Tag Archives: Culture

The Benefits of the House-Form of Earth Building in Nigeria. Surveying Of Origbo in Ife-North of Osun State (Published)

Cultural heritage produces its own pattern of house-form, which is a reflection of history, chosen style and culture of its people. This paper focused on the pattern and the underlying factors of house-forms of rural development in the region of south western of Nigeria. Rural communities of Origbo in Ife-North Local Government were surveyed, scores on selected traditional building were used to ascertain pattern of house-form. More specifically the relationship between house-form and socio-cultural heritage were investigated to establish the significance of house-form pattern and cultural value. The potential benefits derived from the house-form pattern were identified. They include reliance on local materials for building construction, provision of affordable housing at reduced cost and simple construction techniques. The quest of this paper was what kind of traditional house-form value that should be preserved to enrich current new housing development.

Keywords: Affordable Housing, Cost Reduction, Culture, House-Form, Traditional Material

The Significance of a Personal and National Bildung and Its Nonlinear Nature: Charles Dickens’s Hard Times and Matthew Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy (Published)

Derived from the German philosophy of Bildung, literary works that can be categorized as bildungsroman have mainly focused on the individuals’ maturation and education. This study aims to expand on this notion of Bildung and observe how an individual’s maturation and education ultimately leads to the expansion of such action of becoming on a nationwide scale. By analyzing the relationship between the two different cases of bildung in action in Charles Dickens’s Hard Times and Matthew Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy, this study aims to analyze in depth the correlation between the individuals’ maturation and the national bildung. The study examines the concepts of individual and national bildungs present in Dickens’s Hard Times, both within the characters at play as well as the Victorian English society immediately following the Industrial Revolution period. Outside the literary and fictional realms, the study finds the notion of the two kinds of bildungs in Matthew Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy. By comparing the two observations, the study ultimately suggests that the two bildungs do not necessarily share a chronologically linear relationship between each other.

Keywords: Bildung, Character Development, Culture, Education, Maturation, Victorian Era

English Learners’ Perspective on Culture and Silence in an EFL University Classroom (Published)

So far, studies about silence in EFL classrooms show that there is a correlation between students’ silence and their culture (among others King, 2011; Nakane, 2016; Wilang, 2017). Focusing on whether there is a relation between EFL students’ cultural identity and silence in the classroom, this study looks at the relation between culture and silence from a different perspective. Forty-nine first-semester EFL university students who took part in this study were asked to fill out a questionnaire about (1) how they identified themselves – whether they tend to be western or eastern in their attitudes – and (2) why they tend to be silent in the EFL classrooms. Using Hofstede’s (1970) cultural dimensions and Brown & Levinson’s (1987) Management of Face Theory, we found that although 86% of the participants identified themselves as being more western, those who responded to their lecturers’ questions by silence are more motivated by eastern values. Although students’ silence was indeed related with face wants, this study shows that culture is not a factor which causes the students’ silence in the classroom.

Keywords: Culture, Face Wants, Silence

Social Cultural Transformation in Attitude and Behavior of Padoe Community (A Case Study of Padoe Community in Mining Area Of Pt. Vale, Tbk. In Wasuponda, Luwu District, South Sulawesi Province) (Published)

The presence of PT Vale Tbk in Wasuponda, Luwu Timur Regency resulted in a change of attitudes and behavior pattern of Padoe Community due to effect of social problems created by the operation of mining companies in the region. This study aims (1) to explain and describe the attitudes and behavior pattern of Padoe Community before the entry of mining industry in their customary territory. (2) To reveal and describe whether the presence of the mining industry PT. Vale Tbk caused a change in attitude and behavior patterns of Padoe Community and what are the changes in attitudes and behavior. (3) To find out the implications of social, economic, political and cultural changes in the Community due to the presence of PT. Vale, Tbk. The method used to collect data is observation, interviews, and literature reviews. The data collected are presented in descriptive analytical form. The research results indicated first, the attitudes and behavior pattern of Padoe Community before the entry of the Mining Industry PT. Vale Indonesia Tbk in Wasuponda Region, East Luwu Regency. They upheld the sense of mutual cooperation in community life and lived from gardening, breeding buffalo, managing sago and resin, searching rattan, and hunting. Second, a change in attitudes and behavior patterns of Padoe Community after the entry of the mining in Wasuponda. People are getting interested and seeing opportunities in industrial sector. Demand for labor is one reason for people preferring industrial activities rather than agricultural activities that more income they could get from the industrial activities than farming. It was the beginning of the changes in Padoe communities in Wasuponda. In addition, a change also takes place in educational orientation and roles in the family. Third, implications of social, economic, and cultural changes of Padoe Community due to the presence of PT. Vale, Tbk.  Community life behavior of Padoe people changes because of the effect from outsiders through PT. Vale and that brings a variety of land issues: destruction of forest resources, such as resin and rattan. Meanwhile, the foothills usually processed by people as gardens and tubers have become part of mining concessions that they can no longer be worked on.

