Tag Archives: Development

Development of Speed Reading Teaching Materials Based On Anticipation Guide Strategy in Observation Result Report Text in Students Class X Mas Sinar Islami Bingai (Published)

This study aims to know the results of the development of learning materials to read quickly based on anticipation guide strategy on observation report text in student class X MAS Sinar Islami Bingai. The research method used is research and development (R & D) method proposed by Sugiyono refers to Borg & Gall model. The test subjects consisted of 3 students with individual trials, 9 students with small group trials, and 30 students with limited field trials. Data collection techniques used were observation, interviews, questionnaires and reading tests. The results showed that: (1) material expert validation including content feasibility with an average of 85.15% on very good criteria, presentation feasibility with an average of 90.38% on very good criteria, and language aspect with an average of 89 , 42% on very good criteria, (2) design expert validation with an average of 82.41% on very good criteria, module size aspect with an average score of 87.5%, cover design with an average score of 85.71% and module design with an average score of 80.55%. (3) teacher responses with an average of 91.91% on very good criteria, (4) individualized trials with an average of 76.85% on good criteria, (5) small group trials with an average of 81.56 % on very good criteria, and (6) limited field tests with an average of 87.54% on very good criteria. The result of student speed reading test before using module equal to 60,67, while the result of speed reading test of observation result text of student after using module increased by 90,33. The difference is 29,66 from before to after. This proves that the teaching materials to read quickly an observation result report text developed can improve student learning outcomes by using learning methods based on anticipation guide strategy. The implication of this research is to give a practical contribution especially in the implementation of learning for teachers as additional teaching materials and as a means to assist and facilitate the students in comprehending the material to read observation results report text so that it can be applied to their life.

Keywords: Development, Module, Speed Reading, Teaching Materials

Domestic Tourism: Untapped Opportunities for Sāmoa (With Special Reference to Accommodation Providers) (Published)

Tourism is both a key contributor to the economy of Sāmoa  and the leading source of foreign exchange. The seasonal nature of tourism is particularly detrimental to the accommodation sector. In many countries, the development of domestic tourism is actively promoted as it plays a vital part in tourism sustainability. Sāmoa however, like many other countries appear to be overlooking the potentials of domestic tourism in their development and tourism strategies. The present study uses secondary data and case studies to examine the advantages and opportunities created by domestic tourism. Secondary data found that the key areas of focus highlighted in the Strategy for the Development of Sāmoa SDS) 2005-2007, 2008-2012, Sāmoa Tourism Development Plan (STDP) 2009-2013, Sāmoa Tourism Sector Plan (STSP) 2014-2019, and Sāmoa Tourism Strategic Marketing Plan (STSMP) 2014-2019, indicate that domestic tourism development is not a key focus of tourism development. Using Talanoa research method (TRM), primary data was collected from 20 stakeholders in the tourism industry. Using Thematic Analysis, it was found that there were a mixture of views for and against the development of domestic tourism in Sāmoa.

Keywords: Development, Domestic tourism, Sāmoa., Tourism

Logic and Critical Thinking: The Missing Link in Higher Education in Nigeria (Published)

Sustainable development and good living condition in the modern world are determined by people who possess more than normal reasoning abilities. The present Nigerian socio-political, economic and technological dilemma therefore results from the redundancy of mind paved by gross deficiency in logic and critical thinking competencies. This deficiency broadly stems from Nigerian poor educational system which has neglected acquisition of reflective and critical reasoning skills in theoretical and practical terms. This hampers critical competence, and results to irrational judgments, biased policies and dishonest governance. Consequently, problem solving and critical competence in various sectors of Nigerian existence have remained a mirage resulting to unsustainable development. This paper analytically investigates the meaning, cradle, essence, relevance and state of logic and critical thinking in Nigerian higher education and existence. The research finds that logic and critical thinking has been negligently relegated to one of those optional General Studies’ courses rarely needed to make up the required credit load. As such, not every department of education in Nigeria offers logic and critical thinking. This is coupled with the fact that in some Nigerian Higher Institutions, logic and critical thinking is managed by unqualified staff. The paper as well finds that knowledge of logic and critical thinking is indispensable in the daily human expressions, decisions, right choices and actions. For deficiency in reasoning skills paves way for errors, deceptions, violence and false democracy. The paper concludes that for Nigeria to initiate and sustain true democracy and development, logic and critical thinking should be centrally paramount in her education system because of its quality of impacting critical reasoning skills and competency in the students and citizenry.

