Understanding Witchcraft among the Digo Muslims on the Coast of Kenya: Implications for Mission (Published)
This paper is about understanding Witchcraft among Digo Muslims on the Coast of Kenya. The question of whether witchcraft is real or not has been a concern to many people Worldwide. It is true sometimes that innocent people are accused of witchcraft, but among the people living along the coastal regions, witchcraft is a common practice. They have reasons why they practise witchcraft, the types and forms of witchcraft they practise and how they practise them. This paper seeks to examine witchcraft practice among the Digo people, who are believed to have been the first to convert to Islam in the coast of Kenya, and that over 90% of them are Muslims. The study reveals that despite being over 90% Muslims, Digo people still associate most calamities and problems with witchcraft and they also seek traditional methods of solving socio-economic problems. It also establishes that the Islamic religion does not provide solutions to problems faced by the Digo Muslims, forcing them to ‘Digonize’ the religion and become ‘dual’ Muslims, mostly known as “folk” Muslims. The study therefore suggests ways through which Christianity can be used by Digo Muslims to seek for solutions to their problems without resorting to witchcraft. Since this research needed interaction with people in order to get the information that led to understanding witchcraft among the Digo Muslims of the Coast of Kenya, an ethnographic research design was employed within the context of qualitative research methodology. The researcher went to the field to seek the information that led to the understanding of Witchcraft among the Digo Muslims on the Coast of Kenya. The research was conducted on the South Coast of Kenya among the Digo Muslims. In order to understand Witchcraft among the Digo on the South Coast of Kenya, the researcher analized the ethnographic data and interpreted the findings.
The question of whether witchcraft is real or not has proven to concern many people especially in the coastal regions of Kenya. Among the people living along the coastal regions, witchcraft is a common practice. It is not known, however, why the people living in this region practice witchcraft, the types and forms of witchcraft they practise and how they practise them. This paper sought to examine the witchcraft practice among the Digo people, who are believed to have been the first to convert to Islam and that 99.9 % of them are Muslims. The quest revealed that despite being 99.9 % Muslims, Digo people, in part, still seek traditional methods of problem solving. It was also found that the Islamic religion did not provide for giving solutions to the problems faced by the Digo Muslims forcing them to ‘Digonize’ the religion and become Folk Muslims. The study therefore suggests ways through which Christianity can be incorporated so that Digo Muslims may see light and turn to Christ where they will get solutions to their problems without resorting to witchcraft. Sahih Muslim: In-book reference / Book 39, Hadith 56, Ibn’ Abbas reported Allah’s Messenger as saying, “The influence of an evil eye is a fact; if anything would precede the destiny it would be the influence of an evil eye, and when you are asked to take bath (as a cure) from the influence of an evil eye, you should take bath”
The Impact of National Culture on International Marketing and Consumer Behavior in Iraqi Kurdistan, Focusing on Hofstede’s Model (Published)
In order to investigate the influence of national culture on international marketing and consumer behavior and answer the research questions in Iraqi Kurdistan, this paper tend to identify Hofstede cultural dimensions and explain how these dimensions may impact the global marketing management. The first section of this study focuses on international marketing and national culture in order to investigate the past research on how national culture can impact international marketing and consumer behavior as dependent variable. Thereafter, some questions were asked and a quantitative self-respond questionnaire was used to measure the Iraqi Kurds cultural values. This research used convenience sample method and it is based on the population of 272 professional managers at different organizational levels. Then, it was combined with the past research results by the same author to bring consistency and reliability to the research and also reduce sample error. In the last section, data were analyzed and at the end a deep discussion was created to respond the questions. The findings explain the relationship between both variables and support the past works by De Mooij and Hofstede as concrete works that can be applied by international managers. Therefore, researcher concludes that this paper provide strong argument that there is positive relationship between national culture and international marketing. At the end some suggestions were made.
This article is a part of research result entitled “Tidung People at the Border Building Nation, Keeping Harmony: A Study of Interethnic Relations in Nunukan Regency of North Kalimantan.This critical ethnographic research examines the construction of ethnic identity and cultural aspect of Tidung people in Nunukan regency. The data were analyzed interactively including data reduction, data display, and verification.In the development, Tidung people in some areas such as in Tarakan are classified as developed; whereas, in other area such as Nunukan, they are classified as people with modest living. The simplicity of Tidung people in Nunukan regency is reflected in their cultural orientation for a homely life. In religious life, Tidung older generation is classified as pluralistic Islam while the young generation tries to release themselves from pluralism in their religion.In this reformation era, the awareness of strengthening political identity is appeared as indicated by the emergence of “Pan Dayak” that reflects brotherhood between the Dayak and Tidung people in PUSAKA (The Association of Kalimantan Natives) organization. The spirit of political identity renaissance should be observed, because Nunukan regency is a pluralistic area especially for the Bugis who control the area, economically and politically. Therefore, proper management of interethnic relations is necessary to make the situation in Nunukan regency remain under control.