Keywords: Behavior, Culture, Social Cultural Transformation, attitude

Culture of Vote Buying and Its Implications: Range Of Incentives and Conditions Politicians Offer to Electorates (Published)

Each election year and in almost every local and institutional elections the issue of vote buying surfaces. Vote buying has almost become part of every election in Ghana. While the menace is on the increase, it is unclear whether votes bought translate into votes for the buyer or the buying party. This work sought to investigate the range of incentives and conditions politicians give to electorates. Sequential mixed-method design was employed for the study. Data from questionnaire was triangulated with interviews. The target population for this study consists of the entire group of potential voters in Shama District in the Western Region who were 18 years and above. Five (5) communities or electoral areas in the district were selected for the study. These communities were Atwereboanda, Komfueku, Beposo, Nyankrom and Shama. A sample size of three hundred (300) was chosen for the quantitative (questionnaires administered) aspect of the research while twenty of them were purposively selected for the qualitative (interviews conducted) aspect of the study. Two party activists were also interviewed to support the data. Non-probability (convenience, proportional and purposive) sampling techniques were employed to select the district, communities and respondents for the study. The study revealed among other things that: (a) Items that are used to buy votes include silver pans (basins), cloths, gas cylinders, laptops, money, outboard motors, wellington boots and party branded items; and (b) During vote buying, conditions are not actually attached to the incentives except where there are doubts that one wants to take the incentive without reciprocating with his/her vote. Enforcing laws on vote buying by all stakeholders including the police, the judiciary, the Electoral Commission of Ghana (EC) and resolving to fight corruption among leaders who also use all means to make money to engage in vote buying would go a long way to solve the menace

Keywords: Culture, Election, Ghana, Politicians, Vote Buying, Voting Conditions, Voting Incentives

A New Dawn in Etche Names: A Cultural Threat (Published)

The paper investigates anthroponym- a type of onomastics in Etche. Anthroponym which is the study of personal names including their forms and uses is described differently cross-culturally. Using a descriptive research design, the paper describes one hundred and three (103) Etche personal names categorised into three broad socio-cultural groups: experience, theophoric and admonitory/salutary. Contrary to the Americans and Europeans belief that given names are mere tags and mark of identity, the paper holds that in Etche as it is in most African nations and Nigeria in particular, given names describe the world of the name givers and control the world of the name bearers. The paper therefore concludes that the dawn of a new naming system in Etche is an affront on the culture of the people and portends a great danger to the unborn generation

Keywords: Admonitory, Anthroponym, Culture, Experience, Name, Onomastics, Theophoric

Interrogating Capital Punishment and Indigenous Yoruba African Culture (Published)

This work interrogates capital punishment and indigenous Yoruba African culture. We examine punishment as a concept and the four theories of punishment which include; Utilitarian theory of punishment, Deterrent theory of punishment, Reform theory of punishment, Retributive theory of punishment. We also look into what punishment is and what punishment is not and then carry out a brief analysis of capital punishment. We then examine Yoruba African culture with respect to capital punishment; the work show clearly that Yoruba culture abhor capital punishment in their laws, the implement it and supported it with different proverbs and folklore stories. Today, there have being clamoring from every angle for the abolition of capital punishment in our society and Yoruba as a nation should not be left alone because; “Ikú tó ń pa ojúgbà ẹni, òwe ló ń pa fún ni” (‘the death that is consuming one’s peers is proverbially warning of one’s own impending similar death’).