Keywords: Critical, Development, Education, Logic, Study, thinking

The Role of Sponsors in the Development of Infrastructure in Public Primary Schools in Kenya (Published)

Sponsors have a great influence in the management of public schools in Kenya. This is why they were given the mandate in the Education Act prior to the free primary education of 2003 to oversee the general management of the schools they sponsored. The study sought to establish the influence of sponsors on the management of public primary schools in Wareng Sub-County in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Informed by the study, this paper examines the influence of sponsors in the development of infrastructure in public primary schools in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and was guided by the Systems theoretical approach. The target population comprised all schools, head teachers, all chairpersons, sponsors’ representatives and one District Quality Assurance Standards Officer in the Sub-County. A sample size of 115 respondents was selected, which comprised 38 head teachers, 38 chairpersons, 38 sponsor representatives and one officer from the District Education Officer’s office. The participants were sampled using quota, purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Since the research was both quantitative and qualitative questionnaires, interviews and observation schedules were used to collect data. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, specifically frequencies and percentages. The results of the study revealed that sponsors no longer participate in their initial role of developing and funding public primary schools. It emerged the introduction of free primary education has brought confusion over the role of sponsors with those of the head teacher. It was, therefore, recommended that the Ministry of Education needs to review the policy on sponsoring of schools, especially on the rules and rights of sponsors.

Keywords: Development, Infrastructure, Kenya, Public Primary Schools, Role, Sponsors

Development of Software for the Design of Conventional Self Tilting Wheelbarrow (Published)

This research presents the software approach to the design of self-tilting wheelbarrow. A total of Ninety Five (95) variables were used to form the basis of the computer input. A compact and clear flowchart was presented from which the written command using ‘If’ statement is formed. The output from the printed computer interface shows an accurate, compact, fast and easy design which of course could be easily modified, adapted or manipulated for further design and interchangeability

Keywords: Development, Self Tilting Wheelbarrow, Software Design

Development of Exposition Text Writing Teaching Material Based on Reciprocal Teaching Method for Students Class X Sma Negeri 1 Kisaran (Published)

This study aims to know the results of the development of exposition text writing teaching material based on reciprocal teaching method in students class X SMA Negeri 1 Kisaran. The research method used is research and development (R & D) method proposed by Sugiyono refers to Borg & Gall model. The trial subjects consisted of 3 students with individual trials, 9 students with small group trials, and 36 students with limited field trials. Data collection techniques used are observation, interview, questionnaire and expository writing test. The results show that: (1) material expert validation includes content feasibility with an average of 83.59% on very good criteria, presentation feasibility with an average of 87.5% on very good criteria, and language aspects with an average of 86,53% on very good criteria, (2) validation of design experts with an average of 94.16% on very good criteria, (3) teacher response with an average of 92.64% on very good criteria, (4) individual testing with an average of 78.47% on good criteria, (5) small group trial with an average of 84.72% on very good criteria, and (6) limited field trial with an average of 88.02% on very good criteria. The result of the writing test of the expository text of the students before using the module is 70, while the learning result of the writing test of expository text after the students using the module increased by 84.72. The difference is 14.72 from before to after. This proves that the teaching material to write exposition texts developed can improve student learning outcomes by using reciprocal method. The implication of this research is to give a practical contribution especially in the implementation of learning for teachers as additional teaching materials and as a means to assist and facilitate students in understanding the material of exposition texts thus they can be applied to their respective lives.

Keywords: Development, Exposition Texts, Reciprocal Teaching, Teaching Materials

Development of Writing Teaching Material of Negotiation Text Based on Experience of Students Class X Man 2 Model Padangsidimpuan (Published)

This study aims to find out about the results of development of teaching materials of negotiation text based on experience of students class X MAN 2 Model Padangsidimpuan. The teaching materials developed is modular. The research method used is research and development method of Research and Development (R & D) referenced on Borg & Gall model which proposed by Wina Sanjaya. The result of the research showed that: (1) validation of material experts include the feasibility of the content with an average of 93.75% on very good criteria, the feasibility of presentation with an average of 92.04% on very good criteria, and the evaluation of the language aspect with the average of 92.70% on very good criteria, (2) design expert validation with an average of 84,16% on either criterion, (3) teacher responses with an average of 87.25% on very good criteria, (4) individual testing with an average of 78.23% on either criterion, (5) small group trials with an average of 84.70% on good criteria , and (6) limited field tests with an average of 90.14% on very good criteria. The result of the test is to write the negotiation text of the student before using the module amounts to 70,12, while the result of the test of writing negotiation text of the student after using the module increased by 80,31. The difference is 10,19 from before to after using module. This proves that teaching materials to write negotiation text developed can improve student learning outcomes by using experiential learning.

