. The paper concludes that for Nigeria to initiate and sustain true democracy and development, logic and critical thinking should be centrally paramount in her education system because of its quality of impacting critical reasoning skills and competency in the students and citizenry.
Navigating Through Ph.D Programmes: Experiences of Ghanaian Ph.D Graduates from Universities across the Globe (Published)
This research sought to examines the experiences of Ghanaian PhD graduates from various universities across the globe. A qualitative research model was therefore designed and used to explore factors that motivated the PhD graduates to pursue their programmes, challenges they faced in the course of their study, effects of these challenges on them and how they dealt with the challenges. Purposive and convenience sampling techniques were employed to select twenty participants for the study. The theoretical focus of the study was on human capital theory. The data was analysed using thematic approach. It emerged from the study that job placement and security, the academic environment, family aspiration and expectation, personal desire to stand out to be visible and availability of scholarships were factors that motivated Ghanaian PhD graduates to pursue their programmes. The findings also revealed that Ghanaian PhD graduates lost most of their acquaintances deliberately, missed their families and social life, and had difficulty managing supervisor/student relationship, battling with theories, data management and analysis. It became obvious that as part of PhD students orientation they should be made to understand that uncertainty, doubt, disappointments are parts of the PhD experience and they should not be derailed by those conditions. Universities running PhD programmes should provide counselling centres and programmes that are tailored towards the reduction of stress factors accompanying PhD programmes.
Effective School and Its Role in Achieving the Characteristics of the Encouraging Educational Environment in Jordanian Public Schools (Published)
The objective of the present study was to measure the contribution of the effective school in achieving the characteristics of the encouraging educational environment in Jordanian public schools. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the analytical descriptive approach in terms of applying the study tool, the study population may be from all eighth grade students at the Ras al-Majar Primary Mixed School, The study found that the active school contributes to the characteristics of the encouraging educational environment in the Jordanian public schools by 55.2%. The researcher recommended the necessity of spreading the effective school culture in all areas of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan because of its many benefits in improving the educational environment.
Level of Availability and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology Facilities by Students: A Case Study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri, Imo State Nigeria (Published)
This paper is an attempt to evaluate the availability and utilization of Information and Communication (ICT) facilities by students in Federal Polytechnic Library, and also challenges the academic library faces in the area of adoption and utilization of ICT in their service delivery. Questionnaire survey approach was adopted. Primary data were collected with the aid of a four point likert scale questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to Students of the study area. The Population for the Students at Federal Polytechnic Nekede is 870 which was obtained from the Universities’ Information and Communication Technology block (ICT, 2017). The sample size is 290. The sampling technique used here is stratified simple random. To guarantee the reliability of the instrument, it was administered on ten(10)participants out of the envisaged population of the study. A test-retest reliability method of two weeks interval was conducted, response obtained were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation method and a reliability co-efficient of 0.78 was obtained. To analyze data on the research questions of the study the researcher used descriptive statistical mean. The hypothesis was tested using the chi-square (x2) which is a statistical tool to test hypothesis about the relationship between means of groups. It was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study found that scanning machines, printer, CD-ROM, Computer, Flash Drives, Land Area Network (LAN) and Inverter were available but few. Also the majority of the students indicated that they use ICT to retrieve information (3.1), make research(3.1), disseminate information (3.0) chat with friends (3.1) and download files (3.0). Challenges such as unreliable telecommunication network (3.3) insecurity in the library (3.3) epileptic power supply (3.3) unreliable internet (3.0) and high cost of ICT hardware/software were identified as major challenges of availability and utilization of ICT in the school’s academic library. It was recommended however that these challenges be looked into both by the institution and government in order to address the challenges.
