Tag Archives: Development

Anatomy of Rebellion: Insurgency, Insurrection, and Militancy in NigeriaTransitional societies face a myriad of problems which include incessant conflicts. Some scholars and international financial institutions believed that neoliberal economic growth and policies in support of them would reduce poverty and end conflicts. While not disputing the role of economic growth in a country’s development, this paper takes the view that a holistic approach that recognizes good governance can do more to promote sustainable peace and development. The methodology for this paper was content analysis of official documents, articles and other written sources. The paper observes that the absence of good governance has provided a fertile ground for some of these conflicts to emerge such as insurrections, insurgencies, and general insecurity of lives and property. It concludes that a developmental model that takes cognizance of this can provide the best option for emerging societies in need of lasting peace. (Published)

Transitional societies face a myriad of problems which include incessant conflicts. Some scholars and international financial institutions believed that neoliberal economic growth and policies in support of them would reduce poverty and end conflicts. While not disputing the role of economic growth in a country’s development, this paper takes the view that a holistic approach that recognizes good governance can do more to promote sustainable peace and development. The methodology for this paper was content analysis of official documents, articles and other written sources. The paper observes that the absence of good governance has provided a fertile ground for some of these conflicts to emerge such as insurrections, insurgencies, and general insecurity of lives and property. It concludes that a developmental model that takes cognizance of this can provide the best option for emerging societies in need of lasting peace.

Keywords: Al Qaeda, Boko Haram, Colonialism, Development, Governance, Insurgency, Insurrection, Militancy, Rebellion

Education 2030: Social Implications on the Development of Secondary Education in Rivers State (Published)

Education has evolved over time in content and practice to meet the ever changing demands of society. With this, has come several goals with accompanying deadlines to ensure its’ execution as exemplified by the Education 2030 SDG 4 goal derived from the Incheon declaration. While this is a laudable goal, how well it will be executed in Nigeria is yet to be seen. This study seeks to establish the relationship between physical infrastructure and the actualization of this goal in Rivers State. The research used the sample survey method and questionnaires with a reliability coefficient of 0.68 as instruments for data collection. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of covariance, and the results indicate that there is a relationship between physical structure and the actual implementation of Education 2030 goal of ensuring inclusive and equitable quality and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. The researchers recommend partnerships between the educational sector and host communities to create a smooth channel of communication and collaboration.

Keywords: Development, Education, Social implication

Training and Development Strategies: Approaches for Performance Enhancement in Goal Oriented Firms. (A Survey of Commercial Banking Firms in Nigeria) (Published)

This research paper is a critical analysis of Training and Development Strategies; as approaches for performance enhancement in goal oriented firms with emphasis on Twenty-one commercial banking firms in Nigeria. This study adopted simple empirical survey method or quasi-experimental method which places premium on survey of sample. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were utilized in a bid to attain the necessary result. Five point Likert rating scale questionnaire were used in obtaining the opinions and views from respondents (i.e. Strongly Agree, SA (5), Agree, A (4), Undecided, U (3), Disagree, D (2), And Strongly Disagree, SD (1)). For secondary sources of data textbooks, journals, and annual reports of 21 commercial banking firms’ and stock exchange fact book, were used. The sample size for the study is 398 derived from the employee population of 21 commercial banking firms totaled of 64, 846 as at January, 2017. This was determined using Taro-Yamane’s formulae. Bartlett’s test of Sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer Oikin measure of sampling adequacy, construct validity test determination and Cronbach Alpha for reliability test determination was applied in this study. Bowley’s Allocation formula was applied in determining the individual commercial banking firms sample size. Multiple Regression test was used in processing the three (3) formulated hypotheses. The study findings revealed that Training and Development Strategies adopted by commercial banking firms in Nigeria for employees have positive relationship on productivity of the banking firms. Again, Training and Development have enhanced employee’s skills acquisition and knowledge base of employees. The last finding showed that training and development programme/strategies have impacted on organization employees by modifying their behaviors and their work attitudes to conform to set standard and norms of the commercial banks for service delivery and sound operations. The study recommendations are that, executive management of the commercial banking firms in Nigeria should also ensure that operational analysis, organizational analysis, individual analysis is periodically carried out to determine training and development needs in areas of skills inadequacy, knowledge gap, attitude and behavioral aspects to warrant proper Training and Development hence customers of the banks needed to be treated with absolute care in order to attract higher market share and profits by banks. Again, the study recommended emphasis on e-product s training for commercial banking firms in Nigeria to enhance sustainability and competitive advantage hence this will enhance growth in a positive direction especially in this era of globalization.

