Community Development and Mother Values (Published)
Values as principles about what is right and wrong, or ideas about what is important in life can never be divorced from community development and even the whole life. Because values are those factors upon which balance is struck, equilibrium is maintained and the circumstance and context are made peaceful. Values are the other main component and segment of development, particularly communal development, in addition to material component, that have to be joined together with the material. Hence if the joining together is not done, the development will be incomplete, inconsistent and weakened. Despite this status, significance and importance the values have naturally, brilliantly and elaborately, it has been observed that values have been neglected and relegated to the background in community development discourse, theory and practice. The material aspect is more pronounced, promoted, projected and protected to the detriment of the values as an inevitable key factor in the issue of development practices. This makes most of our writings in community development discourse centred around the material like poverty eradication, job creation, and infrastructural development and so on. Therefore, it is in view of this that this paper tries to present values as an important variable in community development discourse, theory and practice for it to be reflected, incorporated, promoted, protected and projected in community development project. This would help tremendously in yielding better outcomes and maintaining equilibrium.
In recent times, ardent watchers and analysts of the Nigerian project have suggested that the country has endemic leadership issues with genetic foundations deeply rooted in Her DNA. Although this assertion has been sharply contested, the apparent malady in the current behaviours of persons in key leadership positions in the country seems to have assumed worrisome dimensions .The observed leadership behaviours have taken an impoverishing toll on the efforts at National Development. Thus, this work, in the bid to evolve persons with development –centric leadership behaviours, took an organic approach to attempt to resolve the underlying leadership malaise. This was done using metaphoric symbolisms and biological analogies to have an introspective view of aspects of molecular ecology. This dimension was adopted in order to explain how leadership behaviour mutation could counteract the prevailing leadership trend and provide actionable thoughts for the ultimate attainment of sustainable National Development.
Challenges on Development and Education of Nomadic Children in Sokoto State: Implications for Education and Sustainability (Published)
Globally, education as birth right and sustainable development in human capacities and societal progress are being pursued with vigour. The nomadic Fulani are the second largest population of inhabitants in Sokoto state. However, they are among marginalised, underserved, underdeveloped and less educated group not only in the state but the country at large. The paper identifies nomadic life styles, inadequacies in policies and provisions for nomadic education and wide spread corruptions as major sources of constraints to development and education of Fulani children thus affecting the sustainable development prospects. The paper suggests the need for more concerted efforts form individuals and government, need for accurate census figure, mass mobilisation, wide spread campaign and use of culture-friendly integrated health, socio-economic welfare and education packages for all nomads. The paper concludes that it seems obvious that the nomads prefer sending children to cattle rearing than schooling because to the nomads a child who can rear and milk cow is more desirable than a certificate-holder that has no job or cannot breed cattle, thus it is imperative to make nomadic education more relevant to ideals and values of nomads for sustainable development to be a reality and achievable.
Developing Teaching Materials Based on Critical Thinking In Teaching Explanatory Text Writing for Grade Vii Students at Smp Perguruan Islam Amalia Medan (Published)
This study aims to find out: (1) the process of preparing teaching materials based on critical thinking in learning to write explanatory text; (2) the feasibility of teaching materials based on critical thinking in learning to write explanatory text; and (3) the effectiveness of teaching materials based on critical thinking in learning to write explanatory text. This type of research was research and development (R & D) based on Borg and Gall development model adapted from Sanjaya. Data collection techniques carried out included observations, interviews, questionnaires, and tests regarding explanatory text material. The subjects of the trial consisted of individual trials (3 students), small group trials (9 students) and large-scale trials (30 students). The results of the study showed that: (1) material expert validation as a whole reached an average of 85.20% on very good criteria; (2) the validation of learning design experts as a whole reached an average of 84.58% on very good criteria; (3) teacher response with an average of 89.84% on very good criteria; (4) students’ responses to individual trials with an average of 85.48% on very good criteria, small group trials with an average of 90.42% on very good criteria and large scale trials with an average of 93.76 % on very good criteria; (5) the effectiveness of teaching materials is shown from the learning outcomes of the written test, the explanation of the students before using the module was 66.5%, while the learning outcomes of the students’ expedition text writing test after using the module increased by 82.17%. The difference obtained was 15.67% from before to after. The results showed that teaching materials based on critical thinking in explanatory text writing learning are feasible and effective to be used as learning resources.