Availability and Utilization of Information Resources and Services in the Special Education Centre Libraries in South-East, Nigeria (Published)
The study focused on ascertaining the availability and utilization of information resources and services in the special education centre libraries in South-East, Nigeria. The study was prompted due to the problems encountered by physically challenged student in the use of normal library services. Six research questions were posed to guide the study, while two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted survey research design, and used observational checklist and rating scale as data collection instruments. The sample size for the study was 430 comprising five special education staff and 425 special education pupils/students. Two-stage sampling simple random sampling was made. Cronbach Alpha technique was used to ascertain reliability coefficient of .85. Frequency count, standard deviation and mean score were used to address the research questions while the hypotheses were tested using t-test of difference. Results revealed that the number of available information resources for the blind and partially sighted is significantly less than expected in this context. That the number of available information resources for the deaf and hard of hearing is also significantly less than expected. The study also revealed that the available information services for the blind and partially sighted is significantly less than expected, the available information services for the deaf and hard of hearing is also significantly less than expected. The available information resources for the blind and partially sighted are not fully utilized, and the available information resources for the deaf and hard of hearing are not fully utilized. The study concluded that the provision of information resources and services is less than expected. Also the available information resources and services are not fully utilized by the physically challenged groups studied for any significant impact in learning. It `was recommended that, there should be provision of information resources, such as Braille resources; tactile or raised surface; sign language books; adaptive or electronic devices. Services like: on-sight support; guided tours; facilities, etc. Every such library should employ librarians who are clearly aware of the nature of work they do. Adequate funding for proper management of the special education centre libraries in Nigeria in such a way as to meet the present day educational demand for these classes of /pupils/students studied, among others. Suggestions for further studies were also made.
Conceptual Study of Value Curve in Knowledge Sharing of Organizational Training and Education (Published)
The knowledge sharing is the core of knowledge management in organizational training and education, but we pay few attentions to the value of knowledge sharing in the past. This research aims at some confuse idea related to knowledge sharing, then we propose more explicit knowledge value categorization, and infer the hypothesis of the value of knowledge owner curve. The main contribution of present study is to classify the value in knowledge sharing process into the knowledge value and knowledge owners’, and explaining what the value of organization increased is come from knowledge owner decrease, finally knowledge owner value can be divided into expert’s power value and the value of sharing will and ability. Put these two above values together, the knowledge owner value becomes a concave upward curve. It is to say the value of knowledge owner is under the influence of expert’s power and descend in the early stage, and then raising thereafter because this sharing will and ability are predicted to get applauses. The present study proposed related hypotheses, it still have to carry on some testing to verify in the future. However these hypotheses still show some new concept of value in the subject of the knowledge sharing currently, it enable us to find different thinking. We hope the results of present study can suggest a better way to encourage knowledge sharing according to different viewpoints of value of organizational training and education in the future.
This paper is a contribution to addressing the challenge of underdevelopment in Nigeria using the tool of education. The researcher looked at education for sustainable development in Nigeria as a developing country. In recent times, there has been a paradigm shift in defining development and the way it is practiced. This paradigm shift is what has resulted in the adoption of Sustainable Development (SD) as a concept. Sustainable Development was highlighted in the Brunttand Report, at the Stockholm Conference of 1972 and more recently, in Paris, France where over 169 countries adopted the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a working document. All over Nigeria, there are rumours and evidence of failed leadership characterized by dwindling educational, economic, social and political fortunes. All these problems are as a result of the inability of the leadership to plan successfully for development using appropriate educational tools. It is the opinion here that, Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) can function to educate, train and undertake research to contribute to the sustainable development of the Nigerian Society. For instance, such education can provide the citizens with skills, perspectives, values and knowledge to live sustainably in their communities. It can also produce leaders who manage the affairs of government and private sector industries to constitute the stake holders of sustainable development. To function properly in this regard, Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) should grow from a variety of sources and be delivered through casual, informal, non-formal and formal strategies. In order to achieve these therefore, the paper recommends among other things that there should be a reorientation of existing education at all levels to include principles, skills, perspectives and values of sustainable development. That formal, non-formal informal and casual education for knowledge, attitude and skills for poverty alleviation and human development be promoted.
