Tag Archives: Development

Management Training and Development: A Leadership Strategy to Performance Management and Job Satisfaction in Kenyan Universities (Published)

Kenya’s university lecturers are generally highly educated. Their capacity to carry out their mandate effectively and their recognition as essential assets to society and world – class institutions depend on their training, experience, commitment and quality of their productivity (Republic of Kenya, 2007). Specific mechanisms ought to be put in place to address the lecturers’ wellbeing, to ensure their motivation, retention and productivity. The author of this paper opines that university management is tasked with the responsibility of facilitating their staff training and development in order to bridge any existing gaps or shortcomings and sharpen their skills. The rationale for training in the work context being to better hone the abilities or skills of the individual and satisfy the short and long term manpower requirements of the organisation. This paper thus focuses on management training and development as a strategic tool to performance management and job satisfaction among Kenyan universities. The study employed convergent parallel mixed methods design with census, random and systematic sampling techniques to select the respondents. Purposive sampling was also used to select information-rich cases. A target population of 2,773 members of university management and lecturers in the chartered public and private universities with their main campuses in Rift Valley Region of Kenya was considered from which a sample of 605 participants was obtained. Questionnaires, interview and document analysis guides were used for data collection. Qualitative data was thematically analysed while quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, independent-samples t-test, One-way ANOVA and regression coefficients, with the use of the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20. The study found that training and development exhibited the strong association with lecturers’ job satisfaction and performance management in the selected Kenyan Universities. For attainment of higher levels of job satisfaction and performance, the study recommended enhancement of training and development programmes in the Universities.

Keywords: Development, Job Satisfaction, Leadership Strategy, Performance Management., Training

Developing The English Teacher’s Expertise to Implement the New Nigerian National Curriculum (Published)

This paper is written to assist the English Language teacher trainers in Nigeria universities and the Secondary school English teachers to come to term with the reality on ground with reference to the New Senior Secondary School English Language Curriculum. It is a position paper resulting from the experience of the writer as a resource person in the nation – wide curriculum sensitization workshop of the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC), the makers of the Curriculum. For five years (2011-2015) the writer handled the “Humanities” aspect of the teachers’ workshop in the Western Zone of the nation (Lagos, Oyo, Ondo, Ogun, Ekiti and Oshun). While this is not another workshop paper, nor a summary of the three years’ workshop, it certainly contains the major highlights of the new curriculum presented from the point of view of a researcher with clear emphasis on what the roles of the English teacher should be as against what it used to be.

Keywords: Curriculum Teachers, Development, English Language, professionalism

Training and Development Strategies on Employee Commitment in Kenya: Quantitative Analysis Approach (Published)

Employee training is intended to provide an opportunity for advancement and may be perceived as the organization values their employees and their sense of self-worth, therefore will result to building a stronger affective commitment. Thus also resulting to a function of close psychological attachment to the organization and its goals, (McElroy, 2001). The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of employee training and development strategies on employee commitment. The research hypotheses for the study were; Ho1 training and development opportunities have no significant effect on employee commitment. The study employed a case study research design that was conducted at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. The target population was three thousand two hundred (3200) respondents were targeted because that was the group highly affected by commitment and turnover issues in the organisation. A sample size of 340 was extracted from the target population and the sampling techniques used were stratified sampling. Data was analyzed using Multiple regression analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships. Based on the observed correlation results, training and development (β = 0.134, p<0.05) indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between employee training and development opportunities and employee commitment. This implies that the perceived empowerment of employees by the hospital was likely to impact positively on their commitment to the hospital.

Keywords: Commitment, Development, Strategies., Training, and Public Organizations

Transforming University Knowledge Production towards the Promotion of Inclusive Development in Nigeria (Published)

Nigeria has been seemingly inelastic to global changes in terms of joining the post-industrial revolution.   Renaissance of knowledge in Africa was identified as a potent factor for economic growth by World Bank (IBRD).  This factor could create opportunities to leap frogging in selected areas of economic growth and resolution of social problems in the region.  Hence, this study examined transforming university knowledge production towards the promotion of inclusive development in Nigeria.  This survey design study  provided a baseline information for supporting university knowledge-driven inclusive economic growth and equitable income distribution in order to promote inclusive development in the nation.  Secondary data from National Bureau of statistics and other data sources were obtained to answer three research questions raised in the study.  Using the simple descriptive statistics, results obtained revealed low capacity in university knowledge production which yielded a low Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and low knowledge Economy Index (KEI), but with high inclusive growth in Nigeria.  The market-driven inclusive growth resulted in not having specific targets such as employment generation and income distribution.  Therefore, it was recommended among others that government should create enhanced social and education environment. This will ensure sustained growth as well as equity/ fairness in income distribution towards the promotion of inclusive development.