Keywords: Development, Experience-Based, Negotiation Text, Teaching Materials

Development of Drama Text Teaching Material Based on Character Education in Student Class Viii Smp Negeri 1 Batang Kuis (Published)

This study aims to produce drama text writing teaching material absed on character education on students class VIII SMP Negeri 1 Batang Kuis. The research method used is research development method of Research and Development (R & D) which refers to Borg and Gall model. The stages of development are preliminary study stage, initial product development and product trial. Product development through validation of material experts and design experts. The results of material expert validation include the feasibility of the content with an average of 85.15% with very good category, the feasibility of presentation with an average of 83.65% with very good category, and the language assessment with an average of 80.76% with very good category. Expert material design validation results with an average of 79.58% with good category. Product trials were conducted in three stages: individual trials, small group trials and limited field trials. Individual trials with an average of 84.72 with very good category, small group trials with an average of 86.80 with excellent category and unlimited field trials with an average of 91.60 with excellent category. The effectiveness of teaching materials obtained through student learning outcomes during pretest and postes. The average score during pretest is 68.31 and post-test is 80. This proves that teaching material for drama text based on character education is feasible, easy and effective to be used in learning in students class VIII SMP. This study implies improving student learning outcomes in writing drama text using teaching material based on character education.

Keywords: Based On Character Education, Development, Drama Text, Teaching Materials

Development of Discussion Textual Teaching Materials Based on the Finding on Students Class Viii Smp Negeri 4 Medan (Published)

This study aims to find out about the results of the development of discussion textual writing teaching material based on the finding in the seventh grade students of SMP Negeri 4 Medan. The research method used is research and development research and development (R & D) proposed by Vienna Sanjaya refers to Borg & Gall model. The trial subjects consisted of 3 students with individual trials, 9 students with small group trials, and 32 students with limited field trials. Technique of data collection used observation, interviews, questionnaires, and test of writing text. The results showed that: (1) material expert validation includes content feasibility with an average of 89.84% on very good criteria, presentation feasibility with an average of 88.46% on very good criteria, and language assessment with an average of 90.38% on very good criteria, (2) validation of design experts with an average of 92.08% on very good criteria, (3) teacher response with an average of 89.17% on very good criteria, (4) individual testing with an average of 76.39% on good criteria, (5) small group trials with an average of 81.94% on very good criteria, and (6) limited field tests with an average of 92.77% on very good criteria. The result of discussion textual writing test before using the module is 70,87%, while the result of the test of writing discussion text of the student after using the module increased by 80,09%. The difference is 9.22%. from before to after using the module. This proves that teaching materials to write discussion texts developed can improve student learning outcomes by using discovery-based learning.

Keywords: Development, Discovery-Based Learning, Discussion Texts, Teaching Materials

Understanding Rural-Urban Migration from the Perspectives of Migrants in Agbogbloshie, Ghana (Published)

About half of the urban growth in Africa is accounted for by migrants from rural areas yet we fail to understand migration from the perspectives of the migrants. This paper seeks to understand rural urban migration from the perspective of migrants and how this can inform rural development planning. A mixed research design was adopted to explore the decision making process around migration. In-depth interviews were held with migrants in Agbogbloshie and their families in Yendi where they have come from.  The paper found that while rural-urban migration will persist for a long time because of the deprivation in rural areas, migrants have plans to return home. Planning would need to shift from the conventional approaches of general rural development towards a good understanding of rural development problems unique to certain areas.  