The Relationship Between the Capabilities of School Management and Teacher’s Performance Guiding and Counseling at Government Senior High School in Medan Academic Year 2015/2016 (Published)
This study aims to determine the relationship between principal management capabilities with the performance of guidance and counseling teachers in SMA NEGERI Medan. The formulation of the problem in this study is any relationship between the principal’s management capability with the performance of guidance and counseling teachers of State Senior High School Medan City 2015/2016 academic year. This type of research is a correlation research which is one part of the ex facto research because the researchers do not manipulate the state of a variable that is reflected in the correlation coefficient. Researchers do not treat the research variables but examine the facts that have occurred based on the perceptions of teachers guidance and counseling facts were excavated using a questionnaire containing the number of questions that reflect teachers’ perceptions of guidance and counseling on the ability of school principals. The results of research using descriptive and correlation methods. The relationship between one variable with several variables is expressed by the amount of correlation coefficient and significance (significant) statistically. This study has two variables, namely the principal’s management capability as X variable and teacher guidance and counseling performance as variable Y. Results indicated that the implementation of the principal’s management capability in SMA was disseminated 3.45. The results of the study provide answers that teachers guidance and counseling in the State Senior High School of Medan has a high performance / well indicated by the average answer questionnaire distributed 3.20. Result of calculation of correlation coefficient price between variable of headmaster’s management ability (X) With teacher performance guidance and counseling variable (Y) equal to 0,8597 show very positive relationship. From result of hypothesis test with t-test calculation show t count t table or 14,346 2,086 which answer the hypothesis of this research that is: “there is positive and significant correlation between managerial capability of headmaster with guidance counselor and counseling performance at SMA NEGERI Medan.
Education for the Realization of the Preferential Option for the Poor: Catholic Church Activities in Uasin-Gishu County, Kenya (Published)
The present world is largely characterized by people who live in two opposite extremes; the extremely poor and the extremely rich. The challenge of poverty remains a major concern to governments and non-governmental organizations alike. Faith communities respond to poverty by looking to the teachings of Scripture to establish structures and actions that can liberate and empower the poor. The Roman Catholic Church’s commitment to empowering the poor is expressed in its social teaching and practices. Social amenities offered by the church range from provision of food, clothing, shelter, medical care and affordable quality education. Despite such initiatives on the part of the church, poverty is rife. Therefore, based on a study conducted in Uasin-Gishu County in Kenya, this paper examines the activities of the Catholic Diocese of Eldoret in the realization of preferential option for poor students in secondary schools. The study adopted descriptive mixed methods cross-sectional design comprising qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The target population comprised pupils in all the fourteen Catholic-sponsored schools in the Diocese, their head teachers, as well as teachers offering guidance and counselling. A sample of 351 students, 9 head teachers, and 28 teachers were drawn from those schools. Purposive sampling was employed in selecting 24 key informants, 12 from Catholic Diocesan secretariat, 4 priests, 4 officials from the Ministry of Education in the County and 4 members of the management at Catholic University of Eastern Africa (Gaba Campus). Schools were selected using simple random sampling technique while teachers and diocesan education officials were purposively sampled. Kathuri and Pals formula was employed in sampling student population. Questionnaire and interview schedule were the main tools of data collection. Analysed data was presented using cumulative frequency tables, percentages and pie charts. The study established that there are activities that are organised from within the church. The Catholic Diocese of Eldoret manages five key programmes that support poor children in its sponsored schools. Most of them are donor-funded although efforts have been initiated to involve parishes in raising money to sustain them. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the Diocese should explore ways through which continuity is seen in terms of funding. The study found that some projects that were supported by missionaries experience great challenges when the same donors leave. The findings of the study highlight practical strategies that the Catholic Church uses to assist poor children get education.
Arts Education: A Viable Vocational Area For Secondary School Students in a Recessive Economy: Implications for Counselling (Published)
Arts education with particular reference to Fine and Applied Arts, is a discipline that is yet to be sufficiently accorded its pride of place in the scheme of things in the Nigerian Educational space inspite of its usefulness and functionalities. The fact that arts permeate almost every aspect of human lives is at best, noticed but not fully appreciated. The researcher, therefore, explored more areas of utilities of this discipline on social functions, religion, industry, job creation and entrepreneurial skills. Comparative analysis emphasis were made between the arts vis-à-vis science and technology. In conclusion, the researcher recommended that more attention should be given to Fine and Applied Arts as a sure destination to employment opportunities in a recessive economy
Integrating Arab and Jewish Students in Colleges in Israel: Ohalo College as a Case Study (Published)
The present article attempts to check the possibility of integrating Arab and Jewish students in colleges in the state, the current integration at Ohalo College is used as a case study. Participants comprised thirty Jewish and Arab, male and female students at Ohalo College in Katzrin, Israel. The current study investigated whether such integration can promote peace between Jews and Arabs. Aspiration for peace is a significant value of life in Israel, and it appears in various contexts and in political discussions. Peace promotes tolerance, prevents violence, and creates dialogue among the parties. Education for peace, which is expressed in integrating Jewish and Arab students, increases the value of higher education in general and the value of education for the Arab community, in particular, due to the inferior status Arabs in the state. The current study discusses the existing types of integration besides the integration possibilities in various academic institutions along with the hardships and obstacles that prevent Arab students from integrating as equals in the Jewish community.