Keywords: Development, Knowledge, Production, University, inclusive

Application Venues of Counter-Current Development Model (CCDM) in Developing Countries: Imperative For the Knowledge Driven Economy (Published)

This paper explains the nitty-gritty in the application of Counter-Current Development Model (CCDM) for the developing economies. It examines several ways of CCDM applications such as visionary and transformational leadership, competitive and human capital development, research for sustainable development, productive economy (energy, agricultural, technological and industrial developments were highlighted), development and modernization (food security/modernization and national security, peace and unity); and then feedback. All these were illustrated with diagrams for conceptual and theoretical frameworks. Other CCDM application venues include: provision of conducive environment for competitive economic activities; need for people-centred political system and issues of revolution. It concludes with recommendations on peaceful revolution strategies.

Keywords: Counter-Current, Development, Development Model, Peaceful Resolution, Productive Economy, Transformational Leadership

Development and Validation of Circulation Software Package for Libraries in Federal Universities of North Central, Nigeria (Published)

The aim of this study was to investigate the development and validation of circulation software package for university libraries in Federal Universities of North Central Zone, Nigeria.. Specifically, five purposes and three research questions guided the study. Related literature was reviewed under conceptual framework, theoretical framework and related empirical studies. The study adopted descriptive survey at first after which it will adopt Research and Development (R&D). The study was carried out in North Central Zone, it has population of 155 comprising librarians and other library personnel who have worked  in circulation department from seven federal university libraries in the zone. The study used purposive sampling technique to sample 108 librarians and other library personnel. From the above population one hundred and eight (108) questionnaires were distributed filled and returned; representing a return rate of 70%. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency tables and mean scores. And the decision rule for research questions one through three was based on whether the mean score value was lower than or equal to and above the criterion mean value of 2.50 for either rejection or acceptance. The findings of the study shows: that federal university libraries under study to high extent employ manual procedures in carrying out basic circulation functions such as registering users at the circulation Desk, charging out items to users at circulation Desk, Discharging and renewing items to users at the circulation desk. The study revealed that majority of the respondents strongly agreed and agreed that Fast report generation is not possible, Tracing a book on the library shelf  is difficult, Information about issue/return of the books are not properly maintained,  No central database can be created as information is not available in database, Difficulty in determining if a patron has overdue, the manual charging was characterized by long queues and unnecessary delays, manual card systems basically provide  just one access point, the due date is on a card  that has been lost, It is possible to have two (or more!) cards for each item, Waste the users time, The process is cumbersome and Inefficiency in service delivery. Finally, the finding also shows that majority of the respondents have little or no skill in Software design, Software installation/operations, Web design, Digitization and imaging technology, Online cataloguing(MARC) and OCR Devices classification (NLM). It also revealed that respondents have low skill in automated circulation system and System analysis and design. However, the table indicated that most of the respondents have a very high skill in MSOffice, Database searching technique and Transformation of data. Recommendations were made as follows; Libraries should encourage the production of local library application software by patronizing them and even be part of the software development, there is need for constant training and re-training of staff in the proper handling of Information and Communication Technology equipment and process so as not to run in to trouble, staff such as programmers, analysts, and operators should be employed to handle the computer system and train the librarians on basic trouble shooting, ICT facilities and other equipment should be made available for staff at the circulation desk, white the outdated ones should be replaced and each university library should have a stand-by generator and UPS to guard against  power failure and its damage of the automation equipment. The project development of  library circulation Software package that was developed based on the findings of initial descriptive survey carried out to manage the daily book transaction and manage the member, books record more efficiently to improve management of the book property in the library. This library circulation Software package is mainly use by librarian, library admin and users. Besides that, library circulation Software package also allows user to search for availability of books by Title, Author and ISBN via World Wide Web. The methodology adopted to develop this system is waterfall model. Thus, the work chapters included system planning, requirement analysis, system design, programming, system and testing,   of the project. The software is available on-line via http// www.libcsp.com

