Oc Eo is one of the ancient cultures in the Southern part of Vietnam, which belonged to the ancient Funan Kingdom. The ancient Funan was the earliest nation formed and developed in Southeast Asia between the 1st and 7th century AD. In its heyday, the Kingdom was highly developed in terms of society, economy, and great military power. Oc Eo port was considered as an important international market and also one of the centers of culture and commerce of Funan. When considering Funan, it was Oc Eo that was mostly mentioned, the economy and culture of Oc Eo reflected that of Funan. What belongs to this culture now is only in the form of antiques, artifacts and monuments scattering throughout the lands in southern Vietnam such as An Giang, Kien Giang, Tien Giang, Dong Nai, Long An and Tay Ninh province, etc. particularly Dong Thap which is known for the historical site and relics of Go Thap which bear all the hallmarks of India such as Go Minh Su, the Sun God temple, Shiva temple, Vishnu temple, God Pond, God sculptures, golden Buddha, stone, wood, and reliefs. Each single relic and artifact in Go Thap contains cultural and religious values of India. Currently, the historical site of Go Thap which has been excavated by well-known archaeologists both national and international is ranked as the special National Monument. Therefore, the aim of this article is to elucidate the influence of Indian culture on that of Oc Eo, namely the culture of Go Thap in terms of religious beliefs, architectural shrines, god sculptures, and reliefs.
The Pattern of Inheritance Utterance Addresing Angkola Mandailing Society Through Biola na Mabugang Reconstruction; Culture and Language Studies (Published)
This research deals with the pattern of inheritance utterances addressing Angkola Mandailing society. This research aims to describe three formulated research problems; 1) the classification of pattern utterances, b) the method of pattern utterances and 3) the pattern of inheritance pattern utterances Angkola Mandailing society in which it has seven purposes namely; i) respect ii) honor iii) helping iv) family building v) intimate relationship vi) problem solving and vii) marriage. Then, the descriptive qualitative method was used to achieve the objectives of the reserach. The data were obtained and analyzed from Biola na Mabugang by the researcher, Rosmawati Harahap. The findings showed that there are 15 of 33 classifications of utterances found Biola na Mabugang. Then, the pattern of utterance is decided based on Dalihan na Tolu (three main kinship elements; kahanggi, mora and anak boru) . Last, the existence of parents, children and experiences play an important role in the pattern of inheritance utterances addressing Angkola Mandailing society in South Padang Lawas and Padang Lawas of South Tapanuli.
The use of various finishes for building exterior is based on many factors. Some of these factors include the cost of such material, availability and climate compliance to mention a few. However, the use of paint as exterior finish is found to be anchored on cultural factors above every other consideration among the Yoruba people of southwest Nigeria. This paper aims at examining the cultural dynamics that are shaping the value that is placed on paint within a local set up and the underpinning parameters for the preference option. The research was conducted through a survey method that involved the administration of questionnaire on 384 respondents that were randomly selected through a multistage sampling method. Data collected were analysed through SPSS version 15.0 software using descriptive statistics and multiple regression models. The findings suggest that further development of the material will receive a greater patronage by the people.
The work focuses on the traditional African governance; it specifically examines those traditional forms of governance that made the society to stand firmly before the advent of Europeans. Many of these traditions were not written down, there were no constitutions; it was just a commitment to make the society move. If constitutionalism is defined as a commitment to limitations on political powers, then it is possible to have such a commitment without a single documentary constitution most especially when commitment is in the blood and culture of the people and at the same time, those people have a keen sense of their own identity.In this work, we will interrogate traditional culture of governance in some communities in Africa. We will examine how effective that governance was and then see the level of commitment to limitation on political power (constitutionalism) and whether some of the relics of governance are still preserved till today. This paper therefore, will employ the conceptual, analytical and reconstructive research methods. While the conceptual method will focus on clarifying key concepts such as constitutionalism, commitment, governance, tradition and culture; the analytical method will examine the period of governance before the advent of Europeans. The reconstructive method will establish the need for this commitment in today Africa.