Keywords: Africa, Development, Ghana, Migration, Planning, Urbanisation

The Effect of Using Short Stories on the Development of 5th Graders’ Reading Comprehension Skills in Hebron District (Published)

The study aims at investigating the effect of using short stories on the development of 5th graders’ reading comprehension skills. The study was applied on a purposeful sample of 5th grade students in a governmental school in Hebron District in the academic year 2016/2017. The sample included (87) students at The Korean Palestinian Basic School for Boys in Hebron District. Students were assigned to experimental group and control group, the experimental group was taught by using the short stories technique, while the control group was taught by the ordinary method (English for Palestine). The researchers prepared a reading test. Content validity and reliability were established for the instrument. It was 0.8 for the test. The experiment lasted one month, a pre-test and post-test were performed using the reading skills’ test to measure the effect of using short stories technique. The means and standard deviations (ANCOVA) test were used in the study. The findings of the study showed that there were statistically significant differences in students’ reading skills due to the method of teaching in favor of the experimental group. This study recommended that training programs could be offered to train teachers on using the short stories technique. Students need to be provided with opportunities to practice using it. Based on those findings, the study recommended the necessity of implementing modern methods of teaching short stories for better outcomes in students’ reading skills, and more studies should be conducted on different variables and subjects were recommended.

Keywords: 5th Graders, Development, Effect, Hebron District, Reading Comprehension Skills, Using Short Stories

The Development of News Text Writing Material Based on Contextual Learning on Students Grade Viii Smp Prestasi Utama (Published)

This study aims to find out about the development of teaching materials to write news text based on contextual learning on grade VIII students SMP Prestasi Utama Sunggal. The teaching materials developed is modular. The research method used was research and development method of Research and Development (R&D) referenced on Borg & Gall model proposed by Wina Sanjaya. The results showed that: (1) validation of the material experts included the feasibility of the content with an average of 86.02% on very good criteria, the feasibility of the presentation with an average of 92.30% on very good criteria, and the assessment of the language with an average of 89 , 42% on very good criteria, (2) design expert validation with an average of 80% on very good criteria, (3) teacher responses with an average of 84.17% on very good criteria, (4) individual trials with an average of 77.79% on either criterion, (5) small group trials with an average of 80.32% on very good criteria, and (6) limited field tests with an average of 87.04% on very good criteria. The result of learning test of writing news text before using module equal to 66,40, while the result of learning test of writing  news text after using module increased equal to 77,96. The difference is 11.96 from before to after using module. This proves that teaching materials to write news text developed is able to improve student learning outcomes by using contextual learning-based learning. This study has implications that students can more easily develop ideas based on events that students experience in the activities of writing news text. Indonesian Language Teachers respond well to module-developed teaching materials, so the module can be used as teaching material at school. Modules that have been developed can be an input and comparison in implementing learning-oriented curriculum development curriculum specially in curriculum 2013 so as to contribute to the goals of institutions and national education goals.

Keywords: Contextual, Development, News Text, Teaching Materials

African Traditional Socio-Political Ideals, Democratic Values, and the Development of African States (Published)

The democratic socio-political formation of modern African states can be seen as a bold step in quest for a better human society. However, particular existential problems part of which arises from the composition of these states in Africa pose potent dangers to political stability, peace, well-being of the polity, and development of these states. This paper proposes authentic route out of this unwholesome situation that gets worse by the day notwithstanding immense human and natural resources of African states. It argues that a constructive synthesis “harmonious integration” of African traditional socio-political communitarian ideals with the time-tested-and-proven guiding provisions of democratic values would help solve many socio-political problems of African states and advance their needed sustainable development and flourishing. To this effect, it maintains that mass education using of all avenues of public enlightenment should be upheld therein; it specifically advocates that effective ethical leadership education should be introduced as a course and given emphasis in the curriculum of educational institutions in African states; and then enjoins conscious positive attitudinal change of the citizenry so as to bring about the needed result.

Keywords: African Traditional Socio-Political Ideals, Community, Democratic Values, Development, Harmonious Integration

Inauthenticity in Development: A Philosophical Study of Nigerian Unsustainable Development (Published)