This work interrogates capital punishment and indigenous Yoruba African culture. We examine punishment as a concept and the four theories of punishment which include; Utilitarian theory of punishment, Deterrent theory of punishment, Reform theory of punishment, Retributive theory of punishment. We also look into what punishment is and what punishment is not and then carry out a brief analysis of capital punishment. We then examine Yoruba African culture with respect to capital punishment; the work show clearly that Yoruba culture abhor capital punishment in their laws, the implement it and supported it with different proverbs and folklore stories. Today, there have being clamoring from every angle for the abolition of capital punishment in our society and Yoruba as a nation should not be left alone because; “Ikú tó ń pa ojúgbà ẹni, òwe ló ń pa fún ni” (‘the death that is consuming one’s peers is proverbially warning of one’s own impending similar death’).
This paper aims to explore and raise awareness of the significance of content schema as an essential component of language acquisition, principally illustrating its potent value in L2 reading comprehension. All good readers have enhanced schematic knowledge that helps them in comprehending not only texts, but lexis plus contextual information without difficulty. Activating students’ schemata helps them to become metacognitive, however, the role and importance of schemata in language acquisition has fairly remained a derelict aspect with regards to second language learning and teaching; this study therefore seeks to highlight the same for facilitating a much needed understanding required to devise and put into practice an easily adaptable way of learning and instructing possibly in L2 reading. The study may possibly pave the way for further research in the area.
For the most of history the female has been largely disadvantaged in terms of social standing or status as well as fundamental legal rights, compared to their male counterparts. The continuity of this trend of the female being a second class human, is fuelled by traditional, cultural, and religious beliefs of mostly patriarchal societies. The theory under application in this write-up is the radical feminist approach. The paper seeks to explore how patriarchy, being an aspect of culture, helps to paint or make the woman inferior in the light of their male counterparts. This theoretical approach has been sufficiently explored in the work of Nawal El Sadaawi entitled, “A woman at point Zero” (1983), Buchi Emecheta’s “The joys of motherhood” (1979) and Amma Darko’s “Beyond the Horizon” (1995), among other literary works. The efforts made by the female towards becoming independent from men, have also been closely looked into. Sexual abuse, polygamy, female genital mutilation, widowhood rites and the “trokosi” tradition (Ghana) are among several other socio-cultural factors that set the tone for the oppression, under-rating, malhandling and general discrimination against women in the stories selected in this study. The theories of feminism and literary criticisms have been implied in this study.
Ethnography of Communication is a novel approach that relates language with the cultural norms, values and the speaking rules that are specific to a particular speech community. Duranti (1997)1 defines Ethnography as follows:” Ethnography is the written description of the social organization, social activities, symbolic and material resources, and interpretive practices characteristic of a particular group of people”. A number of scholars including Dell Hymes (1962)2 Sherzer (1983)3, Hill and Hill (1986)4 and Saville-Troike (2003)5 worked in the framework of ethnography of communication. Though the studies made by all ethnographers generally focus on the spoken language in a community, it is possible to extend the above frameworks to the analysis of short stories in view of the fact that many short stories are not merely narratives from a third person point of view but involve dialogues between characters. Often the speech patterns, expressions, motivations and the logical deductions they make are in conformity with the particular society they belong to. In particular, the SPEAKING Model evolved by Dell Hymes (1974)6 is found to be highly adaptable to the analysis of short stories.
The paper argues that gender discrimination is as old as creation. Over the years women were made to belief that their rightful place was in the home front as housewives producers and minders of children. The paper focuses on cultural, societal and religious practices, in our traditional society that prevent women from contributing their quota to both the community and the nation at large. In this modern world where women have assumed prominent roles in the economic, political, and social developments in different societies, there is a clarion call for both the government and other men of the country to be supportive of their female counterparts as this will enable them to exhibit their potentials for the benefit of the development of our nation. The paper concludes that there should be mass literacy campaign towards women education. Education shapes the life of women by equipping them with knowledge, skills, right attitudes and values to participate effectively and also contribute meaningfully to national development.
