Linguistic Politeness Forms in English among Igbo Bilinguals in Nigeria: The Case of Reprimand (Published)
The study examined Igbo perception and expression of reprimand speech act in line with politeness as a conversation strategy in the conversational English of Igbo native speakers which is unexplored. Through a purposive sampling process, 3 000 questionnaires in the form of Discourse Completion Task depicting ten scenarios of imagined role-play between interlocutors written in English were distributed to undergraduates of Igbo extraction at seven universities systematically selected from South-East and South-South zones in Nigeria. Results showed that reprimands were conversational norms of Igbo bilinguals and were evident in their English language conversations as participants engaged in reprimanding occasioned by forms of misconduct. Findings also revealed that to achieve the conversational demands of reprimand speech act across horizontal, vertical and diagonal relationships as the case may be, the Igbo culture reflected observance of context, social status, social distance and severity of offence variables a consideration of which at the instance of a conversation underlies the choice/use of a particular strategy or another. The study concluded that speech act is culture-bound hence the need to incorporate pragmatics in language teaching
Managing Academic Development in Constrained Contexts: Case Study of a University Satellite Campus in Namibia (Published)
This ethnographic case study explored the challenges besetting academic development (AD) at a satellite campus of a leading university in Namibia. It sought to establish and proffer suggestions on how AD should evolve at the institution, being mindful of any enabling or constraining cultural, structural and agential factors. Three research questions guided the study. The study sample was purposefully selected and comprised the acting head of campus, two Heads of Department, three academic coordinators, the Quality Assurance Coordinator, the student support officer and the Student Counsellor. The findings of the study revealed that this relatively new professional field of academic development has not received the best of receptions by a significantly large portion of academic staff members, including some key agents. The study found that there was a general apathy and reluctance to afford the AD practitioners the space and ‘license’ to exercise their practice. Based on the forgoing findings, the study recommended that the AD practitioners in the constrained contexts be accorded recognition and support by the key agents in the institution and that innovative interventions be put in place to promote AD processes.
Alternative Options in Building Workers’ Incentives: Effects On Job Satisfaction and Performance in Local Context (Published)
Incentives are motivators and highly critical in determining positive feelings and work behaviour in different contexts and satisfaction often depends on its relevance to felt needs of workers. The uncritical adoption of foreign schemes in local contexts has distanced reward strategies from employees’ needs and demands alternative strategies. The study tested innovative incentives and relationships with satisfaction and performance of employees in a local enterprise using 50 participants (74% males). A reliable instrument, aggregate α=0.74 was used to gather information and inferential statistics used for analysis. Inferential statistics were used to run the analysis. Results of the study showed that traditional and nontraditional incentives significantly determine employee job satisfaction, (p < 0.01). With regards to effects on performance, traditional incentive was significant, (p < 0.01), while nontraditional incentive failed to predict performance. Although results suggested that traditional and nontraditional incentives remain key determinants of satisfaction, only traditional incentives could influence performance. The test of positive feelings as a factor in performance was highly significant. The paper, therefore, suggests that additional studies should be carried out in order to validate the innovative model for best practices in incentives design and administration in local contexts.
Promoting peace and social stability through cultural values in Nigeria: the Social Studies perspective (Published)
Conflict, insurgency, terrorism and crime had become the prominent super war agents, waging dynamic war against Nigerian territorial integrity and economic boom. This study sought to examine how peace and social stability through cultural values in Nigeria from the social studies perspective. To achieve this, two research questions were raised to guide the study. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Data used for the study were generated through a questionnaire titled “Promoting Peace and Social Stability through Cultural Values Questionnaire” which was administered to 70 Social Studies Educators purposively selected from the study area. Their responses to the questionnaire were coded to identify recurrent themes and patterns and were tested using the simple percentages, means and statistical frequency. The result of the analysis showed that in respect to the first research question, a mean percentage ‘Yes’ responses 74.69% and ‘No’ responses of 25.31% Where as in respect to research question two a mean percentage ‘yes’ response of 78% against the mean percentage ‘no’ response of 22% was obtained. The implication of this is that cultural values significantly influence the promotion of peace and social stability in Nigeria. , it was therefore concluded that the peace and stability of the Nigerian society can be promoted if cultural values are revived, promoted, taught and applied in the country and recommended that administrative leadership of Nigeria should be broaden to include traditional leaders and priests in the governance of the Nation.