The objective of this study is to understand the range of responses towards critical pedagogy by teachers who do not have much formal training or prior experience with critical pedagogy. The study aims to understand the practicality and feasibility of critical pedagogy to be applied in the classroom. The study was conducted on the fifteen teachers of a private university in Bangladesh. The participants were from four departments namely Law, English, Business Administration and Computer Science and Engineering. The data was collected through close ended questionnaire and analyzed through quantitative research method. The study reveals that critical pedagogy can be applied to Bangladeshi Classrooms.
Education 2030: Social Implications on the Development of Secondary Education in Rivers State (Published)
Education has evolved over time in content and practice to meet the ever changing demands of society. With this, has come several goals with accompanying deadlines to ensure its’ execution as exemplified by the Education 2030 SDG 4 goal derived from the Incheon declaration. While this is a laudable goal, how well it will be executed in Nigeria is yet to be seen. This study seeks to establish the relationship between physical infrastructure and the actualization of this goal in Rivers State. The research used the sample survey method and questionnaires with a reliability coefficient of 0.68 as instruments for data collection. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of covariance, and the results indicate that there is a relationship between physical structure and the actual implementation of Education 2030 goal of ensuring inclusive and equitable quality and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. The researchers recommend partnerships between the educational sector and host communities to create a smooth channel of communication and collaboration.
Education is considered a prerequisite for all individuals to make meaningful impact in their society. It enlightens the individuals and engrains in them the capacity to develop critical ability that would enable them transform their society in the best way they can. However, the actual teaching method and the structure of the curricula across the tiers of learning seem to have defeated this basic purpose of education. In most cases, education has been designed as an instrument of conservatism, where the learner becomes a passive receptor of certain knowledge. This makes the learner unproductive and sterile so much so that rather than the learner utilizing the knowledge acquired, the learner gives value to the certificate awarded. Paulo Freire considers this method of education as a banking system of education, which for him is a dangerous approach to impacting knowledge. He suggests problem-posing as the alternative model to the banking system of education. This alternative model engrains in the learner the liberty to develop thinking abilities, which aid such person to contribute in the learning process. This model conceives education as a kind of symbiotic method of learning. While we appreciate Freire’s alternative model, our work assesses it as inadequate. This paper therefore aims at exposing the limitations and pragmatic bankruptcy of a problem-posing pedagogy as espoused by Freire in contradistinction to a problem-solving type of education, which our paper strongly advocates. Our study also underscores the fact that it is not enough for a learner to participate in the learning process, which only results in posing problem. Adopting the constructivist approach, this paper strongly argues that the most appropriate model that gives the learner that huge independent capacity to transform the society is the problem-solving type. Through this model, the learner develops critical abilities to address societal and contextual problems.
The Sustainable Development Goals Program was adopted by the United Nations in September 2015 and is an evolution of the Millennium Development Goals Program (2000-2015). Its main axes are economy, society and the environment, with an emphasis on education and training for professionals, which are considered to be fundamental foundations of economic and social development. UNESCO is called upon to play an important role in implementing the Agenda, as it has both the right experience and extensive diplomatic networks. To this end, it has drafted official texts on the achievement of the Agenda 2030 objectives. Its recent text, “Third World Report on Adult Learning and Adult Education” (GRALE III), presents the results of an international research involving 139 UNESCO member countries on the impact of Learning and Adult Education on Health, Prosperity, Employment and the Labour Market, Social, Political and Community Life. Adults need to redefine their work profile and strengthen it with the right skills that will let them respond to the mental, physical and emotional demands of the new labour market. Which are though the right skills? Since specialized skills seem not to be adequate, emphasis has been lately put on emotional competence, which may contribute to the creation of a healthy working environment (Goleman, 1998). This study, through the qualitative analysis of the above-mentioned text, tries to capture and investigate whether there are references to skills related to the field of emotional intelligence in its content. The analysis of the text shows that references are made to the categories of interpersonal relations management, self-management, self –awareness and self-confidence. In particular, there is a strong need for policy makers of adult education to help learners develop communication, cooperation and tolerance, face difficulties, improve this lives, connect emotionally with others, join in community, sustain social connections.