This paper gives an overview of technology use in middle school education. The paper provides a clear understanding of technology integration and educational technology. The paper answers the question of why to use the technology in middle schools. Moreover, it tells about the effective use of technological devices and the best teaching practices when it comes to technology. Finally, with all the advantages technology brings to middle school, the paper also highlights the disadvantages of using technology.
Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention: Selected Kenyan Universities Service Sector Perspective. (Published)
Entrepreneurial intention has captured the attention of both academicians and policy makers during the last century. Unemployment poses a major challenge to developing nations Kenya inclusive where governments’ lacked sufficient resources to passing out of young graduates with immediate employment. However, many studies on entrepreneurial intention among graduates have focused mainly on developed countries and less on developing nations like Kenya perspective. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to bridge the gap by investigating the determinants of entrepreneurial intention among business undergraduate students. The specific objectives were to establish the effect of education, social network, innovativeness and self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intention. The study was guided by Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior that views behavioral intent as an immediate determinant of planned behavior. Explanatory research design was adopted and the study targeted 1,649 undergraduate business students drawn from Moi, Mount Kenya and Catholic universities in Uasin Gishu County. Stratified sampling was used to select a sample size of 321. The results indicated that innovativeness among students was highly and positively correlated to entrepreneurial intention at (r=0.650). Self efficacy was the second characteristic among students to positively associated with entrepreneurial intention (r = 0.618), education had significant and positively correlated with entrepreneurial intention (r=0.564). Finally, social network showed a positive and significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention (r = 0.507). From the findings it showed that all the four variables were positively correlated to entrepreneurial intention at 0.05 level of significance level. The study findings were of have valuable assistance to develop students’ entrepreneurial skills and knowledge which equip graduates with creativity, innovation, risk-taking and ability to interpret successful entrepreneurial effect models and identification of business opportunities for the future.
The study examined the interaction of public sector expenditure and economic development from 1999 – 2015. The specific objective was to assess the extent to which GDP affects EDU, HLT, DFS, AGR and PDS. Secondary data employed were from the CBN bulletin published in 2016. Multiple regression analysis and t-test were the statistical tools applied, with the use of SPSS for both data analysis and to test the hypotheses formulated for the study at 5% level of significance. The result revealed that GDP does not significantly affect EDU, HLT and AGR and as a result they do not have impact on economic growth. On the contrary, GDP significantly affects the DFS and PDS which do not have effect on economic development. The result shows that government spending on defense, security and public debt servicing has not brought about economic development. Therefore, there is need for change of orientation. The government should concentrate on investing in provision of proper education and adequate health facilities for the citizenry. More attention should also be given to agriculture for the purpose of sufficient food supply. All these measures could provide solution to insurgency and militancy which the government has spent so much to no avail.
Effects of Nutrition Education among Pregnant Women using Fruits and Vegetables for the achievement of MDG5 in Odogbolu LGA, Ogun State (Published)
Background: Nutrition education being a component of health education is propitious to create awareness on how to source, prepare, combine and use food resources for promoting good health among all groups of human beings; especially pregnant women who need adequate nutrition for their physiological needs and improve the health of both the mother and fetus. Studies have suggested that women have low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a framework globally agreed for measuring development, progress, and poverty reduction through focusing efforts on achieving significant measureable improvement in people’s lives. One of the components of MDG5 is nutrition in pregnancy; this component is the main focus of this study. Method: a quasi-experimental study for quantitative method adopting pre-and post test control experimental analysis was used while 194 pregnant women were purposively selected from 11 randomly selected antenatal clinics in Odogbolu local government area to participate. The nutrition intervention was for 3 months. FGD together with structured-validated questionnaire administered before and after the intervention were used to collect data. ANCOVA was used to test the two hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level.Result: There were significant effects of the intervention on the knowledge (F (2.174) = 1554.466, P <.05) and attitude (F (2.134) = 19.866, P <.05) of the women on fruits and vegetables consumption. The findings revealed a positive effect of the intervention; the participants were relatively aware of the importance of fruit and vegetables consumption in pregnancy after the intervention. Conclusion: The nutrition education intervention appears to have changed the attitude of pregnant women after the post test evaluation. Pregnant women apparently consumed more fruits and vegetables than they were doing before the intervention. Therefore, intensive health education should continuously be given to pregnant women on the value of fruit and vegetable.