Keywords: Africa, Capital, Culture, Folklore, Proverbs, Punishment, Yoruba

Understanding Witchcraft among the Digo Muslims on the Coast of Kenya: Implications for Mission (Published)

This paper is about understanding Witchcraft among Digo Muslims on the Coast of Kenya.  The question of whether witchcraft is real or not has been a concern to many people Worldwide. It is true sometimes that innocent people are accused of witchcraft, but among the people living along the coastal regions, witchcraft is a common practice. They have reasons why they practise witchcraft, the types and forms of witchcraft they practise and how they practise them. This paper seeks to examine witchcraft practice among the Digo people, who are believed to have been the first to convert to Islam in the coast of Kenya, and that over 90% of them are Muslims. The study reveals that despite being over 90% Muslims, Digo people still associate most calamities and problems with witchcraft and they also seek traditional methods of solving socio-economic problems. It also establishes that the Islamic religion does not provide solutions to problems faced by the Digo Muslims, forcing them to ‘Digonize’ the religion and become ‘dual’ Muslims, mostly known as “folk” Muslims. The study therefore suggests ways through which Christianity can be used by Digo Muslims to seek for solutions to their problems without resorting to witchcraft. Since this research needed interaction with people in order to get the information that led to understanding witchcraft among the Digo Muslims of the Coast of Kenya, an ethnographic research design was employed within the context of qualitative research methodology.  The researcher went to the field to seek the information that led to the understanding of Witchcraft among the Digo Muslims on the Coast of Kenya.  The research was conducted on the South Coast of Kenya among the Digo Muslims. In order to understand Witchcraft among the Digo on the South Coast of Kenya, the researcher analized the ethnographic data and interpreted the findings.

Keywords: Culture, Digo, Mosque, Muslim, Qur’an, Witchcraft

Understanding Witchcraft among the Digo Muslims along South Coast of Kenya (Published)

The question of whether witchcraft is real or not has proven to concern many people especially in the coastal regions of Kenya. Among the people living along the coastal regions, witchcraft is a common practice. It is not known, however, why the people living in this region practice witchcraft, the types and forms of witchcraft they practise and how they practise them. This paper sought to examine the witchcraft practice among the Digo people, who are believed to have been the first to convert to Islam and that 99.9 % of them are Muslims. The quest revealed that despite being 99.9 % Muslims, Digo people, in part, still seek traditional methods of problem solving. It was also found that the Islamic religion did not provide for giving solutions to the problems faced by the Digo Muslims forcing them to ‘Digonize’ the religion and become Folk Muslims. The study therefore suggests ways through which Christianity can be incorporated so that Digo Muslims may see light and turn to Christ where they will get solutions to their problems without resorting to witchcraft. Sahih Muslim: In-book reference / Book 39, Hadith 56, Ibn’ Abbas reported Allah’s Messenger as saying, “The influence of an evil eye is a fact; if anything would precede the destiny it would be the influence of an evil eye, and when you are asked to take bath (as a cure) from the influence of an evil eye, you should take bath”

Keywords: Culture, Digo, Mosque, Muslim, Qur’an, Witchcraft

The Impact of National Culture on International Marketing and Consumer Behavior in Iraqi Kurdistan, Focusing on Hofstede’s Model (Published)

In order to investigate the influence of national culture on international marketing and consumer behavior and answer the research questions in Iraqi Kurdistan, this paper tend to identify Hofstede cultural dimensions and explain how these dimensions may impact the global marketing management. The first section of this study focuses on international marketing and national culture in order to investigate the past research on how national culture can impact international marketing and consumer behavior as dependent variable. Thereafter, some questions were asked and a quantitative self-respond questionnaire was used to measure the Iraqi Kurds cultural values. This research used convenience sample method and it is based on the population of 272 professional managers at different organizational levels. Then, it was combined with the past research results by the same author to bring consistency and reliability to the research and also reduce sample error. In the last section, data were analyzed and at the end a deep discussion was created to respond the questions. The findings explain the relationship between both variables and support the past works by De Mooij and Hofstede as concrete works that can be applied by international managers. Therefore, researcher concludes that this paper provide strong argument that there is positive relationship between national culture and international marketing. At the end some suggestions were made.

Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Context Model., Culture, Hofstde Model, International Marketing, Kurds

Tidung People in Sebatik Island: Ethnic Identity, Culture, and Religious Life (Published)

This article is a part of research result entitled “Tidung People at the Border Building Nation, Keeping Harmony: A Study of Interethnic Relations in Nunukan Regency of North Kalimantan.This critical ethnographic research examines the construction of ethnic identity and cultural aspect of Tidung people in Nunukan regency. The data were analyzed interactively including data reduction, data display, and verification.In the development, Tidung people in some areas such as in Tarakan are classified as developed; whereas, in other area such as Nunukan, they are classified as people with modest living. The simplicity of Tidung people in Nunukan regency is reflected in their cultural orientation for a homely life. In religious life, Tidung older generation is classified as pluralistic Islam while the young generation tries to release themselves from pluralism in their religion.In this reformation era, the awareness of strengthening political identity is appeared as indicated by the emergence of “Pan Dayak” that reflects brotherhood between the Dayak and Tidung people in PUSAKA (The Association of Kalimantan Natives) organization. The spirit of political identity renaissance should be observed, because Nunukan regency is a pluralistic area especially for the Bugis who control the area, economically and politically. Therefore, proper management of interethnic relations is necessary to make the situation in Nunukan regency remain under control.