Keywords: Development, Goal Oriented Firms, Performance Enhancement, Strategies., Training

The Development of Local Wisdom of Labuhanbatu Based on Teaching Material of Descriptive Text For 7th Grade Student at Smp Negeri 1 Bilah Barat, Indonesia (Published)

This research aims to know the development result of local wisdom of Labuhanbatu based teching material of descriptive text for 7th grade students of State Junior High School 1 Bilah Barat. Teaching Material is in form of module. Used research method is research and development (R & D) referred on Borg & Gall proposed by Sugiyono. The tria subject consist of 3 students with individual trial, 9 students with small group trial, and 32 students with limited field trial. Technique of collecting data uses observation, interview, questionnaire and writing descriptive text test. The research result indicates that: (1) validation of material expert includes content expediency with average 87.18% on very good criterion, presenting expediency gets the average 85.19% on very good criterion, and language assessment gains 87.93% on very good criterion, (2) validation of design expert gets 91.58% on very good criterion, (3) teacher’s response is on the average 88.33% on very good criterion, (4) individual tria gets the average 74.61% on very good criterion, (5) small group trial gets 83.22% on very good criterion and (6) limited field trial is on average 90.18%. The gained result of effectivity of using local wisdom of Labuhanbatu based module of descriptive text material is 75.37 and the effectivity of textbook is 69.85. The different is 11.72 of using textbook and using module.

Keywords: Descriptive Text, Development, Local Wisdom, Teaching Material

The Relationship between Research and Development Alliance and Competitive Advantage of the Kenya Commercial Bank, Eldoret Branch (Published)

Strategic alliance relationship continues to be one of the leading business strategies. It is driven majorly by increasing competition in the global market. It is also increasingly becoming popular in the business world. The research sought to establish the relationship between strategic alliances and competitive advantage at the Kenya Commercial Bank. Based on the study, this paper explores the extent to which research and development alliance influences competitive advantage at the KCB. The rationale for carrying out the research was to provide evidence-based practice for KCB and other banks as they engage in strategic alliances. The study adopted a correlational survey research design. It targeted a population of 75 respondents. The sample size comprised 63 respondents selected using random sampling technique. Data was collected using a questionnaire. The data obtained from the questionnaires were coded, organized and analysed using descriptive statistics specifically employing frequency and percentages to analyse closed-ended questions while mean and standard deviation was used to analyse the five point Likert questions. Hypotheses were tested to determine the relationship between research and development alliance and competitive advantage of KCB. The research results revealed that that there was a significant relationship between research and development alliance and competitive advantage (p=0.000). The study concluded that the Kenya Commercial Bank has gained competitive advantage as a result of entering into research and development alliances with various partners across different industries. Therefore, the study recommended that KCB should continue partnering with other commercial banks and organizations through research in order to increase its market share. The paper is significant as it identifies ways in which banks can exploit research and development alliance to provide customers with quality needs-based services and achieve competitive advantage in the banking industry.

Keywords: Alliance, Competitive Advantage, Development, Eldoret, Kenya Commercial Bank, Research

The Impact of Gender Discrimination on National Development (Published)

The paper argues that gender discrimination is as old as creation. Over the years women were made to belief that their rightful place was in the home front as housewives producers and minders of children. The paper focuses on cultural, societal and religious practices, in our traditional society that prevent women from contributing their quota to both the community and the nation at large. In this modern world where women have assumed prominent roles in the economic, political, and social developments in different societies, there is a clarion call for both the government and other men of the country to be supportive of their female counterparts as this will enable them to exhibit their potentials for the benefit of the development of our nation. The paper concludes that there should be mass literacy campaign towards women education. Education shapes the life of women by equipping them with knowledge, skills, right attitudes and values to participate effectively and also contribute meaningfully to national development.