Empirical Review of Government Expenditure on Education and Economic Development in Nigeria (2000 – 2015) (Published)
The study empirically reviewed government expenditure on education and economic development in Nigeria from 2000–2015. The specific objective is to examine the extent to which the Nigerian GDP affects the government expenditure on education, social and community services and the number of school enrolment within the period being reviewed. Secondary data employed were from the EFA 2015 report and CBN bulletin published in 2016. Multiple regression analysis and student t-test were the statistical tools applied, with the use of SPSS for both data analysis and to test the hypotheses formulated for the study at 5% level of significance. The result indicated that expenditure on education is significant and impacts on the economy. While the result on SCS and ENRL showed a significant relationship with the GDP but little or no impact. The conclusion is that, the anti-graft fight by the present government to encourage proper use of resource allocation has to be encouraged by all good citizens and lovers of education. If the resources allocated are efficiently utilized to equip Government owned schools, education will be affordable by all and number of school drop-outs will reduce significantly.
The constructivism philosophical paradigm is an efficient tool that can yield many benefits when implemented in the carrying out of research in diverse field of study as well as in undertaking teaching and learning activities at any educational level. There was the need to adopt the qualitative research’s powerful tool thus, document analysis to present a literature review on the subject to enlighten researchers and teachers of the great imports, rich and useful information that they can glean from this vibrant paradigm of philosophy. The paper projects, how researchers can be coached with this philosophical paradigm in their selection of research design, instrumentation, theoretical framework and data analysis procedures. It recommends viable instructional strategies that teachers can employ for instructing learners in the constructivist approach. The paper contends strongly that the constructivism philosophical paradigm provides a firm foundation for researches, especially in humanities, education and other behavioral researches while maximizing students’ learning outcomes when employed in teaching and learning activities.
An Appraisal of the Development of Special Education and the Achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) In Rivers State (Published)
This study was carried out to examine the development of special education provision visa-vis the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in Rivers State. The desire of every parent in particular and the society as a whole is to have normal and healthy children. The abnormalities that inevitably occur either by human errors or by natural imposition cannot stop the education of these ones. These abnormalities create sufficient disparities in the cognitive, psychomotor and affective development of children especially when they start schooling at various levels. It is on this premise, that this study is contemplated to assess the development of special education with the view of evaluating its parity in the realization of the Millennium Development Goals. It adopted historical survey method to assess quality education for these categories of learners. Policy provisions as well as an overview of the development of special education in Nigeria. Development of special education and the achievement of MDG in Rivers State way forward, that Government should ascertain the statistics of these persons, fund the education of these persons, enact requisite laws and there should be attitudinal change towards these people both from government and members of the public concerning persons with special needs amongst others.
Examination of ICT Compliance and Utilization for Curriculum Delivery among Social Studies Teachers In Nigeria (Published)
Information and communication technology (ICT) has brought profound changes to almost all aspects of life, including educational practices. The role of ICT in the development of knowledge is widely recognized. This study investigated how teachers’ Compliance and Utilization of ICT impact on their curriculum delivery in Nigeria. Four research questions were raised and answered in this study. The study adopted survey design. The population of this study is 681 social studies teachers in 2015/2016 academic year, from where a total of 204 respondents were sampled. A 16-item instrument titled “ICT Compliance and Utilization Assessment Questionnaire” (ICUAQ) developed by the researcher and validated by experts in the Faculty of Education, University of Uyo was used for data collection with a reliability coefficient of 0.81, established through a correlation analysis. Data generated based on the research questions were analyzed with descriptive statistics using percentage. Findings revealed that social studies teachers show noncompliance attitudes towards ICT, measured in terms of acceptance of ICT training, and accessing ICT resources. The study revealed that teachers make less use of ICT in terms of frequency in the use of ICT in lesson preparations, teaching and learning. Based on the findings, the study concluded that objective of ICT in education in Nigeria has not been met, and that social studies teachers are yet to derive the benefits of ICT in curriculum delivery. Consequently, the study recommended that government and other stakeholders such as Parents Teachers Association (PTA) and Old Students should liaise with schools to determine the training needs of staff members and help them to organize appropriate training programmes.