Couplet Translation Procedure on Makhioui Wedding Ceremony in Simalungun, Medan, Indonesia (Published)
Translation is qualified or not can be determined through three points of view: accuracy, acceptability, and legibility. Accuracy means how far the message from source language text is correctly delivered target language text. Acceptance means the extent to which the message communicated source language text can be easily understood by target language text reader. The meaning captured by source language readers is the same with the meaning captured by target language readers. The translation procedure applied in translating the text of the Makhioui ceremony on Simalungun traditional wedding feast in Indonesian language is a single translation procedure that occurs from the descriptive translation, transposition, footnote and modulation procedures. The couplet translation procedure is then employed with a variant constructed from transposition + modulation translation , Additional explanation + modulation, and descriptive + transposition translation.
Practical Lessions of the Merger Horizontal Success Creating Common Positive Value From Culture Of Corporate (Published)
The development history of Mergers and Acquisitions (M & A) a worldwide since 1895 has recorded many success stories. The perfect of M & A strategy helps companies achieve their business/development goals. However, besides the success, there are still M & A deals failing. According to a study by J.P. Morgan failure rates in the deal up to 40%. P. Gibbs,“European mergers of equals have ideal fundamentals to create value, yet Some disappoint”, Internal Analysis J.P. Morgan, 10. July 1998. Mergers and acquisitions (M & A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations or their operating units are transferred or combined. As an aspect of strategic management, M & A can allow enterprises to grow, shrink, and change the nature of their business or competitive position.
This paper relates the state to culture and creativity. And that is precisely because the three are interrelated. The paper argues that, culture, being an embodiment of the arts, modes of life, value systems, traditions and belief systems of the people, determines the nature of people’s creativity in society. Again, the paper further argues that, the dominant values in society at any historical epoch are the values of the dominant class, which explains why cultural values are the reflections of those of the dominant class. And that is because the dominant class dominates society at all the levels of thoughts. Furthermore, the paper argues that the nature and character of the dominant class determine those of the state because the state is a representative of the dominant class. Thus, if the state is an institution that represents the values of the dominant class it therefore means that the prevailing values and ideas in any society, which are those of the dominant class, are strongly influenced by the activities and character of the state. Finally, it is important, as argued in this paper, that we understand the nature and character of the dominant class in Africa and by extension, the African state, to enable us understand the dominant post-colonial culture in Africa and by implication the nature of creativity on the continent. That is the explanation that has been made here.
This study deals with the roles of Islamic education againts the development of Islamic art and culture. In order to achive the objective of the study, library research method was used and all the data taken from the books, journals, articles, and previous research. After analyzing and describing the discussion in details, the finding showed that the roles of Islamic education towards Islamic art and culture development are; firstly, Islamic art and culture is regarded as the process of awareness that Islamic art and culture are values sources such as; mind, kindness, creativity, and artwork. Secondly, Islamic art and culture is knwon as process of humanity and humanism. Thirdly, Islamic art and culture is regarded as the spirit of struggle and renewal agiants Islam. The students are expcted to have both intelligent and spiritual competency through art and culture found in Al-Qur’an and Sunnah. Islamic education and culture always come together to establish the human beings’ civilization.
Those who fail to learn from history are doomed to repeat it”, this statement is true of the traditional Yorùbá pottery and potters, in the sense that their work will be gone into extinction if adequate scholastic attention is not given. This paper therefore appraises traditional pottery art and artists. It focuses on the growth and preservation of Yorùbá pottery traditions and culture, through the various forms and vessels made of fired clay. The world of the indigenous Yorùbá potter is such a fascinating one; yet unpredictable because of the phases involved in the production processes. It also observes the techniques, styles and forms employed by potters from different parts of Yoruba nation. The paper further showcases some of the works of the traditional Yoruba potters that is still ongoing. In summation, the paper observes the challenges that may eventually send pottery art into extinction; as a result of the fewer apprentices that are engaged in pottery art practices
This article explores the effect of culture on women’s career progression in Nigeria and how Nigerian organisations can incorporate some of the issues raised here in addressing their need for talent. It leaves one with the question- How does the Nigerian culture influence women in the society which in turn becomes a barrier that limits women in the workplace? It is necessary to say that though there is awareness of this inequality of women who work in Nigeria, understanding the Nigerian culture can place its human resource management practices in context. It is expected that the viewpoints raised in this article will help highlight some of the Human resource management issues in Africa’s most populous country. Taking these issues in context can play a role in increasing the productivity of women in Nigeria. This is paper is aimed at exploring culture which is a barrier to the career progress of women in Nigeria.