Rap music is a derivative of the oral form of literature, which is man’s original medium of self-expression and artistic creativity. Rap music is a highly prolific component of a popular culture which has served as a means of expressing the plight of the black man in a predominantly prejudiced white society. Rap music came as a result of the elongated measure of exposure to slavery, segregation and prejudice. In order to air their mind, different forms of literature were employed, one of which is Rap music which has been identified as (Rhythm and Blues). This work takes a look into the socio, economic and political significances of Rap culture on African-Americans and how it enhances their lives.
The objective of this paper is to provide conceptual clarification of governance mechanisms based on a literature review applied to African family SMEs. The analysis of the literature review made it possible to understand the specificities of African family businesses through a better knowledge of their governance practices on the one hand, and by specific African management in the light of contemporary theories, on the other hand. The study analyses the cultural realities of the African field to propose an explanatory and interpretative framework in the context of African specific management.
This study aims at investigating the stylistic variation in the media language of Jordan. The study explores this variation by analyzing some extracts from the opinion articles from both Al-Rai newspaper in Arabic and the Jordan Times newspaper in English in order to find out a justification for this variation. The study methodology is based on the contrastive analysis of the quotations from both newspapers in light of the critical discourse analysis theory. The study concludes that the stylistic variation in the media language of Jordan is due mainly to the status of readers and writers of the discourse and to the writers’ and readers’ cultural and national ideologies that influence the writers’ selections of words.
How Cultural Differences Influence Conflict Within an Organization: A Case Study Of Near East University (Published)
The culture that people come from has played an important part in shaping any society. Almeida (2002) defined culture as the behaviours, contents and the way people think. Culture is of vital importance since it assist in the way people live hence articulating the manner in with information among people is administered. Miscommunication often arises due to the differences in cultures that exist hence this leads to people misunderstanding others cultural contexts. Individuals from certain cultures may deal with conflict easily while others tend to find it difficult in dealing with it amenably hence this leads to the system of sweeping it under the carpet (De Dreu et al., 2007). Conflict is triggered when there are cultural differences between individuals within an organisation or through general interaction with one another. This often leads to cross-cultural conflict which generally occurs in the context that individuals are not willing to understand each other’s diversity in cultures. The research study main objective is to examine the cultural differences that influence conflict within an organisation. The sampling techniques used was Quota Sampling were data was grouped according to ethnicities. Research study was qualitative in nature and made use of semi-structured interviews which were carried out with fifty participants from three ethnic groups. Data was analyzed using Qualitative Content analysis. Findings were put forward on ways management could reduce conflict by creating an environment were all cultures interact with one another freely.
This paper focuses on vernacular architecture and the various vernacular architecture in existence in Nigeria. Nigeria as a country is heterogeneous in both its socio-cultural structure and ideological perspective because of its ethnic diversity. This study therefore examines the vernacular architecture of Nigeria with focus on the three major ethnic groups which are the Hausa’s in the Northern Nigeria having Hausa Vernacular Architecture, the Yoruba’s in the South-Western Nigeria having Yoruba Vernacular Architecture and the Igbo’s in the South-Eastern Nigeria having Igbo Vernacular Architecture with focus on their culture, region and identity in order to have a proper perspective on the vernacular architecture of Nigeria. The vernacular architecture of the different ethnic groups in Nigeria are reflected through their culture, region and identity. Ethnic groups with similar culture, region and identity share similar architectural characteristics as it relates to their building layout, size of family, space organization, openings and fenestration, decorations used, roofing type adopted as well as the nature of Building materials used. As such, this paper suggest the classification of the vernacular architecture in Nigeria be considered from the cultural, regional and identity aspect due to the environmental, cultural and historical background in which vernacular architecture exist.