Developing Comic as Learning Media With Sub-Theme “The Beauty Of My Country’s Cultural Diversity” On Social Science in Class IV Of Sdn 026609 Binjai Selatan (Published)
This study aims to: (1) produce learning comic media that is appropriate to use on the sub theme of the beauty of my country’s culture diversity in social science content in class IV; and (2) produce learning comic media on the sub theme of the beauty of my country’s culture diversity that is effective in social science content in class IV. This research is a development research using the development model of Thiagarajan, Semmel, and Semmel, namely by designing a modified 4–D model. The instruments used in the study were feasibility validation sheets which included aspects of content/material, language and presentation/design of comics, and test of learning outcomes. The first trial was conducted on students of class IV-a as many as 24 students and the second trial was conducted on IV-b class students by 25 students at SDN 026609 Binjai Selatan. The results of this study indicated that: (1) the learning comic media developed has been used properly; and (2) learning comic media on the sub theme of the beauty of my country’s culture diversity have been effective, judging from the achievement of student learning completeness. Furthermore, it is suggested that teachers can use comic learning media as an alternative learning to improve student learning outcomes.
The Development of Contextual Approach-Based Materials for Poetry Writing On Grade X Student In Sma Budi Murni 2 Medan (Published)
This research is based on the learning problems of class X students of SMA Budi Murni 2 that are still teacher-centered. This causes students not being able to study independently because of the lack of poetry text references used in poetry writing class. In addition, the student’s ability to write poetry texts is known to be low because the teaching materials used by teachers and students are still based on textbooks. The book is the only source of information for poetry text writing study. In learning to write poetry texts, teacher sometimes still use learning methods that tend to be monotonous, such as the use of discussion methods. This is known from the results of observations made by the researchers themselves. All poetry texts writing learning comes from textbooks. Based on the above problems, the researcher conducted a research development aimed at (1) to analyze the development process of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (2) to analyze the feasibility of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (3) to analyze the effectiveness of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan. The method adopted is the Research and development (R&D) proposed by Sugiyono, based on Borg and Gall. The trial subjects consisted of 3 students in individual test, 9 students in small group test, and 35 students in limited field test. The data collection technique used observation, interviews, questionnaire, and poetry text writing test. The research result shows that (1) material expert’s validation includes content feasibility with an average of 83,52% in “very good” criteria, presentation eligibility with an average of 87,5% in “very good” criteria, and language aspect with an average of 75% in “good” criteria, (2) graphyc design expert’s validation with an average of 83,46% in “very good” criteria, (3) teachers’ responses with an average of 88,23% in “very good” criteria, (4) individual test with an average of 77,77% in “very good” criteria, (5) small group test with an average of 80,10% in “very good” criteria, (6) limited field test with an average of 84,82% in “very good” criteria. The learning outcomes of student’s poetry writing before using the module was 74.28, while after using the module increased up to 85.57. The resulted difference between before and after the module usage is as much as 11.29. The implication of this study is that, the developed teaching materials may provide practical contributions in the implementation of the learning process for teacher. This is because the additional teaching materials provide convenience in the process of teaching.
The paper focuses on entrepreneurship education as a mechanism for achieving sustainable development in Nigeria. The following terms were clearly discussed namely the entrepreneur, characteristics, the theories of entrepreneurship were also stated including the challenges of entrepreneurship education which includes students orientation, what to teach, how to teach and who to teach as well as the possible solutions to be adopted. This research identifies that although some strategies emphasis on entrepreneurship skills there is dire requirement for a comprehensive orientation of institutions with the sole aim of improving the entrepreneurship mentality of the youths. The aftermath of this is the generation of employment, increased output through innovations, efficient utilization of available resources and the facilitation in the transfer of technological advancement to mention a few have been identified as the contributions of Entrepreneurship to the development of a country. Based on these propositions as well other discourses a number of recommendations were suggested which includes; a call for stakeholders to recommit themselves towards development of entrepreneurship through the provision of adequate resources for teaching as well as well-equipped empowerment development centers. The paper emphasis that based on the shared responsibilities for entrepreneurship development it can be employed as a viable tool for sustainable development in Nigeria.