Keywords: Culture, Development, Education, Women, Yoruba

Motivation and Teachers’ Performance in Selected Public Secondary Schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State (Published)

This study investigated motivation and teachers’ performance in selected secondary schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design of an ex-post facto type. Four research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire tagged “Teachers’ motivation and  performance in secondary schools”. The questionnaire was validated and the Cronbach’s alpha was 0.81 while the reliability was confirmed at 0.78 using a split-half correlation coefficient. Research questionnaires were administered to two hundred (200) teachers that were randomly selected from four major (4) administrative zones in LGA but only one hundred and eighty-seven (187) were adequately filled and used in the analysis. Data were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Regression statistical methods. The findings of this study reveal a significant positive relationship between teachers’ job performance and motivation in ensuring quality education in secondary schools (r = .567; p>.05). The study also indicated that reward system, professional training and development, work situational factors accounted for 10.4%, 29.1%, and 13.9% respectively of the variance in the motivation of teachers in public secondary schools. It was therefore concluded that the importance of motivation in the day-to-day performance of teachers cannot be overemphasized, especially when it comes to being rewarded for a job done and being happy on the job. It was recommended that for higher performance as well as for employees to have sense of belonging, Management must introduce Management By Objective (MBO) approach so that all staff will take part and be able to contribute meaningfully to the development of the organization.

Keywords: Development, Performance, Reward system, Teachers, Training, Work Situation

Development and Validation of Circulation Software Package for Libraries in Federal Universities of North Central, Nigeria (Published)

The aim of this study was to investigate the development and validation of circulation software package for university libraries in Federal Universities of North Central Zone, Nigeria.. Specifically, five purposes and three research questions guided the study. Related literature was reviewed under conceptual framework, theoretical framework and related empirical studies. The study adopted descriptive survey at first after which it will adopt Research and Development (R&D). The study was carried out in North Central Zone, it has population of 155 comprising librarians and other library personnel who have worked in circulation department from seven federal university libraries in the zone. The study used purposive sampling technique to sample 108 librarians and other library personnel. From the above population one hundred and eight (108) questionnaires were distributed filled and returned; representing a return rate of 70%. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency tables and mean scores. And the decision rule for research questions one through three was based on whether the mean score value was lower than or equal to and above the criterion mean value of 2.50 for either rejection or acceptance. The findings of the study shows: that federal university libraries under study to high extent employ manual procedures in carrying out basic circulation functions such as registering users at the circulation Desk, charging out items to users at circulation Desk, Discharging and renewing items to users at the circulation desk. The study revealed that majority of the respondents strongly agreed and agreed that Fast report generation is not possible, Tracing a book on the library shelf is difficult, Information about issue/return of the books are not properly maintained, No central database can be created as information is not available in database, Difficulty in determining if a patron has overdue, the manual charging was characterized by long queues and unnecessary delays, manual card systems basically provide just one access point, the due date is on a card that has been lost, It is possible to have two (or more!) cards for each item, Waste the users time, The process is cumbersome and Inefficiency in service delivery. Finally, the finding also shows that majority of the respondents have little or no skill in Software design, Software installation/operations, Web design, Digitization and imaging technology, Online cataloguing(MARC) and OCR Devices classification (NLM). It also revealed that respondents have low skill in automated circulation system and System analysis and design. However, the table indicated that most of the respondents have a very high skill in MSOffice, Database searching technique and Transformation of data. Recommendations were made as follows; Libraries should encourage the production of local library application software by patronizing them and even be part of the software development, there is need for constant training and re-training of staff in the proper handling of Information and Communication Technology equipment and process so as not to run in to trouble, staff such as programmers, analysts, and operators should be employed to handle the computer system and train the librarians on basic trouble shooting, ICT facilities and other equipment should be made available for staff at the circulation desk, white the outdated ones should be replaced and each university library should have a stand-by generator and UPS to guard against power failure and its damage of the automation equipment. The project development of library circulation Software package that was developed based on the findings of initial descriptive survey carried out to manage the daily book transaction and manage the member, books record more efficiently to improve management of the book property in the library. This library circulation Software package is mainly use by librarian, library admin and users. Besides that, library circulation Software package also allows user to search for availability of books by Title, Author and ISBN via World Wide Web. The methodology adopted to develop this system is waterfall model. Thus, the work chapters included system planning, requirement analysis, system design, programming, system and testing, of the project. The software is available on-line via www.libcsp.com