Every sustainable development rests on the indigenous valuable industries and institutions. It is these industries and institutions that foster indigenous productions and export of goods and services. These industries and institutions are products of indigenous scientific knowledge, theorem and technology which are authentic basis of sustainable development. Thus, inconsistency with the indigenous traditional scientific and technological feats amounts to inauthentic and unsustainable development which is the trouble with Nigeria. Hence, 57 seven years after independence, Nigerian is still laden with poor achievements, consumerism and collapse of public institutions and structures. Such unsustainable development has in recent time enhanced unemployment, poverty, hardship, death, agitation, militancy and instability. Against this backdrop, this paper analytically examines the rationale behind Nigerian unsustainable development, its philosophical foundation and implications. It as well proffers axiological solutions to the incessant inauthentic and unsustainable development in Nigeria. The research however finds that inauthentic development is Nigerian conspicuous predicament and the bedrock of her unsustainable development. This is as most areas of her development do not derive from her cultural values, productions and services. Worst still, most incorporated foreign feats do not also cohere with her indigenous autochthonous nature and personhood. The paper therefore concludes that indigenous environment and culture provide people with a base for development as well as valuable materials that can sustainably be developed. As such, sustainable development can only occur when it is built from and on the existent traditional values, needs, productions, services and materials.  

Keywords: Development, Inauthenticity, Philosophical, Unsustainable

Prospects, Issues and Challenges of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) In Revamping Nigeria Depressed Economy (Published)

Nigeria aspires to become a major player in the world economy in line with her Vision 20-2020. To achieve this ambitious goal, the most crucial vehicle apart from power and infrastructure, is a skilled and competent workforce. This is necessary for the effective implementation of national development projects and for attracting necessary international investment by hi-tech industries. (NBTE, 2011).  Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is used as a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences, the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life (UNESCO and ILO 2001) In addition to technical knowledge and aptitude, TVET is also concerned with softer skills like communication, negotiation and teamwork. It is dispensed in public and private educational establishments or other forms of formal or informal instructor aimed at granting all segments of the society access to lifelong resources.

Keywords: Development, Economic Depression, Technical, Vocational education

Anatomy of Rebellion: Insurgency, Insurrection, and Militancy in Nigeria (Published)

Transitional societies face a myriad of problems which include incessant conflicts. Some scholars and international financial institutions believed that neoliberal economic growth and policies in support of them would reduce poverty and end conflicts. While not disputing the role of economic growth in a country’s development, this paper takes the view that a holistic approach that recognizes good governance can do more to promote sustainable peace and development. The methodology for this paper was content analysis of official documents, articles and other written sources. The paper observes that the absence of good governance has provided a fertile ground for some of these conflicts to emerge such as insurrections, insurgencies, and general insecurity of lives and property. It concludes that a developmental model that takes cognizance of this can provide the best option for emerging societies in need of lasting peace.

Keywords: Al Qaeda, Boko Haram, Colonialism, Development, Governance, Insurgency, Insurrection, Militancy, Rebellion

Education 2030: Social Implications on the Development of Secondary Education in Rivers State (Published)

Education has evolved over time in content and practice to meet the ever changing demands of society. With this, has come several goals with accompanying deadlines to ensure its’ execution as exemplified by the Education 2030 SDG 4 goal derived from the Incheon declaration. While this is a laudable goal, how well it will be executed in Nigeria is yet to be seen. This study seeks to establish the relationship between physical infrastructure and the actualization of this goal in Rivers State. The research used the sample survey method and questionnaires with a reliability coefficient of 0.68 as instruments for data collection. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of covariance, and the results indicate that there is a relationship between physical structure and the actual implementation of Education 2030 goal of ensuring inclusive and equitable quality and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. The researchers recommend partnerships between the educational sector and host communities to create a smooth channel of communication and collaboration.

Keywords: Development, Education, Social implication

Training and Development Strategies: Approaches for Performance Enhancement in Goal Oriented Firms. (A Survey of Commercial Banking Firms in Nigeria) (Published)

