The Extent of Corporate Disclosure of Information by the Companies in CARs and Its Regulations: Implications in Bangladesh (Published)
The relative weight of developing countries regulations in CARs disclosures have been growing hurriedly over recent years. The study is an attempt to examine of disclosure of financial information upon adoption of International Accounting Standards (IASs) in Bangladesh. In international accounting arena disclosure is the key to understanding one country’s accounting system. As they continue integrating into the global trading and financial systems, they need to strengthen their respective national accounting infrastructures, essential to attract and provide services to international investments and institutional and technical capacities to be able to comply with international requirements, standards and codes. The accounting system of each country is affected by different influential factors. Issues concerning developing countries in relation to accounting, and in particular international accounting, have generated considerable interest among accounting scholars and practitioners in both developed and emerging countries. In this paper, the researcher has examined the impact of British colonial influence, regulation, and mandatory IASs/IFRSs on disclosure of Corporate Annual Reports (CARs) of Bangladesh. This study showed that the British colonial influence through the adopted the former British Laws is prevalent on the accounting systems of Bangladesh and has a greater impact on the financial reporting practices of the companies’ financial reporting practices. The Securities and Exchange Ordinance 1969, Bangladesh Bank Order 1972, Securities and Exchange Rules 1987, Bank Companies Act 1991, Financial Institutions Act 1993, Securities and Exchange Commission Act 1993, Companies Act 1994 and Bankruptcy Act 1997 are the most important legislations to govern the corporate financial reporting environment in Bangladesh. Since 1983, Bangladesh is trying to adopt the International Accounting Standards (IASs/IFRS) which has become mandatory from 2000 for the listed companies for preparation and auditing of financial statements. It has found that the Companies Act 1994 does not contain any provision for mandatory observance of the adopted IFRSs and ISAs in practice which has made the unlisted companies to follow IASss/IFRSs compulsorily. In addition, to ensure more transparency in accounting system and disclosure of important accounting policies of banks and financial institutions in Bangladesh, the Central Bank (Bangladesh Bank) issued a circular (BRPD) Circular No. 3/2000 dated 18/04/2000) for mandatory adoption of IAS-30. As a result, since 2000, all banks in Bangladesh are required to use the IAS-30 in the preparation of their corporate annual reports. Further, the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) of Bangladesh has passed Corporate Governance Guidelines in February 2006 that expect to increase the level of disclosure made the listed companies in Bangladesh.
The Extent of Compliance with the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (IFRS-13): A Study on the Annual Reports of Palestinian Corporations (Published)
This is an exploratory study designed to investigate the extent of compliance with the requirements fair value measurement disclosures in the annual reports of the 48 corporates that were listed on the Palestine Exchange (PEX) in 2014, by firstly sketching a guide of best practices and examining the relationship between the disclosure requirements for fair value measurement and the variables which may determine. In order to achieve the objective of our study, we have developed and utilized a disclosure score called unweighted fair value disclosure index (FVDI) to measure the extent of disclosure made by companies in corporate annual reports, and then using a statistical program to run the Correlations test, and Analysis of variance test. This study reports significant differences in levels of disclosures on fair value measurements, as measured by the mean values of the fair value disclosure index in Palestine. The findings show that, there is correlation between the disclosure requirements for fair value measurement and the explanatory variables (the size of the firm, auditor’s type), also there are differences in the level of disclosure requirements for fair value measurement of the firms due to the kind of economic sector. However, that the level of disclosure requirements for fair value measurement evidence a statistically did not significant association with the profitability of the firms.
THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING DISCLOSURE ON INCREASING THE PROFITS OF INSURANCE COMPANIES: THE CASE OF JORDAN (Published)
The interest in accounting disclosure recently became of growing interest by various stakeholders by both public and private institutions throughout the world. This is not only due to the orientation toward unifying the global financial systems, but also as an attempt to explain and influence the financial crises. This study attempts to describe the impact of the accounting disclosure on increasing the profits of the Jordanian insurance companies .This study aims at comprehending the impact of accounting disclosure on increasing profits of insurance companies in Jordan .It mainly tries to explain the relationship between accounting disclosure and profits on one hand , and clients satisfaction on the other hand. A questionnaire was administered among a representative sample and statistically analyzed. Results show that a statistical relationship exists between firms accounting disclosure and both attained goals and customer satisfaction. The study recommends more awareness to insurance company of the importance of accounting disclosure form the great importance it entails to such companies.
FINANCIAL REPORTING AND COMPLIANCE OF IMPAIRMENT OF NON-CURRENT ASSETS IN THE NIGERIAN BANKS (Published)
The significant value in financial statement is denoted by the non –current assets. The implementation of the International financial reporting standard in Nigeria commenced in the year 2012 which insisted on the implementation of impairment of assets (IAS 36) and how the impairment loss should be recognised .According to Beisland, Hamberg and Navak, 2010 , one is not aware of any expansive study that has explored the subject of value relevance of accounting information in Nigeria., This study attempts to fill the gap in literature by assessing the disclosure of impairment of assets in Nigerian Banks. The objective of this study is to investigate the level of compliance of Nigerian banks with impairment of non – current assets (IAS 36) in their year 2012 financial reports and also the no of banks which disclosed additional information on significant impairment of assets on their financial statements for the year 2012 . For this study, eleven banks were selected out of the twenty two banks. The disclosure of impairment was analysed by using descriptive statistics. The results of the research showed an increase in the number of Banks which disclosed impairment losses as well as the value of impairment losses. It is expected that there will be an improvement in the extent of disclosure in the subsequent annual reports.
Compliance of Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry with Disclosure Requirements of Sas 14 and Sas 17. A Case Study of Oando Plc (Review Completed - Accepted)
This study was carried out with a view to reviewing the financial statements of companies/operators in the Nigerian petroleum industry with emphasis on determining their level of transparency which is a function of their level of compliance with the provisions of Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS) 14 for the upstream operators and Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS) 17 for the operators in the downstream sector of the industry. It focuses primarily on the financial statements of OANDO PLC for the upstream and downstream analysis being an integrated oil company. The study adopted purely secondary data from the financial statements of OANDO PLC for the period 2006 – 2010. The findings were presented via tables of compliance index which revealed a substantial compliance with the disclosure requirements of the two standards. The study concludes by making some recommendations to the regulators especially the newly established Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRCN) formerly the Nigerian Accounting Standard Board (NASB) with respect to the enforcement of all issued standards and application of stipulated sanctions to all forms of breach to the provisions of the standards.
The Governance Capability to Support Accounting & Financial Disclosure in the financial Statements (Case Study – Industrial Sector) (Review Completed - Accepted)
In the last years we can see increased in attention of disclosure & transparency, because it have an important role to providing the necessary information that will help to improve & understand the financial instrument and improve the joint-stock companies performance in order to provide specific information to be used .then the companies can take the appropriate accounting policies and the best way to risk management, because all the investors need to achieve those goal and maximization wealth in legitimate ways. This study reached to the existence of the basis of an arbitrator & effective governance rules through fit the requirements of the rules of governance with the amount of disclosed in the joint-stock companies under study, that provide a regulatory framework that will help to give an effectively controls all aspects of governance and corporate performance and provide clear legislation sets out the responsibilities to ensure that the interests of public in joint-stock companies.The study proved the existence of an effective working mechanism between stakeholders and the Board of Directors to provide continuity of the company and provide an opportunity for stakeholders to get proper compensation when their rights are violated