Keywords: Culture, Ethnic Identity, Religious Life, Tidung People

Interrogating Capital Punishment and Indigenous Yoruba African Culture (Published)

This work interrogates capital punishment and indigenous Yoruba African culture. We examine punishment as a concept and the four theories of punishment which include; Utilitarian theory of punishment, Deterrent theory of punishment, Reform theory of punishment, Retributive theory of punishment. We also look into what punishment is and what punishment is not and then carry out a brief analysis of capital punishment. We then examine Yoruba African culture with respect to capital punishment; the work show clearly that Yoruba culture abhor capital punishment in their laws, the implement it and supported it with different proverbs and folklore stories. Today, there have being clamoring from every angle for the abolition of capital punishment in our society and Yoruba as a nation should not be left alone because; “Ikú tó ń pa ojúgbà ẹni, òwe ló ń pa fún ni” (‘the death that is consuming one’s peers is proverbially warning of one’s own impending similar death’).

Keywords: Africa, Capital, Culture, Folklore, Proverbs, Punishment, Yoruba

Content Schema, an Indispensable Part of L2 Reading Comprehension: A Review (Published)

This paper aims to explore and raise awareness of the significance of  content schema as an essential component of language acquisition, principally illustrating its potent value in L2 reading comprehension. All good readers have enhanced schematic knowledge that helps them in comprehending not only texts, but lexis plus contextual information without difficulty. Activating students’ schemata helps them to become metacognitive, however, the role and importance of schemata in language acquisition has fairly remained a derelict aspect with regards to second language learning and teaching; this study therefore seeks to highlight the same for facilitating a much needed understanding required to devise and put into practice an easily adaptable way of learning and instructing possibly in L2 reading. The study may possibly pave the way for further research in the area.

Keywords: Content Schema, Contexts, Culture, Linguistic, Reading Comprehension, Schema

The Monster in Patriarchy-A Thematic Review of Novels of Three Female African Writers (Published)

For the most of history the female has been largely disadvantaged in terms of social standing or status as well as fundamental legal rights, compared to their male counterparts. The continuity of this trend of the female being a second class human, is fuelled by traditional, cultural, and religious beliefs of mostly patriarchal societies. The theory under application in this write-up is the radical feminist approach. The paper seeks to explore how patriarchy, being an aspect of culture, helps to paint or make the woman inferior in the light of their male counterparts. This theoretical approach has been sufficiently explored in the work of Nawal El Sadaawi entitled, “A woman at point Zero” (1983), Buchi Emecheta’s “The joys of motherhood” (1979) and Amma Darko’s “Beyond the Horizon” (1995), among other literary works. The efforts made by the female towards becoming independent from men, have also been closely looked into. Sexual abuse, polygamy, female genital mutilation, widowhood rites and the “trokosi” tradition (Ghana) are among several other socio-cultural factors that set the tone for the oppression, under-rating, malhandling and general discrimination against women in the stories selected in this study. The theories of feminism and literary criticisms have been implied in this study.

Keywords: Culture, Feminist Approach, Patriarchy, oppression.

Ethnography Of Communication – A Study of Just Lather, That’s all (Published)

Ethnography of Communication is a novel approach that relates language with the cultural norms, values and the speaking rules that are specific to a particular speech community. Duranti (1997)1 defines Ethnography as follows:Ethnography is the written description of the social organization, social activities, symbolic and material resources, and interpretive practices characteristic of a particular group of people”. A number of scholars including Dell Hymes (1962)2 Sherzer (1983)3, Hill and Hill (1986)4 and Saville-Troike (2003)5 worked in the framework of ethnography of communication. Though the studies made by all ethnographers generally focus on the spoken language in a community, it is possible to extend the above frameworks to the analysis of short stories in view of the fact that many short stories are not merely narratives from a third person point of view but involve dialogues between characters. Often the speech patterns, expressions, motivations and the logical deductions they make are in conformity with the particular society they belong to. In particular, the SPEAKING Model evolved by Dell Hymes (1974)6 is found to be highly adaptable to the analysis of short stories.