The Benefits of the House-Form of Earth Building in Nigeria. Surveying Of Origbo in Ife-North of Osun State (Published)
Cultural heritage produces its own pattern of house-form, which is a reflection of history, chosen style and culture of its people. This paper focused on the pattern and the underlying factors of house-forms of rural development in the region of south western of Nigeria. Rural communities of Origbo in Ife-North Local Government were surveyed, scores on selected traditional building were used to ascertain pattern of house-form. More specifically the relationship between house-form and socio-cultural heritage were investigated to establish the significance of house-form pattern and cultural value. The potential benefits derived from the house-form pattern were identified. They include reliance on local materials for building construction, provision of affordable housing at reduced cost and simple construction techniques. The quest of this paper was what kind of traditional house-form value that should be preserved to enrich current new housing development.
The Significance of a Personal and National Bildung and Its Nonlinear Nature: Charles Dickens’s Hard Times and Matthew Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy (Published)
Derived from the German philosophy of Bildung, literary works that can be categorized as bildungsroman have mainly focused on the individuals’ maturation and education. This study aims to expand on this notion of Bildung and observe how an individual’s maturation and education ultimately leads to the expansion of such action of becoming on a nationwide scale. By analyzing the relationship between the two different cases of bildung in action in Charles Dickens’s Hard Times and Matthew Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy, this study aims to analyze in depth the correlation between the individuals’ maturation and the national bildung. The study examines the concepts of individual and national bildungs present in Dickens’s Hard Times, both within the characters at play as well as the Victorian English society immediately following the Industrial Revolution period. Outside the literary and fictional realms, the study finds the notion of the two kinds of bildungs in Matthew Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy. By comparing the two observations, the study ultimately suggests that the two bildungs do not necessarily share a chronologically linear relationship between each other.
So far, studies about silence in EFL classrooms show that there is a correlation between students’ silence and their culture (among others King, 2011; Nakane, 2016; Wilang, 2017). Focusing on whether there is a relation between EFL students’ cultural identity and silence in the classroom, this study looks at the relation between culture and silence from a different perspective. Forty-nine first-semester EFL university students who took part in this study were asked to fill out a questionnaire about (1) how they identified themselves – whether they tend to be western or eastern in their attitudes – and (2) why they tend to be silent in the EFL classrooms. Using Hofstede’s (1970) cultural dimensions and Brown & Levinson’s (1987) Management of Face Theory, we found that although 86% of the participants identified themselves as being more western, those who responded to their lecturers’ questions by silence are more motivated by eastern values. Although students’ silence was indeed related with face wants, this study shows that culture is not a factor which causes the students’ silence in the classroom.
Social Cultural Transformation in Attitude and Behavior of Padoe Community (A Case Study of Padoe Community in Mining Area Of Pt. Vale, Tbk. In Wasuponda, Luwu District, South Sulawesi Province) (Published)
The presence of PT Vale Tbk in Wasuponda, Luwu Timur Regency resulted in a change of attitudes and behavior pattern of Padoe Community due to effect of social problems created by the operation of mining companies in the region. This study aims (1) to explain and describe the attitudes and behavior pattern of Padoe Community before the entry of mining industry in their customary territory. (2) To reveal and describe whether the presence of the mining industry PT. Vale Tbk caused a change in attitude and behavior patterns of Padoe Community and what are the changes in attitudes and behavior. (3) To find out the implications of social, economic, political and cultural changes in the Community due to the presence of PT. Vale, Tbk. The method used to collect data is observation, interviews, and literature reviews. The data collected are presented in descriptive analytical form. The research results indicated first, the attitudes and behavior pattern of Padoe Community before the entry of the Mining Industry PT. Vale Indonesia Tbk in Wasuponda Region, East Luwu Regency. They upheld the sense of mutual cooperation in community life and lived from gardening, breeding buffalo, managing sago and resin, searching rattan, and hunting. Second, a change in attitudes and behavior patterns of Padoe Community after the entry of the mining in Wasuponda. People are getting interested and seeing opportunities in industrial sector. Demand for labor is one reason for people preferring industrial activities rather than agricultural activities that more income they could get from the industrial activities than farming. It was the beginning of the changes in Padoe communities in Wasuponda. In addition, a change also takes place in educational orientation and roles in the family. Third, implications of social, economic, and cultural changes of Padoe Community due to the presence of PT. Vale, Tbk. Community life behavior of Padoe people changes because of the effect from outsiders through PT. Vale and that brings a variety of land issues: destruction of forest resources, such as resin and rattan. Meanwhile, the foothills usually processed by people as gardens and tubers have become part of mining concessions that they can no longer be worked on.