The Influence of Music on the Elizabethan Era (Published)
The main motive of this research is to mainly study and find the features of the Music in the Elizabethan era. The Elizabethan era marked the pinnacle of music in England. The Elizabethan music went through a complete transformation from sacred to secular music and the introduction of musical instruments along with the songs. Elizabeth 1 was not just fond of music, but she could play various instruments such as flute and virginal. The introduction of complex music and the influence of musical instruments along with vocals truly marked the beginning of the English music that people are fond even today. The whole century has been the witness to the constant experiment and development of music which would not have been possible without the constant encouragement of the Queen. This research made us aware of the era where the contemporary music or songs played by the actors in the Elizabethan theatre and how it started to evolve.
Sustainable agriculture has remained a subject of debate in Nigeria for decades without tangible results. Between 2001 and 2007, agricultural sector accounted for 40 percent of Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Products (GDP) and 51 percent of job creation. However, in 2015 agriculture accounted for only 17.77% of Nigeria’s GDP (National Bureau of Statistics, 2015). These figures are indications that agriculture has not met the need of the country, and reveal the dwindling nature of the sector. The declining nature of agriculture calls for a new strategy that will support agricultural development in Nigeria. This paper aims to advance agripreneurship education in Nigerian Universities by attempting to develop a curriculum that will trigger agriprenuership taught classes in Universities in Nigeria in attempt to increase youth and farmers participation in agripreneurship and improve the agricultural sector in general.
Development of Short Story Text Reading Material Based on Character Education as a School Literacy Movement Material of Students Class IX SMP Tunas Pelita Binjai (Published)
This study aims to find out: (1) the preparation of short story text reading material based on character education as a school literacy movement material, (2) the feasibility of short story reading material based on character education as a school literacy movement, (3) the effectiveness of short story text reading material based on character education as school literacy movement material of students class IX SMP Tunas Pelita Binjai. This type of research is research and development based on Borg and Gall development model. The test subjects consisted of material experts, design experts, Indonesian language teachers, students of SMP Tunas Pelita Binjai. Data on product quality was collected through questionnaires and short story text writing tests. The results of this study indicated that: (1) material validation included content eligibility with an average of 91.25% in very good criteria, presentation eligibility with an average of 84.61% in very good criteria, language feasibility with an average of 84, 09% on very good criteria, (2) validation of design experts r` ih on average of 92,54% on very good criteria, (3) individual trials with an average of 85.83% with very good criteria, (4) small group trials with an average of 90.28% with very good criteria, and (5) limited field test with an average of 92.34% with very good criteria, (6) the effectiveness of reading material showed a percentage of posttest of 80% higher than the percentage of pretest of 69.37%. Thus, reading material for short stories based on character education as a school literacy movement developed is feasible and effective to be used as reading material in the school literacy movement.
Sustaining Quality African Education for Sustainable Growth and Development in Africa: The Nigerian Experience (Published)
The study was carried out to examine the role of African education on sustainable growth and development in Africa: a case study of Nigeria. The survey research design was adopted for the study. Seven hundred and twenty (720) participants were randomly sampled from the six geopolitical zones of the country. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested using simple regression analysis tested at 0.05 level of significance. A 30 item questionnaire titled “Sustaining Quality African Education for Sustainable Growth and Development Questionnaire” was constructed and administered by the researchers. The instrument was validated by experts in evaluation and psychological testing. The split half reliability method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. The reliability index stood at 0.89. the statistical analysis of the hypotheses showed that there was a significant influence of African education for entrepreneurship skills on sustainable growth and development. Again the result of the second hypothesis indicated that there was a significant influence of African education for cultural values on sustainable growth and development. Based on the result, conclusion was drawn and recommendations were made on how to integrate the African indigenous education for sustainable development.