Keywords: Circulation Software Package, Development, Federal Universities, Libraries

Management Training and Development: A Leadership Strategy to Performance Management and Job Satisfaction in Kenyan Universities (Published)

Kenya’s university lecturers are generally highly educated. Their capacity to carry out their mandate effectively and their recognition as essential assets to society and world – class institutions depend on their training, experience, commitment and quality of their productivity (Republic of Kenya, 2007). Specific mechanisms ought to be put in place to address the lecturers’ wellbeing, to ensure their motivation, retention and productivity. The author of this paper opines that university management is tasked with the responsibility of facilitating their staff training and development in order to bridge any existing gaps or shortcomings and sharpen their skills. The rationale for training in the work context being to better hone the abilities or skills of the individual and satisfy the short and long term manpower requirements of the organisation. This paper thus focuses on management training and development as a strategic tool to performance management and job satisfaction among Kenyan universities. The study employed convergent parallel mixed methods design with census, random and systematic sampling techniques to select the respondents. Purposive sampling was also used to select information-rich cases. A target population of 2,773 members of university management and lecturers in the chartered public and private universities with their main campuses in Rift Valley Region of Kenya was considered from which a sample of 605 participants was obtained. Questionnaires, interview and document analysis guides were used for data collection. Qualitative data was thematically analysed while quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, independent-samples t-test, One-way ANOVA and regression coefficients, with the use of the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20. The study found that training and development exhibited the strong association with lecturers’ job satisfaction and performance management in the selected Kenyan Universities. For attainment of higher levels of job satisfaction and performance, the study recommended enhancement of training and development programmes in the Universities.

Keywords: Development, Job Satisfaction, Leadership Strategy, Performance Management., Training

Developing The English Teacher’s Expertise to Implement the New Nigerian National Curriculum (Published)

This paper is written to assist the English Language teacher trainers in Nigeria universities and the Secondary school English teachers to come to term with the reality on ground with reference to the New Senior Secondary School English Language Curriculum. It is a position paper resulting from the experience of the writer as a resource person in the nation – wide curriculum sensitization workshop of the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC), the makers of the Curriculum. For five years (2011-2015) the writer handled the “Humanities” aspect of the teachers’ workshop in the Western Zone of the nation (Lagos, Oyo, Ondo, Ogun, Ekiti and Oshun). While this is not another workshop paper, nor a summary of the three years’ workshop, it certainly contains the major highlights of the new curriculum presented from the point of view of a researcher with clear emphasis on what the roles of the English teacher should be as against what it used to be.

Keywords: Curriculum Teachers, Development, English Language, professionalism

Training and Development Strategies on Employee Commitment in Kenya: Quantitative Analysis Approach (Published)

Employee training is intended to provide an opportunity for advancement and may be perceived as the organization values their employees and their sense of self-worth, therefore will result to building a stronger affective commitment. Thus also resulting to a function of close psychological attachment to the organization and its goals, (McElroy, 2001). The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of employee training and development strategies on employee commitment. The research hypotheses for the study were; Ho1 training and development opportunities have no significant effect on employee commitment. The study employed a case study research design that was conducted at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. The target population was three thousand two hundred (3200) respondents were targeted because that was the group highly affected by commitment and turnover issues in the organisation. A sample size of 340 was extracted from the target population and the sampling techniques used were stratified sampling. Data was analyzed using Multiple regression analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships. Based on the observed correlation results, training and development (β = 0.134, p<0.05) indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between employee training and development opportunities and employee commitment. This implies that the perceived empowerment of employees by the hospital was likely to impact positively on their commitment to the hospital.