Language as a structure of meaning giving and reality creation is composed of words, phrases and sentences. Humans’ communications are based on these features to describe an event, explain one’s emotions, needs, interests and fears etc. Language is used to resolve or escalate dispute. People from different culture and social units perceive the world through the lens provided by their distinctive languages. Meaning that language provides repertoire of words that name the categories into which the language users have divided their world. In fact, definitions of words are linguistically, culturally and contextually bound. This is because words carry meanings that make sense to members of a shared social environment. Dispute resolution relies heavily on words (language). However, there is an underlying assumption in Nigeria that all these words should be in English – the second language. The researcher posits that if English is to be a conflict resolution tool in Nigeria. It must accommodate the diversity of culture and language usage. The paper therefore explores the challenges of English language in intercultural conflict resolution, and emphasizes the need to consider the different uses of the language in national and transnational conflict resolution.
It has been observed that societal ills and vices abound in every nooks and crannies of this country and all over the world. The rate at which the youths are involved in immoral behaviour is a thing of concern to everyone. Many people are of the opinion that the disregard for and loss of our rich indigenous cultural values that encourage morality and good behaviour which the children and youths of the past were known for are responsible for these ugly situations in the country today. Many children and youths do not speak their indigenous language (mother tongue) neither do they understand the culture and traditions of their people. This is not surprising as culture and tradition go hand in hand with language. This paper supports that the only way out is for us to return to our cultural tradition which the people of the past used in entertaining and educating their children and youths. The paper is of the view that oral literature (folktale), when used to lay solid foundation in upbringing and education of the youths, will go a long way in inculcating moral values to them. The paper also advises that parents and teachers should serve as the mirror or model through which the children imitate and imbibe the societal values and aid in curbing immoral behaviour in the society. It also aims proffering a teaching model by which Igbo folktale can serve as a tool for inculcating core values to children and youths.
This work interrogates capital punishment and indigenous Yoruba African culture. We examine punishment as a concept and the four theories of punishment which include; Utilitarian theory of punishment, Deterrent theory of punishment, Reform theory of punishment, Retributive theory of punishment. We also look into what punishment is and what punishment is not and then carry out a brief analysis of capital punishment. We then examine Yoruba African culture with respect to capital punishment; the work show clearly that Yoruba culture abhor capital punishment in their laws, the implement it and supported it with different proverbs and folklore stories. Today, there have being clamoring from every angle for the abolition of capital punishment in our society and Yoruba as a nation should not be left alone because; “Ikú tó ń pa ojúgbà ẹni, òwe ló ń pa fún ni” (‘the death that is consuming one’s peers is proverbially warning of one’s own impending similar death’).
The crux of this paper aimed at defining the concept culture and Human Rights, and to large extend analysis the various cultural factors under mining the smooth thriving of women and children rights currently, the cultural factors are, widowhood rites, female genital mutilation, early/forceful marriage, bride price, son preference/female infanticide, levirate marriage, ritual killing, wife beating, inheritance of wife, woman in purdah, on the part of the children are twins killing, child witchcraft ,child labour, street begging, child trafficking and finally possible solutions to ameliorate such cultural barriers by way of recommendation and conclusion
The Culture of Early Sex and Schooling of Girls in Kilifi County, Kenya (Published)
This study sought to find out the social structures and the underlying norms, attitudes and behaviours that obstruct girls’ empowerment and participation in formal education, in Kilifi County. Notably, Kilifi County makes a significant contribution to the Kenyan economy through tourism. However, a majority of its locals languish in poverty and hold onto retrogressive cultural practices that negatively influence education. The study used a total of 220 informants, including school girls, boys, head teachers, teachers and parents. Interviews, observation, FGDs and whole class mapping activities were used to generate data. Findings indicate that sexual intercourse was a reality among school girls. In conclusion, early sex is a deeply rooted cultural practice among girls in Kilifi that has negative implications to education for sustainable development. The paper recommends working on safety of school compounds, sensitizing communities on implications of early sex and initiating income generating activities for families among other things.