Skills and Emotional Intelligence: Study and Investigation of the International Organization of the OECD (Published)
Emotional Intelligence is directly linked to the professional development of teachers and the existence of positive results in the field of education. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, through qualitative content analysis, whether the skills associated with emotional intelligence are identified in the political texts of international organizations and in particular in that of the OECD. According to the survey results, emotional intelligence skills related to self-awareness, self-regulation, social awareness and interpersonal relationships management are present. For a better understanding of the issue, it would be helpful to explore these skills in other texts of international organizations, with a view to comparing and enriching relevant databases.
Despite widespread democratization in most countries and the struggle by the feminist movements for the integration of gender balancing in the national politics of countries over the world however, women who constitute about 50% of Nigeria population still remain systematically alienated from politics and decision, making process in the country. Poor systems of governance result in widespread discrimination related to sex, race, colour, religion and political opinion. This paper tries to points out the efficacy and the role of gender equality and participation in good governance which has a trickling down effect on development. The study adopted qualitative research and documentary method of data collection. Its revealed a positive correction between gender, good governance and development in Nigeria, hence the need for it and its application. Also, women who constitute about 50% of Nigeria population still remain systematically alienated from politics and decision, making process in the country. It recommended among others that government should engage the support of the mass media and partner with women’s movement NGOs and Civil society for vehement complaint against women subordination, discrimination and stigmatization in the society.
Nigeria from colonial period through post colonial period has settled for federal system of government which allows for division of powers and jurisdictions among the levels of government that made up the federation. Overtime, there have been observable imperfections in the Nigerian federalism which have triggered protests, agitations and patriotic calls for restructuring of the system. On the basis of the foregoing, we commended as follows: that there should be devolution of more powers to the federating units in Nigeria; that fiscal federalism should be practiced to give room for resource control by the federating units and that the principles of federal character as enshrined in our national constitution should be observed in appointment and location of critical infrastructure across all sections of the country. This paper is a departure from this trend, orthodoxy is challenged by showing the nexus and interface between restructuring, social order, and development in Nigeria. Development is said to be a predictor that determines whether a country is progressing or not. A critical assessment of Nigeria’s development despite her abundance in human, natural and material resources reveals that the country is yet to achieve the desired expectations as clamored by her citizens. The objective of this study was to identify the challenges to development in Nigeria. In other to obtain data for the research, the work adopted qualitative research method through textual analysis. The findings of this study revealed that despite the country’s attempt to advance development, several challenges has posed a great threat to her progress. These setbacks range from imposition of politices on the citizens, lack of adequate human resources or capital to implement development plans/policies, corruption and lack of credible leadership among others. It recommended that accountability and transparency should be the country’s guiding philosophy in all her operations. Also once the identified limitations are tackled then development will be realized in the country.
National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)
Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them. Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.
Human Resource Development Meeting the Needs of the International Integration in Vientiane Capital of Laos (Published)
The objective of the study is to analyze the internal-external environment affecting the human resource development in order to meet the needs of international integration in Vientiane capital of Laos. Based research results, the researcher has the managerial implications for improving human resource quality for Vientiane capital of Laos. This is one of the first research paper to develop the measurement scale as well as the theoretical model illustrate the relationship between the internal-external environment and the human resource development. The official quantitative studied with a sample of 350 managers in Vientiane capital. The data collected from June 2017 to May 2018 in Vientiane capital and random sampling technique. The Data analyzed Cronbach’s Alpha and the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) which used for multilinear regression. The tested results have the internal-external environment affecting the human resource development with significance level 0.01 based on 344 samples (06 sample lacked information).
A Comparative Study of the Role of Men and Women in Cooperative Development in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)
The actualization of Cooperatives development is one of the most common traits of the emerging economies. Government at all levels in different occasions has adopted one developmental strategy or the other, all aimed to successfully install cooperative development. This study had the objective of assessing the role of men and women in cooperative development in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State in Nigeria. The study employed primary sources of data. The primary data were collected through questionnaires using descriptive statistics. The results of the study indicated that the male cooperators contribute more to cooperative development than their female counterparts. The study concludes that cooperative societies in Udi should be properly and effectively managed. It was also recommended that cooperative societies should endeavour to improve their management skills, balance gender inequality and enhance the personal welfare of members so as to facilitate cooperative development in Udi Local Government Area.