Keywords: Commitment, Development, Strategies., Training, and Public Organizations

Transforming University Knowledge Production towards the Promotion of Inclusive Development in Nigeria (Published)

Nigeria has been seemingly inelastic to global changes in terms of joining the post-industrial revolution.   Renaissance of knowledge in Africa was identified as a potent factor for economic growth by World Bank (IBRD).  This factor could create opportunities to leap frogging in selected areas of economic growth and resolution of social problems in the region.  Hence, this study examined transforming university knowledge production towards the promotion of inclusive development in Nigeria.  This survey design study  provided a baseline information for supporting university knowledge-driven inclusive economic growth and equitable income distribution in order to promote inclusive development in the nation.  Secondary data from National Bureau of statistics and other data sources were obtained to answer three research questions raised in the study.  Using the simple descriptive statistics, results obtained revealed low capacity in university knowledge production which yielded a low Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and low knowledge Economy Index (KEI), but with high inclusive growth in Nigeria.  The market-driven inclusive growth resulted in not having specific targets such as employment generation and income distribution.  Therefore, it was recommended among others that government should create enhanced social and education environment. This will ensure sustained growth as well as equity/ fairness in income distribution towards the promotion of inclusive development.

Keywords: Development, Knowledge, Production, University, inclusive

Application Venues of Counter-Current Development Model (CCDM) in Developing Countries: Imperative For the Knowledge Driven Economy (Published)

This paper explains the nitty-gritty in the application of Counter-Current Development Model (CCDM) for the developing economies. It examines several ways of CCDM applications such as visionary and transformational leadership, competitive and human capital development, research for sustainable development, productive economy (energy, agricultural, technological and industrial developments were highlighted), development and modernization (food security/modernization and national security, peace and unity); and then feedback. All these were illustrated with diagrams for conceptual and theoretical frameworks. Other CCDM application venues include: provision of conducive environment for competitive economic activities; need for people-centred political system and issues of revolution. It concludes with recommendations on peaceful revolution strategies.

Keywords: Counter-Current, Development, Development Model, Peaceful Resolution, Productive Economy, Transformational Leadership

Development and Validation of Circulation Software Package for Libraries in Federal Universities of North Central, Nigeria (Published)

The aim of this study was to investigate the development and validation of circulation software package for university libraries in Federal Universities of North Central Zone, Nigeria.. Specifically, five purposes and three research questions guided the study. Related literature was reviewed under conceptual framework, theoretical framework and related empirical studies. The study adopted descriptive survey at first after which it will adopt Research and Development (R&D). The study was carried out in North Central Zone, it has population of 155 comprising librarians and other library personnel who have worked  in circulation department from seven federal university libraries in the zone. The study used purposive sampling technique to sample 108 librarians and other library personnel. From the above population one hundred and eight (108) questionnaires were distributed filled and returned; representing a return rate of 70%. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency tables and mean scores. And the decision rule for research questions one through three was based on whether the mean score value was lower than or equal to and above the criterion mean value of 2.50 for either rejection or acceptance. The findings of the study shows: that federal university libraries under study to high extent employ manual procedures in carrying out basic circulation functions such as registering users at the circulation Desk, charging out items to users at circulation Desk, Discharging and renewing items to users at the circulation desk. The study revealed that majority of the respondents strongly agreed and agreed that Fast report generation is not possible, Tracing a book on the library shelf  is difficult, Information about issue/return of the books are not properly maintained,  No central database can be created as information is not available in database, Difficulty in determining if a patron has overdue, the manual charging was characterized by long queues and unnecessary delays, manual card systems basically provide  just one access point, the due date is on a card  that has been lost, It is possible to have two (or more!) cards for each item, Waste the users time, The process is cumbersome and Inefficiency in service delivery. Finally, the finding also shows that majority of the respondents have little or no skill in Software design, Software installation/operations, Web design, Digitization and imaging technology, Online cataloguing(MARC) and OCR Devices classification (NLM). It also revealed that respondents have low skill in automated circulation system and System analysis and design. However, the table indicated that most of the respondents have a very high skill in MSOffice, Database searching technique and Transformation of data. Recommendations were made as follows; Libraries should encourage the production of local library application software by patronizing them and even be part of the software development, there is need for constant training and re-training of staff in the proper handling of Information and Communication Technology equipment and process so as not to run in to trouble, staff such as programmers, analysts, and operators should be employed to handle the computer system and train the librarians on basic trouble shooting, ICT facilities and other equipment should be made available for staff at the circulation desk, white the outdated ones should be replaced and each university library should have a stand-by generator and UPS to guard against  power failure and its damage of the automation equipment. The project development of  library circulation Software package that was developed based on the findings of initial descriptive survey carried out to manage the daily book transaction and manage the member, books record more efficiently to improve management of the book property in the library. This library circulation Software package is mainly use by librarian, library admin and users. Besides that, library circulation Software package also allows user to search for availability of books by Title, Author and ISBN via World Wide Web. The methodology adopted to develop this system is waterfall model. Thus, the work chapters included system planning, requirement analysis, system design, programming, system and testing,   of the project. The software is available on-line via http// www.libcsp.com