This research paper is a critical analysis of Training and Development Strategies; as approaches for performance enhancement in goal oriented firms with emphasis on Twenty-one commercial banking firms in Nigeria. This study adopted simple empirical survey method or quasi-experimental method which places premium on survey of sample. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were utilized in a bid to attain the necessary result. Five point Likert rating scale questionnaire were used in obtaining the opinions and views from respondents (i.e. Strongly Agree, SA (5), Agree, A (4), Undecided, U (3), Disagree, D (2), And Strongly Disagree, SD (1)). For secondary sources of data textbooks, journals, and annual reports of 21 commercial banking firms’ and stock exchange fact book, were used. The sample size for the study is 398 derived from the employee population of 21 commercial banking firms totaled of 64, 846 as at January, 2017. This was determined using Taro-Yamane’s formulae. Bartlett’s test of Sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer Oikin measure of sampling adequacy, construct validity test determination and Cronbach Alpha for reliability test determination was applied in this study. Bowley’s Allocation formula was applied in determining the individual commercial banking firms sample size. Multiple Regression test was used in processing the three (3) formulated hypotheses. The study findings revealed that Training and Development Strategies adopted by commercial banking firms in Nigeria for employees have positive relationship on productivity of the banking firms. Again, Training and Development have enhanced employee’s skills acquisition and knowledge base of employees. The last finding showed that training and development programme/strategies have impacted on organization employees by modifying their behaviors and their work attitudes to conform to set standard and norms of the commercial banks for service delivery and sound operations. The study recommendations are that, executive management of the commercial banking firms in Nigeria should also ensure that operational analysis, organizational analysis, individual analysis is periodically carried out to determine training and development needs in areas of skills inadequacy, knowledge gap, attitude and behavioral aspects to warrant proper Training and Development hence customers of the banks needed to be treated with absolute care in order to attract higher market share and profits by banks. Again, the study recommended emphasis on e-product s training for commercial banking firms in Nigeria to enhance sustainability and competitive advantage hence this will enhance growth in a positive direction especially in this era of globalization.

Keywords: Development, Goal Oriented Firms, Performance Enhancement, Strategies., Training

The Development of Local Wisdom of Labuhanbatu Based on Teaching Material of Descriptive Text For 7th Grade Student at Smp Negeri 1 Bilah Barat, Indonesia (Published)

This research aims to know the development result of local wisdom of Labuhanbatu based teching material of descriptive text for 7th grade students of State Junior High School 1 Bilah Barat. Teaching Material is in form of module. Used research method is research and development (R & D) referred on Borg & Gall proposed by Sugiyono. The tria subject consist of 3 students with individual trial, 9 students with small group trial, and 32 students with limited field trial. Technique of collecting data uses observation, interview, questionnaire and writing descriptive text test. The research result indicates that: (1) validation of material expert includes content expediency with average 87.18% on very good criterion, presenting expediency gets the average 85.19% on very good criterion, and language assessment gains 87.93% on very good criterion, (2) validation of design expert gets 91.58% on very good criterion, (3) teacher’s response is on the average 88.33% on very good criterion, (4) individual tria gets the average 74.61% on very good criterion, (5) small group trial gets 83.22% on very good criterion and (6) limited field trial is on average 90.18%. The gained result of effectivity of using local wisdom of Labuhanbatu based module of descriptive text material is 75.37 and the effectivity of textbook is 69.85. The different is 11.72 of using textbook and using module.

Keywords: Descriptive Text, Development, Local Wisdom, Teaching Material

The Relationship between Research and Development Alliance and Competitive Advantage of the Kenya Commercial Bank, Eldoret Branch (Published)

Strategic alliance relationship continues to be one of the leading business strategies. It is driven majorly by increasing competition in the global market. It is also increasingly becoming popular in the business world. The research sought to establish the relationship between strategic alliances and competitive advantage at the Kenya Commercial Bank. Based on the study, this paper explores the extent to which research and development alliance influences competitive advantage at the KCB. The rationale for carrying out the research was to provide evidence-based practice for KCB and other banks as they engage in strategic alliances. The study adopted a correlational survey research design. It targeted a population of 75 respondents. The sample size comprised 63 respondents selected using random sampling technique. Data was collected using a questionnaire. The data obtained from the questionnaires were coded, organized and analysed using descriptive statistics specifically employing frequency and percentages to analyse closed-ended questions while mean and standard deviation was used to analyse the five point Likert questions. Hypotheses were tested to determine the relationship between research and development alliance and competitive advantage of KCB. The research results revealed that that there was a significant relationship between research and development alliance and competitive advantage (p=0.000). The study concluded that the Kenya Commercial Bank has gained competitive advantage as a result of entering into research and development alliances with various partners across different industries. Therefore, the study recommended that KCB should continue partnering with other commercial banks and organizations through research in order to increase its market share. The paper is significant as it identifies ways in which banks can exploit research and development alliance to provide customers with quality needs-based services and achieve competitive advantage in the banking industry.

Keywords: Alliance, Competitive Advantage, Development, Eldoret, Kenya Commercial Bank, Research

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