Entrepreneurial Competencies Needed By Electrical/Electronic Graduates of Technology Education for Self-Employment in Enugu State (Published)
The objective of this study is to determine the entrepreneurial competencies required by electrical/electronics technology education graduates for self-employment in Enugu State. The study was necessitated because of the prevailing issue of unemployment among graduates of higher institutions which has become a thing of worry for all and sundry. Three purposes of the study with corresponding three research questions and a null hypothesis guided the study. A survey research design was used for the study. Population was 185 graduates of electrical/electronics (tech) education which comprises of 118 government employed and 67 self-employed graduates of the same programme in Enugu State. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire meticulously structured by the researcher which was made up of three sections according to the three research questions of the study. The questionnaire has a total number of 41 item statements structured in four point response categories of very highly needed, highly needed, slightly needed, and not needed with weighting values of 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively. 185 copies of the questionnaire were administered to the respondents and collected back by the researcher. Mean with standard deviation was used to answer the three research questions of the study while t-test was used to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study showed that ability to accommodate and plan for changes in technology among others are the managerial competencies needed for self-employment while skills to recitify faults among other findings are the technical/ICT competencies needed by graduates of electrical/electronics (tech) education for self-employment. Also, it was found that ability to take wise decisions based on the available facts and being honest to customers and employers among others are interpersonal competencies needed by the graduates for self-employment. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were made which include, that education authorities and the government at all levels should create enough awareness about entrepreneurship education for onward eradication of the ailing problems of unemployment and abject poverty that abound in the country.
Triangular Assessment Model: An Alternative Procedure for Assessing Higher Degree Research in Education in Nigeria (Published)
The aim of this paper is to provide an alternate procedure for assessing higher degree research in Education in Universities in Nigeria. The author therefore proposed Triangular Assessment Model (TAM) and considered it appropriate for assessing higher Degree Research in Education since it provides an opportunity for the external and internal examiners as well as the supervisor to score the higher Degree Research for certification at the ratio of 40%, 30% and 30% respectively. The Current method where the total power is vested on the External Examiner is out of phrase with valid assessment procedure which relies on the average scores from several scorers. In Triangular Assessment Model, each of them will independently complete their respective Forms. Three instruments (Forms) developed for these purpose are – Higher Degree Research Assessment Form (HDRAF) for External and Internal Examiners, having 82 items with reliability of .8264. Higher Degree Research Supervisor Assessment Form (HDRSAF) having 27 items with reliability of .8003 and Observation Form having 8 items with inter-rater reliability of .7924. The Model was considered appropriate and the forms are believed to provide verifiably data for certification of Higher Degrees in Nigeria.
Factors that Influence the Early Completion of Long Essays by M. Ed Educational Administration Students of the University of Education, Winneba (Published)
The purpose of this research was to find out the background of sandwich graduate students at UEW who were unable to complete their programmes of study within the stipulated time. The study also attempted to find out the effects of improper time management on them and the barriers to the early completion of their thesis. The research design was a descriptive survey and the sampling technique used was simple random sampling for student-respondents and purposive sampling method for supervisor-respondents. The study found, among other things that over ninety percent of M.Ed students are working full time and the demands on their jobs, family, social and academic work put undue pressure on them, contributing to their inability to complete their programmes within the stipulated time. It also came to light, through interviews with supervisors that poor writing skills on the part of students was a barrier to their early completion. The paper concludes with recommendations to help resolve the challenge.
Teachers’ Perceptions of the Usage of Calculators in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics at the Junior High School Level in Ghana (Published)
Educational technology is recognized as an essential component of the instructional process and thus, uses of calculators have been recommended to be introduced in Junior High Schools in Ghana. However, teachers’ attitudes towards the use of calculators have not been established. The purpose of the study was to investigate teachers’ perceptions towards the use of calculators in mathematics instruction in JHS in Ghana. Descriptive research design was used and data were collected from mathematics teachers using questionnaires. The results indicated that teachers have positive perceptions towards the use of calculators for mathematics learning. The finding is helpful to curriculum developers and they can integrate the use of calculators in mathematics teaching and learning in JHS in Ghana.