Ethical Marketing Practice: A Foundational and Fundamental Virtue for Corporate Reputation/Financial Performance (Published)
The social and economic justification for the existence and survival of a business corporate entity is its ability to satisfy its customers through its products and services. A company meets its basic responsibility to society through its products and ethical marketing practices. A company cannot successfully sell low quality products, coupled with other sharp and corrupt practices over the long run. The dignity of the marketer must be sustained and maintained. The minimum standard, culture and value system acceptable to the public must be projected. This study is on ethical marketing practice, as a fundamental and foundational virtue for corporate reputation and financial performance. Eight pharmaceutical companies from Edo and Delta States were sampled, using a sample size of 245 staff. The multiple regression statistical technique was used to determine the extent to which standard products and services, honesty and integrity, fair prices and truthful advert predicts financial performance in a business organisation.
The Treatment of Cultural Content in an Integrated English Course 1 for Chinese College English Majors (Published)
This paper presents a cultural analysis of the textbook “An Integrated English Course 1” that is widely used by college English majors in China. Based on the previous studies on culture teaching and materials evaluation, the paper has examined the textbook and found out that it is aimed at introducing western cultures, especially American culture to Chinese students. Although the textbook has a strong orientation towards American culture in the selecting of texts, it takes an intercultural point of view in the designing of some activities and exercises. The paper emphasizes the intercultural approach to textbook writing and EFL teaching.
The recent increase in random approaches to translating Arabic proper names into English has led to serious discrepancies in their transliterations as well as difficulties and problems in identifying one’s identity. This paper is an attempt to shed light on this phenomenon and to investigate the many problems and difficulties encountered in transliterating Arabic proper names in birth, marriage, passport and other personal documents. Venuti’s Foreignisation Approach, a theoretical framework for standardisation of the transliteration of Arabic proper names, was used for analysis and discussion. Results of the analysis and discussion of samples in this paper have indicated that there is an urgent need for a mechanism in order to help use a standardised profile for transliterating Arabic proper names all around the Arab world. To achieve this objective, a list of suggestions was made for use by those in authority and those interested in carrying out further research in this field.
Language and culture are not only inherently intertwined, but are also veritable elements for literary imagination and production which constructs and documents distinctive patterns of human existence. Hence modern African literature is essentially characterized by aspects of the African existential reality, as subtly or overtly encapsulated in the fabrics of oral tradition. With insights provided by the socio-semiotic theory espoused by Ferdinand De Saussure (1986) and expanded by Hodge and Kress (1988), Thibault (1991) and Kress and Van Leeuwen (2001), as the analytical template, this study, therefore , examines the deployment and appropriation of indigenous devices, such as native rhetorical patterns, proverbs, native similes, traditional belief system and transliteration, for the expression of cultural meaning in Barclays Ayakoroma’s A Matter of Honour, as an exemplification of how African authors deploy African linguo-cultural elements and aesthetics to capture the African existential reality, sensibility and essence in their works written in an imperial language. The study not only adumbrates the interface between language, culture and literature and the concept of literature as an evocation or microcosm of society, but also further enhances and enriches extant knowledge and perspectives on the African world-view, mores and values.
The Influence of National Culture on International Marketing & Consumer Behavior in Iraqi Kurdistan, Using Hofstede’s Model At Individual Level (Published)
There are growing interest in the consequences of culture for global marketing and advertising and many recent researches urged companies to consider the necessity of adapting their international marketing strategies to the culture of the consumer (De Mooij and Hofstede, 2010). In order to investigate the influence of national culture on international marketing and consumer behavior and answer the research questions in Iraqi Kurdistan, this paper tend to identify Hofstede cultural dimensions and explain how these dimensions may impact the global marketing management. This paper was divided into three main parts. The first part of this research concentrates on international marketing as well as national culture and tries to investigate the past research on how national culture as an independent variable may influence international marketing and consumer behavior as dependent variable. In the second part of this study, two main questions were raised and a quantitative self-respond questionnaire was used to measure the cultural values at individual level. This research used convenience sample method and it is based on the sample of 272 professionals mostly managers at different levels and combined with the previous research sample of 441 students to bring consistency and reliability to the research and also reduce sample error. In the third part, data were measured and analyzed and at the end a discussion was developed to answer the questions. The findings explain the relationship between both variables and support the past works by De Mooij and Hofstede as concrete works that can be applied by international managers. Therefore, this author can conclude that this paper provide strong argument that there is positive relationship between national culture and international marketing and consumer behavior. There are some suggestions for more cross-cultural research in this part of the world.