Keywords: Characters, Conflict, Culture, Just Lather, Language, communication

The Impact of Gender Discrimination on National Development (Published)

The paper argues that gender discrimination is as old as creation. Over the years women were made to belief that their rightful place was in the home front as housewives producers and minders of children. The paper focuses on cultural, societal and religious practices, in our traditional society that prevent women from contributing their quota to both the community and the nation at large. In this modern world where women have assumed prominent roles in the economic, political, and social developments in different societies, there is a clarion call for both the government and other men of the country to be supportive of their female counterparts as this will enable them to exhibit their potentials for the benefit of the development of our nation. The paper concludes that there should be mass literacy campaign towards women education. Education shapes the life of women by equipping them with knowledge, skills, right attitudes and values to participate effectively and also contribute meaningfully to national development.

Keywords: Culture, Development, Education, Women, Yoruba

Couplet Translation Procedure on Makhioui Wedding Ceremony in Simalungun, Medan, Indonesia (Published)

Translation is qualified or not can be determined through three points of view: accuracy, acceptability, and legibility. Accuracy means how far the message from source language text is correctly delivered target language text. Acceptance means the extent to which the message communicated source language  text can be easily understood by target language text reader. The meaning captured by source language readers is the same with the meaning captured by target language readers. The translation procedure applied in translating the text of the Makhioui ceremony on Simalungun traditional wedding feast in Indonesian language is a single translation procedure that occurs from the descriptive translation, transposition, footnote and modulation procedures. The couplet translation procedure is then employed with a variant constructed from transposition + modulation translation , Additional explanation + modulation, and descriptive + transposition translation.

Keywords: Couplet Translation, Culture, Makhioui, Wedding Ceremony

Practical Lessions of the Merger Horizontal Success Creating Common Positive Value From Culture Of Corporate (Published)

The development history of Mergers and Acquisitions (M & A) a worldwide since 1895 has recorded many success stories. The perfect of M & A strategy helps companies achieve their business/development goals. However, besides the success, there are still M & A deals failing. According to a study by J.P. Morgan failure rates in the deal up to 40%. P. Gibbs,“European mergers of equals have ideal fundamentals to create value, yet Some disappoint”, Internal Analysis J.P. Morgan, 10. July 1998. Mergers and acquisitions (M & A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations or their operating units are transferred or combined. As an aspect of strategic management, M & A can allow enterprises to grow, shrink, and change the nature of their business or competitive position.

Keywords: Culture, Enterprise, Mergers and Acquisitions, Restructure

Culture and Creativity in Post- Colonial Africa: Whither the State (Published)

This paper relates the state to culture and creativity. And that is precisely because the three are interrelated. The paper argues that, culture, being an embodiment of the arts, modes of life, value systems, traditions and belief systems of the people, determines the nature of people’s creativity in society. Again, the paper further argues that, the dominant values in society at any historical epoch are the values of the dominant class, which explains why cultural values are the reflections of those of the dominant class. And that is because the dominant class dominates society at all the levels of thoughts. Furthermore, the paper argues that the nature and character of the dominant class determine those of the state because the state is a representative of the dominant class. Thus, if the state is an institution that represents the values of the dominant class it therefore means that the prevailing values and ideas in any society, which are those of the dominant class, are strongly influenced by the activities and character of the state.  Finally, it is important, as argued in this paper, that we understand the nature and character of the dominant class in Africa and by extension, the African state, to enable us understand the dominant post-colonial culture in Africa and by implication the nature of creativity on the continent. That is the explanation that has been made here.

Keywords: African State, Creativity, Culture, Post-Colonial Africa

The Roles Of Islamic Education Towards Islamic Art And Culture (Published)

This study deals with the roles of Islamic education againts the development of Islamic art and culture. In order to achive the objective of the study, library research method was used and all the data taken from the books, journals, articles, and previous research. After analyzing and describing the discussion in details, the finding showed that the roles of Islamic education towards Islamic art and culture development are; firstly, Islamic art and culture is regarded as the process of awareness that Islamic art and culture are values sources such as; mind, kindness, creativity, and artwork. Secondly, Islamic art and culture is knwon as process of humanity and humanism. Thirdly, Islamic art and culture is regarded as the spirit of struggle and renewal agiants Islam. The students are expcted to have both intelligent and spiritual competency through art and culture found in Al-Qur’an and Sunnah. Islamic education and culture always come together to establish the human beings’ civilization.

Keywords: Art, Character, Culture, Education, Islamic, Values

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