Keywords: Circulation Software Package, Development, Federal Universities, Libraries, Nigeria, Validation

Exploration Study for Development Model Student Learning to Speak for Education Study Language and Literature Indonesia (Published)

This study is the initial part of a doctoral dissertation research conducted with the aim at designing a learning model in teaching speaking according to the needs of faculty and students. The learning model is designed based on curriculum of Indonesian Language Education and Literature study program, IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban, and UnisdaLamongan, East Java, Indonesia. The development of this model is done to improve the students speaking skills. Research and development are the steps consist of a needs analysis, document analysis, design models, development models and experimental models. Needs analysis was conducted by researchers to the students of the first semester and three teachers’ and the head of study program of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban and Unisdalamongan to get information related to the needs of students and faculty to model of learning speaking. Needs analysis and  documents analysis were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and discussions with students and academics. Document and needs analysis in this study a syllabus, lesson plan (RPP) and the model used for this study. This research was carried out by following the nature of the procedures of research and development covering the steps of (1) an exploratory study, (2) the stage of development, (3) the testing phase models, (4) dissemination (Borg and Gall (1983) and Sukmadinata (2008)). The results of the analysis of questionnaires, and interviews revealed that lecturers need guidelines for the implementation of learning speaking. Learning model strategies wite that foster self-confidence in speaking is needed by students’.

Keywords: Development, Exploration Stage, Model, Needs Learning, Speaking

Exploration Study for Development Model Student Learning to Speak For Education Study Language and Literature Indonesia (Published)

This study is the initial part of a doctoral dissertation research conducted with the aim at designing a learning model in teaching speaking according to the needs of faculty and students. The learning model is designed based on curriculum of Indonesian Language Education and Literature study program, IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban, and UnisdaLamongan, East Java, Indonesia. The development of this model is done to improve the students speaking skills. Research and development are the steps consist of a needs analysis, document analysis, design models, development models and experimental models. Needs analysis was conducted by researchers to the students of the first semester and three teachers’ and the head of study program of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban and Unisdalamongan to get information related to the needs of students and faculty to model of learning speaking. Needs analysis and  documents analysis were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and discussions with students and academics. Document and needs analysis in this study a syllabus, lesson plan (RPP) and the model used for this study. This research was carried out by following the nature of the procedures of research and development covering the steps of (1) an exploratory study, (2) the stage of development, (3) the testing phase models, (4) dissemination (Borg and Gall (1983) and Sukmadinata (2008)). The results of the analysis of questionnaires, and interviews revealed that lecturers need guidelines for the implementation of learning speaking. Learning model strategies wite that foster self-confidence in speaking is needed by students’.

Keywords: Development, Exploration Stage, Model, Needs Learning, Speaking

Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change into Policy and Development: Case Study on Agriculture and Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh (Published)

Our proposed study set up a long-term national climate adaptation framework for Bangladeshi policy makers. Outcomes of this research absolutely lead to measure the public perception, attitudes and understanding of the level of knowledge and the aspirations and expectations of publics with regard to how they adapted to a changing climate.  This study also identify if there are significant relationship between public perceptions and attitudes of climate change and efficient adaptation framework and plans to introduce some ideas. and concepts on the challenges toward the perceptions and policies as tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.  More specific outcomes are a) understanding of public perceptions, attitudes towards climate change and their adaptation capacity in agriculture, industry and service sectors b) achievement of efficient national  adaptation framework c) enhanced knowledge on future climate change impacts and better capacity building on the long run integrated economic development and finally and d) recommendations and policy tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.

Keywords: Agriculture, Bangladesh, Climate Change, Development, Food Security, Policy

Leadership and Economic Development in a Developing Economy: A Critical Look at the Nigeria’s’ Experience (Published)

The ability of a person to effectively and efficiently harness as well as influence the material and human resources of a country is very fundamental to the development of an organisation as a sub-system and all sectors of a country as a whole. In this circumstance it will be appropriate to state unequivocally that leadership (those who occupy public positions) plays a fundamental role in making sure that the lives and welfare of the citizens is improved through the provision of basic infrastructural amenities of life. It is in line with the above assertion that this paper aims at studying the role of leadership in ensuring the development of a country while beaming our search light on a developing economy. The research paper approach adopted for the study conforms to qualitative research, as it reviews the literature relating to organisational behaviour and human resource management. After critical x-ray of related write-ups on the topic under study, we found out that some factors such as corruption, wrong value-system, greed and selfishness, patriotism, ethnicity to name but a few, hinder leaders in developing countries from raising the standard of living of the citizens. Finally the study recommended among other things that Nigeria leaders should be able to see, project and assemble a vision of a desired future for the nation. In addition, they should be selfless, sensitive, moral credent and engaging as these are the fundamental perquisite for mobilising followership, particularly in a multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multicultural society like Nigeria.