Culture is one of the central forces that help to situate a person or thing within a given milieu. Indeed, culture can be seen as personality designator because it identifies a person and situates him/her on the basis of certain traits he/she exhibits. On the other hand, it is also evidence of education, taste, finesse, and of civilization. A cultured person or people belong to a category of those who stand out as unique in virtually everything. ‘Cultureless-ness’, on its part is a term employed to denote the trend whereby a person or people lack culture, making it impossible to identify or situate him/her or them by what he/she does or they do. It is a celebration of abnormality and the opposite of culture as stated above. The media, on their part, are not only culture symbolized, they are also purveyors of culture. This paper examines the role the Nigerian media have played or failed to play in creating and foisting a cultureless society on the Nigerian people. This will be done through the literary/artistic research methodology. It will draw its conclusion on the basis of data analyzed and make recommendations where necessary.
Traditional Values versus Modernity: Towards A Resolution of the Dilemma of Culture Conflict in African Society (Published)
This paper looks at the trend of alien behaviours and attitudes, which have been consciously and unconsciously imbibed by Africans in general and Nigerian youths in particular, and how these have negatively impacted on the various aspects of our life-family, education, economy, among others. Using a hypothetical approach as well as direct observation, the paper attempts a chronicle of these foreign cultural traits which presently threaten our individuality, our family system, our society and the very constituents of our humanity as members of a well ordered society. It looks at the role the movies can play by providing corrective measures, documenting the proper and acceptable values as well as preserving them for the future. It proffers suggestions for the way forward and makes recommendations which, if adopted, could help redirect our culture and refocus our society for a richer, more beneficial and more meaningful existence.
Representation Of Changing Indegenous Values In Pakistani Society: An Analysis of Raffat’s Poetry (Published)
This study deals with the post colonial analysis of Raffat’s poetry and it shows how he used hyberditity, mimicry, of colonialism, imperialism and effect of colonial era and colonizers on the native culture, education and their historical roots. His poems show deep glimpse of colonial effects and he highlights them through symbols and similes and other literary forms. This study aims to analyze Raffat’s portrayal of the colonial experience touching upon the issues of colonial ideology and the link between culture and imperialism, mimicry, hybridity and the representation of changing indigenous values of Pakistani society. The study aims to establish its intention that Raffat’s poetry plays an integral role to unveil the condition of Pakistani people after colonization.
Cultural Aspects in Advertising Discourse (Published)
Advertisements are an integral part of people’s life and culture. They react in a way to human concerns and cares by implementing global as well as culture specific aspects in their texts. They serve as a currency in everyday communication and reflect people’s way of thinking and life, as well as the assumptions, attitudes and beliefs typical for the society they originate from. The paper presents Bulgarian and British ads, their specificities and the comments for and against some of the issues they touch upon because apart from selling goods and services they offer symbolic meanings, life styles and signs which can be identified only by people familiar with the respective culture the ads appear in. All this is done through linguistic manifestations and various ways of conceptualizing the world reflected in the analyzed ads.
The study focuses on culture and knowledge transfer abroad. Specifically, the paper explores how Vestas Control system transferred its organizational culture to its Chinese subsidiary. As boundaries within and between companies and countries break down due to competitive pressure of globalisation, business activities and organisations are becoming more and more multinational in their operations. This has resulted in many firms establishing subsidiaries outside their home base. In this regard, managers and employees may find themselves operating in different nations, belonging to many teams and among different cultures. Semi-structured interviews were used to obtain data, and analysed using a hermeneutic approach. The study discovered that, power distance, Vestas safety culture and Teamwork had influenced the transfer of Vestas organizational culture to China
Globalization has become an irrestible phenomenon. Virtually all aspects of human life, however remote are now affected by globalization. The Nigerian film industry has equally been affected. The effect of globalization on Nollywood can be noticed in various ways. One of these is the attempt by the industry to take its place on the global plane. The concern, however, is the kind of image Nollywood is attempting to create for Nigeria. This paper finds that, so far, Nollywood has not been able to establish the kind of identity by which the ordinary Nigerian can be identified. The paper therefore suggests some values, attitudes and cultural practices that Nollywood can emphasize as a means of establishing an identity for Nigeria as a nation, in the quest of carving a niche for itself on the global plane.