JUCOs, Jocks, and Title IX: The Coach as the Dear Colleague guiding community college athletes (Published)
The “Dear Colleague Letter” distributed guidance to educational programs regarding Title IX in 2011. In 2014, the Department of Education released the names of 55 schools that are under investigation for sexual violence. In turn, the fire storm around athletes and violence against women has brought new attention to the urgency to educate the college campus. As community colleges craft their training programs and interventions, the athletic coach is an integral part in truly reaching community college student-athletes. This article reviews the Title IX policy, athletics’ unfortunate association with sexual violence, and the primary role an athletic coach can play in guiding players to compliant social justice within the framework on Title IX.
Oc Eo is one of the ancient cultures in the Southern part of Vietnam, which belonged to the ancient Funan Kingdom. The ancient Funan was the earliest nation formed and developed in Southeast Asia between the 1st and 7th century AD. In its heyday, the Kingdom was highly developed in terms of society, economy, and great military power. Oc Eo port was considered as an important international market and also one of the centers of culture and commerce of Funan. When considering Funan, it was Oc Eo that was mostly mentioned, the economy and culture of Oc Eo reflected that of Funan. What belongs to this culture now is only in the form of antiques, artifacts and monuments scattering throughout the lands in southern Vietnam such as An Giang, Kien Giang, Tien Giang, Dong Nai, Long An and Tay Ninh province, etc. particularly Dong Thap which is known for the historical site and relics of Go Thap which bear all the hallmarks of India such as Go Minh Su, the Sun God temple, Shiva temple, Vishnu temple, God Pond, God sculptures, golden Buddha, stone, wood, and reliefs. Each single relic and artifact in Go Thap contains cultural and religious values of India. Currently, the historical site of Go Thap which has been excavated by well-known archaeologists both national and international is ranked as the special National Monument. Therefore, the aim of this article is to elucidate the influence of Indian culture on that of Oc Eo, namely the culture of Go Thap in terms of religious beliefs, architectural shrines, god sculptures, and reliefs.
The Pattern of Inheritance Utterance Addresing Angkola Mandailing Society Through Biola na Mabugang Reconstruction; Culture and Language Studies (Published)
This research deals with the pattern of inheritance utterances addressing Angkola Mandailing society. This research aims to describe three formulated research problems; 1) the classification of pattern utterances, b) the method of pattern utterances and 3) the pattern of inheritance pattern utterances Angkola Mandailing society in which it has seven purposes namely; i) respect ii) honor iii) helping iv) family building v) intimate relationship vi) problem solving and vii) marriage. Then, the descriptive qualitative method was used to achieve the objectives of the reserach. The data were obtained and analyzed from Biola na Mabugang by the researcher, Rosmawati Harahap. The findings showed that there are 15 of 33 classifications of utterances found Biola na Mabugang. Then, the pattern of utterance is decided based on Dalihan na Tolu (three main kinship elements; kahanggi, mora and anak boru) . Last, the existence of parents, children and experiences play an important role in the pattern of inheritance utterances addressing Angkola Mandailing society in South Padang Lawas and Padang Lawas of South Tapanuli.
The use of various finishes for building exterior is based on many factors. Some of these factors include the cost of such material, availability and climate compliance to mention a few. However, the use of paint as exterior finish is found to be anchored on cultural factors above every other consideration among the Yoruba people of southwest Nigeria. This paper aims at examining the cultural dynamics that are shaping the value that is placed on paint within a local set up and the underpinning parameters for the preference option. The research was conducted through a survey method that involved the administration of questionnaire on 384 respondents that were randomly selected through a multistage sampling method. Data collected were analysed through SPSS version 15.0 software using descriptive statistics and multiple regression models. The findings suggest that further development of the material will receive a greater patronage by the people.
The work focuses on the traditional African governance; it specifically examines those traditional forms of governance that made the society to stand firmly before the advent of Europeans. Many of these traditions were not written down, there were no constitutions; it was just a commitment to make the society move. If constitutionalism is defined as a commitment to limitations on political powers, then it is possible to have such a commitment without a single documentary constitution most especially when commitment is in the blood and culture of the people and at the same time, those people have a keen sense of their own identity.In this work, we will interrogate traditional culture of governance in some communities in Africa. We will examine how effective that governance was and then see the level of commitment to limitation on political power (constitutionalism) and whether some of the relics of governance are still preserved till today. This paper therefore, will employ the conceptual, analytical and reconstructive research methods. While the conceptual method will focus on clarifying key concepts such as constitutionalism, commitment, governance, tradition and culture; the analytical method will examine the period of governance before the advent of Europeans. The reconstructive method will establish the need for this commitment in today Africa.