Culture of Vote Buying and Its Implications: Range Of Incentives and Conditions Politicians Offer to Electorates (Published)
Each election year and in almost every local and institutional elections the issue of vote buying surfaces. Vote buying has almost become part of every election in Ghana. While the menace is on the increase, it is unclear whether votes bought translate into votes for the buyer or the buying party. This work sought to investigate the range of incentives and conditions politicians give to electorates. Sequential mixed-method design was employed for the study. Data from questionnaire was triangulated with interviews. The target population for this study consists of the entire group of potential voters in Shama District in the Western Region who were 18 years and above. Five (5) communities or electoral areas in the district were selected for the study. These communities were Atwereboanda, Komfueku, Beposo, Nyankrom and Shama. A sample size of three hundred (300) was chosen for the quantitative (questionnaires administered) aspect of the research while twenty of them were purposively selected for the qualitative (interviews conducted) aspect of the study. Two party activists were also interviewed to support the data. Non-probability (convenience, proportional and purposive) sampling techniques were employed to select the district, communities and respondents for the study. The study revealed among other things that: (a) Items that are used to buy votes include silver pans (basins), cloths, gas cylinders, laptops, money, outboard motors, wellington boots and party branded items; and (b) During vote buying, conditions are not actually attached to the incentives except where there are doubts that one wants to take the incentive without reciprocating with his/her vote. Enforcing laws on vote buying by all stakeholders including the police, the judiciary, the Electoral Commission of Ghana (EC) and resolving to fight corruption among leaders who also use all means to make money to engage in vote buying would go a long way to solve the menace
A New Dawn in Etche Names: A Cultural Threat (Published)
The paper investigates anthroponym- a type of onomastics in Etche. Anthroponym which is the study of personal names including their forms and uses is described differently cross-culturally. Using a descriptive research design, the paper describes one hundred and three (103) Etche personal names categorised into three broad socio-cultural groups: experience, theophoric and admonitory/salutary. Contrary to the Americans and Europeans belief that given names are mere tags and mark of identity, the paper holds that in Etche as it is in most African nations and Nigeria in particular, given names describe the world of the name givers and control the world of the name bearers. The paper therefore concludes that the dawn of a new naming system in Etche is an affront on the culture of the people and portends a great danger to the unborn generation
This work interrogates capital punishment and indigenous Yoruba African culture. We examine punishment as a concept and the four theories of punishment which include; Utilitarian theory of punishment, Deterrent theory of punishment, Reform theory of punishment, Retributive theory of punishment. We also look into what punishment is and what punishment is not and then carry out a brief analysis of capital punishment. We then examine Yoruba African culture with respect to capital punishment; the work show clearly that Yoruba culture abhor capital punishment in their laws, the implement it and supported it with different proverbs and folklore stories. Today, there have being clamoring from every angle for the abolition of capital punishment in our society and Yoruba as a nation should not be left alone because; “Ikú tó ń pa ojúgbà ẹni, òwe ló ń pa fún ni” (‘the death that is consuming one’s peers is proverbially warning of one’s own impending similar death’).
Understanding Witchcraft among the Digo Muslims on the Coast of Kenya: Implications for Mission (Published)
This paper is about understanding Witchcraft among Digo Muslims on the Coast of Kenya. The question of whether witchcraft is real or not has been a concern to many people Worldwide. It is true sometimes that innocent people are accused of witchcraft, but among the people living along the coastal regions, witchcraft is a common practice. They have reasons why they practise witchcraft, the types and forms of witchcraft they practise and how they practise them. This paper seeks to examine witchcraft practice among the Digo people, who are believed to have been the first to convert to Islam in the coast of Kenya, and that over 90% of them are Muslims. The study reveals that despite being over 90% Muslims, Digo people still associate most calamities and problems with witchcraft and they also seek traditional methods of solving socio-economic problems. It also establishes that the Islamic religion does not provide solutions to problems faced by the Digo Muslims, forcing them to ‘Digonize’ the religion and become ‘dual’ Muslims, mostly known as “folk” Muslims. The study therefore suggests ways through which Christianity can be used by Digo Muslims to seek for solutions to their problems without resorting to witchcraft. Since this research needed interaction with people in order to get the information that led to understanding witchcraft among the Digo Muslims of the Coast of Kenya, an ethnographic research design was employed within the context of qualitative research methodology. The researcher went to the field to seek the information that led to the understanding of Witchcraft among the Digo Muslims on the Coast of Kenya. The research was conducted on the South Coast of Kenya among the Digo Muslims. In order to understand Witchcraft among the Digo on the South Coast of Kenya, the researcher analized the ethnographic data and interpreted the findings.