Keywords: Circulation Software Package, Development, Federal Universities, Libraries, Nigeria, Validation

Exploration Study for Development Model Student Learning to Speak for Education Study Language and Literature Indonesia (Published)

This study is the initial part of a doctoral dissertation research conducted with the aim at designing a learning model in teaching speaking according to the needs of faculty and students. The learning model is designed based on curriculum of Indonesian Language Education and Literature study program, IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban, and UnisdaLamongan, East Java, Indonesia. The development of this model is done to improve the students speaking skills. Research and development are the steps consist of a needs analysis, document analysis, design models, development models and experimental models. Needs analysis was conducted by researchers to the students of the first semester and three teachers’ and the head of study program of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban and Unisdalamongan to get information related to the needs of students and faculty to model of learning speaking. Needs analysis and  documents analysis were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and discussions with students and academics. Document and needs analysis in this study a syllabus, lesson plan (RPP) and the model used for this study. This research was carried out by following the nature of the procedures of research and development covering the steps of (1) an exploratory study, (2) the stage of development, (3) the testing phase models, (4) dissemination (Borg and Gall (1983) and Sukmadinata (2008)). The results of the analysis of questionnaires, and interviews revealed that lecturers need guidelines for the implementation of learning speaking. Learning model strategies wite that foster self-confidence in speaking is needed by students’.

Keywords: Development, Exploration Stage, Model, Needs Learning, Speaking

Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change into Policy and Development: Case Study on Agriculture and Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh (Published)

Our proposed study set up a long-term national climate adaptation framework for Bangladeshi policy makers. Outcomes of this research absolutely lead to measure the public perception, attitudes and understanding of the level of knowledge and the aspirations and expectations of publics with regard to how they adapted to a changing climate.  This study also identify if there are significant relationship between public perceptions and attitudes of climate change and efficient adaptation framework and plans to introduce some ideas. and concepts on the challenges toward the perceptions and policies as tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.  More specific outcomes are a) understanding of public perceptions, attitudes towards climate change and their adaptation capacity in agriculture, industry and service sectors b) achievement of efficient national  adaptation framework c) enhanced knowledge on future climate change impacts and better capacity building on the long run integrated economic development and finally and d) recommendations and policy tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.

Keywords: Agriculture, Bangladesh, Climate Change, Development, Food Security, Policy

Leadership and Economic Development in a Developing Economy: A Critical Look at the Nigeria’s’ Experience (Published)

The ability of a person to effectively and efficiently harness as well as influence the material and human resources of a country is very fundamental to the development of an organisation as a sub-system and all sectors of a country as a whole. In this circumstance it will be appropriate to state unequivocally that leadership (those who occupy public positions) plays a fundamental role in making sure that the lives and welfare of the citizens is improved through the provision of basic infrastructural amenities of life. It is in line with the above assertion that this paper aims at studying the role of leadership in ensuring the development of a country while beaming our search light on a developing economy. The research paper approach adopted for the study conforms to qualitative research, as it reviews the literature relating to organisational behaviour and human resource management. After critical x-ray of related write-ups on the topic under study, we found out that some factors such as corruption, wrong value-system, greed and selfishness, patriotism, ethnicity to name but a few, hinder leaders in developing countries from raising the standard of living of the citizens. Finally the study recommended among other things that Nigeria leaders should be able to see, project and assemble a vision of a desired future for the nation. In addition, they should be selfless, sensitive, moral credent and engaging as these are the fundamental perquisite for mobilising followership, particularly in a multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multicultural society like Nigeria.