Building Stakeholders’ Relations in Open and Distance Learning: The Quality Challenges at Play (Published)
Building stakeholders’ relations in ODL has the potential to release untapped potential and transfer of expertise through collaboration. However, there are some sticking challenges at play and this study examined these challenges to building stakeholder’ relations in ODL. This was a qualitative study. Information was collected through a survey of four regional campuses informed by a purposive sample of 284 students and sixty members of staff. Some very glaring challenges in the way of building stakeholders’ relations in ODL were unearthed. Suppressed voices working to scare away potential partners were seen as inhibitors and silent assassins of efforts to building stakeholders’ relations in ODL. There were far more damaging attitudes to ODL stakeholder relations than those that promote it. Some of the manifestations of these damaging attitudes were seen through the otherness of ODL institutions and their students, the low status accorded to ODL and the inherent belief that learning equals face-to-face teaching. The invisible hand of power from a close knit highly conservative old boys’ clique from conventional universities was visible in this study. The study concluded that ODL cannot therefore fulfil its purpose of building stakeholders’ relations without reference to these challenges some of which are inflicting shock and injury to the staff and students. The study thus, recommended a re-thinking on conditions building stakeholders’ relations in ODL considering that this issue is more than an academic argument about definitions of meaning. It is the question of who gets what from the paymaster’s limited pot and why (Doherty, 2008).
Effects of Charts with Demonstrative and Collaborative Instructional Approaches in Students’ Achievement on Mensuration (Published)
This study investigated the possible effects the use of charts might have on students’ understanding of the concept of mensuration using demonstration and collaborative instructional approaches. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The quasi-experimental research design was employed to conduct the study. A sample of 105 drawn from a population of 800 senior secondary school two students in Okrika Local Government Area of Rivers State Nigeria. The instrument used to collect data was Test on Understanding of the Concept of Mensuration (TUCM). TUCM was validated and the KR-20 formula was used to establish a reliability of .86. The research questions were answered descriptively using mean, standard deviation, and graph while the hypotheses were tested inferentially at .05 level of significance using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The result showed that students taught using demonstration instructional approach with chart understood the concept of mensuration better than those taught with collaborative approach with chart. There was also a significant difference between the mean gain of students taught using demonstration approach with chart and those taught using collaborative approach with chart. There was no significant difference between male and female students’ understanding of the concept of mensuration when taught with chart using demonstration and collaborative approaches. It was recommended among others that mathematics teachers should teach mensuration with charts using demonstration approach.
Women’s Perception of Males’ Involvement in Maternal Healthcare in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
Men play a significant role in the reproductive life of women, from the pre-pregnancy stages of family planning to pregnancy, birth and post-natal periods. This study was a survey of the perceptions of women on males’ involvement in maternal healthcare in Rivers State. This involved some selected health centres in Rivers State, using a pre-tested and validated questionnaire. Aspects of men’s involvement that were taken into consideration included decision-making, economic and geographic accessibility as well as utilization of maternal health-care services. Responses from a total of 300 pregnant and post–natal mothers who were purposively selected from randomly drawn health centres in the three Senatorial Districts in Rivers State were analyzed. The results showed no significant difference in the perceptions of women with primary or post-primary education, unemployed or employed women as well as those residing in rural or urban areas. In addition, there was a unanimous agreement that joint decision-making was better than a decision solely taken by the man or woman alone. They all agreed that financial empowerment and autonomy were crucial for enabling women to access and utilize maternal healthcare facilities. It was concluded that despite the pivotal role of men in family affairs, their involvement in maternal health process was abysmal and this could be due to some extraneous factors. The study therefore recommended that women empowerment, in terms of education and finances would go a long way towards improving maternal health which, over the years, has been on the decline, despite men’s good intentions.