The question of whether witchcraft is real or not has proven to concern many people especially in the coastal regions of Kenya. Among the people living along the coastal regions, witchcraft is a common practice. It is not known, however, why the people living in this region practice witchcraft, the types and forms of witchcraft they practise and how they practise them. This paper sought to examine the witchcraft practice among the Digo people, who are believed to have been the first to convert to Islam and that 99.9 % of them are Muslims. The quest revealed that despite being 99.9 % Muslims, Digo people, in part, still seek traditional methods of problem solving. It was also found that the Islamic religion did not provide for giving solutions to the problems faced by the Digo Muslims forcing them to ‘Digonize’ the religion and become Folk Muslims. The study therefore suggests ways through which Christianity can be incorporated so that Digo Muslims may see light and turn to Christ where they will get solutions to their problems without resorting to witchcraft. Sahih Muslim: In-book reference / Book 39, Hadith 56, Ibn’ Abbas reported Allah’s Messenger as saying, “The influence of an evil eye is a fact; if anything would precede the destiny it would be the influence of an evil eye, and when you are asked to take bath (as a cure) from the influence of an evil eye, you should take bath”
The Impact of National Culture on International Marketing and Consumer Behavior in Iraqi Kurdistan, Focusing on Hofstede’s Model (Published)
In order to investigate the influence of national culture on international marketing and consumer behavior and answer the research questions in Iraqi Kurdistan, this paper tend to identify Hofstede cultural dimensions and explain how these dimensions may impact the global marketing management. The first section of this study focuses on international marketing and national culture in order to investigate the past research on how national culture can impact international marketing and consumer behavior as dependent variable. Thereafter, some questions were asked and a quantitative self-respond questionnaire was used to measure the Iraqi Kurds cultural values. This research used convenience sample method and it is based on the population of 272 professional managers at different organizational levels. Then, it was combined with the past research results by the same author to bring consistency and reliability to the research and also reduce sample error. In the last section, data were analyzed and at the end a deep discussion was created to respond the questions. The findings explain the relationship between both variables and support the past works by De Mooij and Hofstede as concrete works that can be applied by international managers. Therefore, researcher concludes that this paper provide strong argument that there is positive relationship between national culture and international marketing. At the end some suggestions were made.
This article is a part of research result entitled “Tidung People at the Border Building Nation, Keeping Harmony: A Study of Interethnic Relations in Nunukan Regency of North Kalimantan.This critical ethnographic research examines the construction of ethnic identity and cultural aspect of Tidung people in Nunukan regency. The data were analyzed interactively including data reduction, data display, and verification.In the development, Tidung people in some areas such as in Tarakan are classified as developed; whereas, in other area such as Nunukan, they are classified as people with modest living. The simplicity of Tidung people in Nunukan regency is reflected in their cultural orientation for a homely life. In religious life, Tidung older generation is classified as pluralistic Islam while the young generation tries to release themselves from pluralism in their religion.In this reformation era, the awareness of strengthening political identity is appeared as indicated by the emergence of “Pan Dayak” that reflects brotherhood between the Dayak and Tidung people in PUSAKA (The Association of Kalimantan Natives) organization. The spirit of political identity renaissance should be observed, because Nunukan regency is a pluralistic area especially for the Bugis who control the area, economically and politically. Therefore, proper management of interethnic relations is necessary to make the situation in Nunukan regency remain under control.