Keywords: Development, Economic development and Developing Economy, Leader, Leadership

African Theories of Development and the Reality of Underdevelopment (Published)

The urge for the development of the African continent immediately after independence pushed the immediate post-colonial African leaders into experimenting different kinds of developmental systems. Some of these leaders copied the Western systems in operation at that time whereas some others adapted and adopted them. The successors of these post-colonial leaders also followed this trend. All these efforts could not bring the desired development as a result of one basic factor – dependence index. It is an existential fact that no country or continent ever developed by majorly depending on others. The key to development is real ‘ independence’. Equally true is that no country/continent ever developed without the production of materials and goods. Being a consumer nation or continent is to invariably jettison development. This paper calls for ‘ inward looking’ in the developmental efforts of the African continent and minimally look outward.

Keywords: Africa, Development, Leaders, Underdevelopment

Domestic Tourism: Untapped Opportunities for Sāmoa (With Special Reference to Accommodation Providers) (Published)

Tourism is both a key contributor to the economy of Sāmoa  and the leading source of foreign exchange. The seasonal nature of tourism is particularly detrimental to the accommodation sector. In many countries, the development of domestic tourism is actively promoted as it plays a vital part in tourism sustainability. Sāmoa however, like many other countries appear to be overlooking the potentials of domestic tourism in their development and tourism strategies. The present study uses secondary data and case studies to examine the advantages and opportunities created by domestic tourism. Secondary data found that the key areas of focus highlighted in the Strategy for the Development of Sāmoa SDS) 2005-2007, 2008-2012, Sāmoa Tourism Development Plan (STDP) 2009-2013, Sāmoa Tourism Sector Plan (STSP) 2014-2019, and Sāmoa Tourism Strategic Marketing Plan (STSMP) 2014-2019, indicate that domestic tourism development is not a key focus of tourism development. Using Talanoa research method (TRM), primary data was collected from 20 stakeholders in the tourism industry. Using Thematic Analysis, it was found that there were a mixture of views for and against the development of domestic tourism in Sāmoa.

Keywords: Development, Domestic tourism, Sāmoa., Tourism

Rural-Urban Issues and Human Capacity Building in an Era of Globalization: The Third World Perspective (Published)

This study examined the nexus between rural-urban issues and Human Capacity Building. In today’s globalizing world, the issue of human capacity building is very imperative more than ever before. Any country desirous of being relevant in the contemporary world cannot afford to toy with the issue of human capacity building. The high level of competition in the world makes it very inevitable for countries particularly those of the third world to take the issue of Human capacity building seriously because they would lag behind in the scheme of things and would not have anything to offer both at the local and international arena. This situation has brought about a situation whereby countries have been in search of various ways of boosting the human capacity in their various countries. In this endeavour much emphasis is placed on rural –urban issues. It is against this backdrop that this study is embarked upon to interrogate the role of rural-urban issues in human capacity building. Rural-urban migration simply means the movement of people particularly those within the labour force from the rural areas to the urban areas in search of greener pastures. Most times these set of people move to the urban areas to discover there is little or nothing for them to do and in most cases rendered redundant. As they depart the rural areas, they get the rural areas depleted of human resource that could have exploited and tapped the natural resources that abound there. This scenario to a very large extent would negatively affect the country’s development. It is against this backdrop that this study is designed to look for ways of ensuring the building of the human capacity through policies that could bring about the reduction or halting of rural-urban migration. This study is qualitative in nature hence data for the study were sourced through secondary means. Conflict theory was used as a theoretical framework.