Investigating the Availability and the Extent of Use of Instructional Materials by Secondary School Chemistry Teachers in Nigeria (Published)
This study focused on level of utilization of available instructional materials, teacher made instructional materials and the obstacles faced by the chemistry teachers during improvisation of the teacher made instructional materials in Ebonyi State secondary schools.397 chemistry teachers from the 212 government owned secondary schools in Ebonyi State formed the population. Because of the small size of the population, no sampling was done. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection; it was validated by 3 experts from Science Education Department, one expert from Measurement and Evaluation and the other 2 from chemistry education. The reliability of the instrument was determined to be 0.81. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. 3 research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The 3 research questions were answered using mean statistics while the hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance using the z-test statistics. The findings revealed that teachers are not utilizing effectively the available instructional materials in their teaching, the chemistry teachers are not making enough efforts in improvisation of those instructional materials that are not available and that the teachers faced obstacles such as lack of fund and skill for the improvisation of instructional materials. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made a number of recommendations that would help the teachers in their instructional delivery.
The Impact of the National Policy on Education (NPE) On Multilingual Proficiency in Nigeria (Published)
About 450 languages are spoken in Nigeria with Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba as the major languages. In order to assign functional roles to the multiplicity of languages, the Federal Government promulgated the National Policy on Education (henceforth NPE) in 1977 stipulated that every Nigerian child must be proficient in his mother tongue and in a major Nigerian language. At the secondary level, it is expected that every child should be bilingual in two Nigerian languages. Thirty six years later, the impact of the policy on the language education of Nigerian pupils was assessed. Data were collected using questionnaire and interview methods. Findings revealed that the primary aim of the NPE has not been achieved. Based on the findings, the recommendation made include the organization of intensive workshop sessions for language teachers to expose them to the modern techniques for attaining bilingualism through effective training.
Alternative Sources of Financing Secondary Education in Ebonyi State by the School Administrators (Published)
In discussing this topic, Ocho (2005) defined education and the need for education. Okanamiri (2002) also defined education financing as a branch of knowledge that deals with important examination of the cost and expenditure in the production of education services. Various alternative sources of financing secondary education according to various authorities were explained to include: PTA, proceeds from the school farm, Donations, Endowments, Community Involvement, Fund raising activities, Old Students Associations etc. Conclusion and recommendation were made
This paper was aimed to investigate those factors which had played an important role in strategic evolution and growth of Pakistani-owned SMEs in the area of Bedfordshire London. The objective was to discover some facts and figures about business experiences of these firms and make the finding a source of learning and development for other similar enterprises in the UK. The target population (sampling frame) was comprised over 42 firms qualifying criterion of SMEs. While applying purposive (judgement) sampling approach, a representative sample of 7 firms (out of 42 firms) with 18 respondents performing at managerial level was selected to conduct in-depth interviews. A case-based empirical investigation conducted around selected group of companies revealed that a number of factors including families and friends, qualification and experience, well thought-out business decisions, clarity of goals and objectives and dual socialization of entrepreneurs while living and working in Pakistan and the UK had played an important role in strategic evolution and growth of these companies. Analysis of the data confirms the vital importance of these factors in laying a sound foundation of these businesses to evolve and flourish in the UK’s highly competitive business environment. The findings of the study are expected to provide some practical lessons to newly built Pakistani-owned enterprises in the UK in developing and strengthening their businesses to survive, grow and succeed in the market.
The Nigerian Child, Science and Technology Education, Current Challenges and Possible Solutions (Published)
The Nigerian child accounts for about forty five percent of the country’s population. Forty percent of children aged 6-11 do not attend any primary school with the northern region recording the lowest school attendance rate particularly in areas of insurgencies. It is estimated that about 4.7 million children of primary school age are still not in school despite increased enrolment. There are many challenges in ensuring quality education and satisfactory learning achievement. It is not rare to see cases of 100 pupils per teacher or pupils sitting under trees outside a school building because of lack of enough classrooms. The number of school facilities and qualified teachers available for basic education remain inadequate for the eligible number of children and youths. This is more so in urban areas where there is population pressure. Under these conditions teaching and learning science and technology cannot be effective; Science is an arduously and unremittingly human enterprise, it dominates our lives and presents society with tremendous opportunities and challenges. It is exciting and perplexing, and enlivening yet dull is how school science is seen by many young people. It is a damning indictment that the common science and technology committee reported that many students loose feeling of enthusiasm about science. This paper describes the Nigerian child, defines the challenges faced by the implementation of quality science and technology education in basic schooling, the professional qualities of the ideal science teacher and the essential qualities of a highly proficient science teacher, and the characteristics of a highly effective technology teacher. Suggestions are proffered towards addressing challenges.