Keywords: Development, Economic development and Developing Economy, Leader, Leadership

African Theories of Development and the Reality of Underdevelopment (Published)

The urge for the development of the African continent immediately after independence pushed the immediate post-colonial African leaders into experimenting different kinds of developmental systems. Some of these leaders copied the Western systems in operation at that time whereas some others adapted and adopted them. The successors of these post-colonial leaders also followed this trend. All these efforts could not bring the desired development as a result of one basic factor – dependence index. It is an existential fact that no country or continent ever developed by majorly depending on others. The key to development is real ‘ independence’. Equally true is that no country/continent ever developed without the production of materials and goods. Being a consumer nation or continent is to invariably jettison development. This paper calls for ‘ inward looking’ in the developmental efforts of the African continent and minimally look outward.

Keywords: Africa, Development, Leaders, Underdevelopment

Domestic Tourism: Untapped Opportunities for Sāmoa (With Special Reference to Accommodation Providers) (Published)

Tourism is both a key contributor to the economy of Sāmoa  and the leading source of foreign exchange. The seasonal nature of tourism is particularly detrimental to the accommodation sector. In many countries, the development of domestic tourism is actively promoted as it plays a vital part in tourism sustainability. Sāmoa however, like many other countries appear to be overlooking the potentials of domestic tourism in their development and tourism strategies. The present study uses secondary data and case studies to examine the advantages and opportunities created by domestic tourism. Secondary data found that the key areas of focus highlighted in the Strategy for the Development of Sāmoa SDS) 2005-2007, 2008-2012, Sāmoa Tourism Development Plan (STDP) 2009-2013, Sāmoa Tourism Sector Plan (STSP) 2014-2019, and Sāmoa Tourism Strategic Marketing Plan (STSMP) 2014-2019, indicate that domestic tourism development is not a key focus of tourism development. Using Talanoa research method (TRM), primary data was collected from 20 stakeholders in the tourism industry. Using Thematic Analysis, it was found that there were a mixture of views for and against the development of domestic tourism in Sāmoa.

Keywords: Development, Domestic tourism, Sāmoa., Tourism

Rural-Urban Issues and Human Capacity Building in an Era of Globalization: The Third World Perspective (Published)

This study examined the nexus between rural-urban issues and Human Capacity Building. In today’s globalizing world, the issue of human capacity building is very imperative more than ever before. Any country desirous of being relevant in the contemporary world cannot afford to toy with the issue of human capacity building. The high level of competition in the world makes it very inevitable for countries particularly those of the third world to take the issue of Human capacity building seriously because they would lag behind in the scheme of things and would not have anything to offer both at the local and international arena. This situation has brought about a situation whereby countries have been in search of various ways of boosting the human capacity in their various countries. In this endeavour much emphasis is placed on rural –urban issues. It is against this backdrop that this study is embarked upon to interrogate the role of rural-urban issues in human capacity building. Rural-urban migration simply means the movement of people particularly those within the labour force from the rural areas to the urban areas in search of greener pastures. Most times these set of people move to the urban areas to discover there is little or nothing for them to do and in most cases rendered redundant. As they depart the rural areas, they get the rural areas depleted of human resource that could have exploited and tapped the natural resources that abound there. This scenario to a very large extent would negatively affect the country’s development. It is against this backdrop that this study is designed to look for ways of ensuring the building of the human capacity through policies that could bring about the reduction or halting of rural-urban migration. This study is qualitative in nature hence data for the study were sourced through secondary means. Conflict theory was used as a theoretical framework.

Keywords: Conflict, Development, Globalization, Human Capacity Building, Rural-Urban Migration, Third World countries

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