Keywords: Conflict, Development, Globalization, Human Capacity Building, Rural-Urban Migration, Third World countries

Impact of Vocational and Technical Education on Livelihood Sustenance and Economic Development in Nigeria: The Art Workshop Experience (Published)

The focus of this study is basically on the impact that vocational and technical education has on livelihood sustenance and Economic development in Nigeria, using the art workshop training centres as a case study most especially the one established by the Nigerian foremost printmaker: Bruce Onobrakpeya in his home town at Agbarha-Otor, in Delta State of Nigeria. The vocational and technical education opportunities were divided into three broad categories the first is the training offered in private institutions under the entrepreneurship programmes, the second is the training established by governments through formal tertiary institutions such as: the Polytechnics and Colleges of Education and the third is the training sponsored by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), private individuals and/or religious organizations-the art workshop experiments organized in Nigeria at Oye-Ekiti, Osogbo, Ile-Ife, Lagos and Agbarah-Otor fall under the last category. It has been observed that the non-payment approach adopted by the organizers under the third category has been making vocational training programmes more effective, efficient, competitive, flexible and responsive in any community where they are being organized. The conclusion is that the organizers of vocational/art-workshop centres in Nigeria have been focusing on how to satisfy the basic physiological needs of the participants while training, mentoring and motivating them for self development and self fulfilment. 

Keywords: Art Workshop, Development, Economic, Livelihood Sustenance, Vocational and Technical Education., self-development

The Challenge of Infrastructure Development on Preservation of Perishable Horticultural Produce for Sustained Urban Food Nutrition in Metropolitan Kaduna, Nigeria (Published)

Perishable horticultural crops as fruits and vegetables – rich vitamins, protein, minerals and fiber contents – contribute a lot to human diet. Though Nigeria produces enormous quantity of these produce, shortages in consumption and nutrition exists due to losses in the production value chain system. This is mainly attributed to lack of the development of an efficient management technique in the handling, transporting and storage systems; with attendant consequences on urban food and nutrition security in a rapidly urbanizing Nigeria. It is against this backdrop that this study was undertaken to identify the problems of handling technologies that would result in enhanced shelf-life of these commodities and healthier urban nutrition in metropolitan Kaduna, Nigeria; in 2010. Structured questionnaires and schedule interviews were used to randomly collect primary and secondary data. This was analyzed and presented using descriptive statistical analytical tools. Results indicated that the major factors affecting the storage quality of fruits and vegetables are bad roads (40%); improper production, handling and transportation (33. 33%) system; harsh weather (20%); while insect pest infestation (6.67%) was least. Baskets and sacks are still used as the predominant means of storage of produce (35% and 32% respectively). Indeed, a lot of losses are recorded due to bad roads at harvest. Incidentally, the refrigerating system, the most efficient means of preservation is not predominantly used because of its exorbitant cost; and high tariffs on electricity. Where cost is affordable, power supply is epileptic due to an underdeveloped power sector. It is concluded that the intractable challenge of lack of infrastructure poses a major developmental setback in Nigeria. Indeed, this is a key challenge against the evolvement of a sustainable post-harvest management system; as well as a drawback on the fight against hunger, malnutrition and poverty – foremost objective of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s). Consequently, there is an imperative need for massive investment in infrastructural and human capital development. Without doubt, in Nigeria today, post-harvest and infrastructural management of the food production chain remains a major challenge.

Keywords: Development, Horticulture, Infrastructure, Nutrition, Perishables, Post-Harvest, Security, Sustainable

The Impact of Colonialism on the Development of Marketing in Nigeria: A Dyadic Analysis (Published)

For about a century, the British colonial masters took full control of the political, economic and even the social life of the people called Nigerians today. This paper traces the impact of colonialism on the development of marketing in Nigeria. It takes a look at the pre-colonial marketing practices of the nation-states and kingdoms and the development or otherwise of marketing during the era of colonialism in Nigeria. It points out that what the colonialists did or failed to do to develop marketing theory and practice in Nigeria. It adopts a theoretical review of related literature and also took a position on this topic that while the colonialists had set-up some institutions, they did very little to strengthen the institutions and develop human capital in the country. The article makes far-reaching recommendations that will help enrich marketing theory and practice, strengthen marketing institutions and contribute to the general well-being of the people and the nation as a whole.

Keywords: Colonialism, Development, Indirect rule, Marketing, Nigeria, Segregation.