Development of Speed Reading Teaching Materials Based On Anticipation Guide Strategy in Observation Result Report Text in Students Class X Mas Sinar Islami Bingai (Published)
This study aims to know the results of the development of learning materials to read quickly based on anticipation guide strategy on observation report text in student class X MAS Sinar Islami Bingai. The research method used is research and development (R & D) method proposed by Sugiyono refers to Borg & Gall model. The test subjects consisted of 3 students with individual trials, 9 students with small group trials, and 30 students with limited field trials. Data collection techniques used were observation, interviews, questionnaires and reading tests. The results showed that: (1) material expert validation including content feasibility with an average of 85.15% on very good criteria, presentation feasibility with an average of 90.38% on very good criteria, and language aspect with an average of 89 , 42% on very good criteria, (2) design expert validation with an average of 82.41% on very good criteria, module size aspect with an average score of 87.5%, cover design with an average score of 85.71% and module design with an average score of 80.55%. (3) teacher responses with an average of 91.91% on very good criteria, (4) individualized trials with an average of 76.85% on good criteria, (5) small group trials with an average of 81.56 % on very good criteria, and (6) limited field tests with an average of 87.54% on very good criteria. The result of student speed reading test before using module equal to 60,67, while the result of speed reading test of observation result text of student after using module increased by 90,33. The difference is 29,66 from before to after. This proves that the teaching materials to read quickly an observation result report text developed can improve student learning outcomes by using learning methods based on anticipation guide strategy. The implication of this research is to give a practical contribution especially in the implementation of learning for teachers as additional teaching materials and as a means to assist and facilitate the students in comprehending the material to read observation results report text so that it can be applied to their life.
Domestic Tourism: Untapped Opportunities for Sāmoa (With Special Reference to Accommodation Providers) (Published)
Tourism is both a key contributor to the economy of Sāmoa and the leading source of foreign exchange. The seasonal nature of tourism is particularly detrimental to the accommodation sector. In many countries, the development of domestic tourism is actively promoted as it plays a vital part in tourism sustainability. Sāmoa however, like many other countries appear to be overlooking the potentials of domestic tourism in their development and tourism strategies. The present study uses secondary data and case studies to examine the advantages and opportunities created by domestic tourism. Secondary data found that the key areas of focus highlighted in the Strategy for the Development of Sāmoa SDS) 2005-2007, 2008-2012, Sāmoa Tourism Development Plan (STDP) 2009-2013, Sāmoa Tourism Sector Plan (STSP) 2014-2019, and Sāmoa Tourism Strategic Marketing Plan (STSMP) 2014-2019, indicate that domestic tourism development is not a key focus of tourism development. Using Talanoa research method (TRM), primary data was collected from 20 stakeholders in the tourism industry. Using Thematic Analysis, it was found that there were a mixture of views for and against the development of domestic tourism in Sāmoa.
Sustainable development and good living condition in the modern world are determined by people who possess more than normal reasoning abilities. The present Nigerian socio-political, economic and technological dilemma therefore results from the redundancy of mind paved by gross deficiency in logic and critical thinking competencies. This deficiency broadly stems from Nigerian poor educational system which has neglected acquisition of reflective and critical reasoning skills in theoretical and practical terms. This hampers critical competence, and results to irrational judgments, biased policies and dishonest governance. Consequently, problem solving and critical competence in various sectors of Nigerian existence have remained a mirage resulting to unsustainable development. This paper analytically investigates the meaning, cradle, essence, relevance and state of logic and critical thinking in Nigerian higher education and existence. The research finds that logic and critical thinking has been negligently relegated to one of those optional General Studies’ courses rarely needed to make up the required credit load. As such, not every department of education in Nigeria offers logic and critical thinking. This is coupled with the fact that in some Nigerian Higher Institutions, logic and critical thinking is managed by unqualified staff. The paper as well finds that knowledge of logic and critical thinking is indispensable in the daily human expressions, decisions, right choices and actions. For deficiency in reasoning skills paves way for errors, deceptions, violence and false democracy. The paper concludes that for Nigeria to initiate and sustain true democracy and development, logic and critical thinking should be centrally paramount in her education system because of its quality of impacting critical reasoning skills and competency in the students and citizenry.