Valorisation of NGOS’ Existence in Cameroon: Option for a More Engaged Civil Society (Vnec-Oecs) (Published)

Non-governmental organizations (NGO) have become quite prominent in the field of international development in recent decades. Even though, NGO have taken the centre stage in the fight against poverty, social injustice and human rights most are considered weak due to their dependence on funding from government and international aid bodies. This research activity highlights the probable values and weaknesses plaguing the civil society in Cameroon. Due to the pressures of obtaining and maintaining funding, less effort is placed on management leading to a lack of accountability and inefficiency in services offered to the public. The absence of a common platform for NGO makes coordination of their activities unrealistic. In our discussion we intend to propose ways by which NGOs can synergize their action plans. The paper will end by highlighting the distance NGOs have covered as development actors in Cameroon with recommendations deduced to valorise NGOs existence in Cameroon

Keywords: Accountability, Cameroon, Development, Non-Governmental Organizations, Valorisation

Development of a Computer-Aided Instruction for Effective Teaching of Electrical and Electronic Devices at Nigeria Certificate in Education Technical Level in North Eastern Nigeria (Published)

The purpose of this study was to develop a Computer-Aided instruction (CAI) for teaching Electrical and Electronic Devices at N.C.E. level in North Eastern Nigeria. A flowchart for the CAI was developed by describing the steps in words and representing them by symbols. Connections between events were represented by lines with arrowheads to show the direction or order in which they occur. The CAI was developed and written in visual Basic.Net (VB, NET) targeting the .Net framework 3.5. The user interface was developed using Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF). Procedural programming was used and the CAI was tested by using it to teach an experimental group (S1), while control group (S2) was taught using lecture method. The results obtained from the two groups were then compared. Two research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. A population of 268 students was used. A total of 80 students formed the sample for the study. A purposive sampling technique was used. A researcher-made achievement test (RMAT) was used as instrument for data collection. The instrument was validated by five experts and pilot tested outside the study area in order to establish its reliability. Reliability coefficient of 0.92 was obtained for the RMAT. The mean was used to answer research question two. Z-test was employed to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 was used for the data analysis. Results of the study revealed that there was variation between the mean scores of students taught Electrical and Electronic Devices at N.C.E. II level using CAI and students taught using lecture method. The null hypothesis was rejected, indicating that there was a significant difference between the mean achievement of students taught Electrical and Electronic Devices at N.C.E. II level using CAI and students taught Electrical and Electronic Devices at N.C.E. II level using lecture method. Students taught using CAI performed better than the students taught using lecture method. The CAI was found to be effective in teaching Electrical and Electronic Devices at N.C.E. II level. It was recommended that lecturers of electrical and electronics technology at N.C.E. level be encouraged to use CAI in teaching N.C.E. II Electrical and Electronic Devices.

Keywords: Computer Aided Instruction; Effective, Development, Electrical and Electronics Technology, N.C.E. Programme., Teaching

The Knowing-Doing-Gap and the Role of the Entrepreneurial University in the Development of the Knowledge Economy (Published)

The focus of this research is to bridge the gap between knowledge and action, which is known as (The Knowing-Doing-Gap); especially in the fields of new technologies. Although there are many discussions on this issue from a micro perspective – for example, Braun – focusing on a managerial approach in dealing with new knowledge, other researchers focused on the problem at the macro level introduced by Röpke. This research explores both approaches, Röpke’s and Braun’s, to find solutions for the Knowing-Doing-Gap problem on both levels, the Micro and the Macro. The research explored both methodologies and found that both approaches complement each other in providing a general solution to Knowing-Doing-Gap through transforming universities into entrepreneurial universities

Keywords: Development, Economy, Entrepreneurial University, Knowing Doing Gap

The Challenge of Democracy and Development in Nigeria’s Niger Delta: The Case Of Delta State, 1999-2014 (Published)

This article examines the challenge of democracy and development in Nigeria’s oil-rich Niger Delta, using the example of Delta State, 1999-2014. Against the backdrop of an expansive literature on the region’s state of decay, poverty, and conspiracy between the Federal Government of Nigeria and MNOCs to deny the Niger Delta of the benefits of its God-given oil resources, with attendant insurgency, this micro study cautions against the pitfalls of sweeping generalization. Adopting the critical, evaluative method of contemporary history, built on secondary sources, this work is significant in drawing attention to the manipulation and diversion of insurgency initially directed against the local elite by an aggrieved community to achieve political relevance and primitive accumulation by the former, who failed to judiciously and transparently utilize the huge sums of money from statutory allocation and donor agencies to transform the state. The paper calls for a review of the conventional wisdom on the subject

Keywords: Contemporary Nigeria, Corruption, Democratic governance, Development, Niger Delta problem, Resource curse

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