Tag Archives: Conservation

Ganga Deterioration and Conservation of Its Sanctity (Published)

River Ganga (Ganges) of India has been held in high esteem since time immemorial and Hindus from all over the world cherish the idea of a holy dip in the river under the faith that by doing so they will get rid of their sins of life. The Ganges River Pollution is now at such a high level that the amount of toxins, chemicals and other dangerous bacteria found in the river are now almost 3000 times over the limit suggested by the WHO as ‘safe’. Gall bladder cancer along the course of the river are the second highest in the world while incidences of prostate cancer are the highest in the country. In place of the present practice of allowing treated sewage into the river, the policy of zero discharge into the river be adopted promoting Reuse and Recycle of wastewater after treatment up to tertiary-level.

Keywords: Conservation, Ganga Deterioration, Sanctity

Material Compatibility in Conservation of Traditional Earth Building in Nigeria Case of Origbo Communities in Osun State in South-West of Nigeria (Published)

This paper analysed intervention strategies for the conservation of traditional earthen architecture which are selected in response to ageing earth building walls, being exposed to agents of degradation, some superficial deterioration were observed pointing to necessity of applying a compatible conservation to specific deterioration defects of earth building. There are various methodological approaches to conservation, it is therefore essential to understand material compatibility for implementing proper intervention. The study examined the major origin of defects on earth building due to wrong material composition used in conservation especially the damaging effects of cements on earth building. The paper presented conservation structure as related to appropriate material composition and compatibility. Also, properties of earth were examined that enables compatibility in conservation, this include permeability, plasticity, density, thermal conductivity, capillary absorption and drying shrinkage. The paper then concludes with essential factors of material compatibility to effective earth building conservation.

Keywords: Conservation, Deterioration, Earth Building, Material Compatibility.

Conservation of Traditional Earth Building in Nigeria: Case Study of Origbo in Ife North, Osun State (Published)

Increasing awareness of the past, present and continuous use of the earth as a building material draws attention towards main concept of conservation of the traditional architectural heritage at the rural communities of Origbo in Ife North Local Government of Osun State. The aim was to find out the main problem regarding earth building deterioration with emphasis on the distinguishing character of natural deterioration process of earthen architecture. The study revealed further that moisture attack is the major medium through which earth building deteriorate, also lack of maintenance, bad construction techniques, leaking roof, inappropriate roof eaves over-hang and lack of drainage for rain water are the medium of deterioration. This paper presented conservation model approach to earth buildings that are compatible with characteristics of earthen building materials. The paper then concludes with fundamental strategies that could help to conserve traditional earth building and to improve the durability of earth dwellings.

Keywords: Conservation, Deterioration, Durability and Maintenance., Earth Buildings

Material Compatibility in Conservation of Traditional Earth Building in Nigeria (Case of Origbo Communities in Osun State in South-West Of Nigeria). (Published)

This paper analysed intervention strategies for the conservation of traditional earthen architecture which are selected in response to ageing earth building walls, being exposed to agents of degradation, some superficial deterioration were observed pointing to necessity of applying a compatible conservation to specific deterioration defects of earth building. There are various methodological approaches to conservation, it is therefore essential to understand material compatibility for implementing proper intervention. The study examined the major origin of defects on earth building due to wrong material composition used in conservation especially the damaging effects of cements on earth building. The paper presented conservation structure as related to appropriate material composition and compatibility. Also, properties of earth were examined that enables compatibility in conservation, this include permeability, plasticity, density, thermal conductivity, capillary absorption and drying shrinkage. The paper then concludes with essential factors of material compatibility to effective earth building conservation

Keywords: Conservation, Deterioration, Earth Building, Material Compatibility.

INTEGRATION OF FORMAL AND INFORMAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION PRACTICES TOWARDS ENHANCING MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF THE NANDI HILLS FOREST IN WESTERN KENYA (Published)

The overall educational infrastructure is grossly inadequate in most of the Third World Countries, Kenya in particular; more so resources to institute appropriate environmental education are, for the most part, simply not available, even when this education is recognized as a desirable innovation. This paper sought to interrogate the current institutional environmental and educational arrangements and practices which are pertinent to the sustainable management of the Nandi Hills Forests, in Kenya. A mixed methodological design which incorporated both qualitative and quantitative methodologies was embraced. The methods included concurrent triangulation and nested/embedded designs. A four-tier analysis was carried out once all the data had been coded and grouped. This paper concludes that the contribution of indigenous knowledge to sustainable management of the Nandi Hills Forest is remarkable. This study brings to light the essence of environmental education that is incorporative of the community through formal and informal approaches in forest knowledge acquisition and management of the Nandi Hills Forests. As it is widely agreed that environmental education is the most effective means that society possesses for confronting the challenges of environmental degradation (Palmer, 1998), this study attempts to provide the necessary impetus both for the local community, the government and non-governmental institutions to understand and become involved in an integrated manner in the conservation of what remains on this ecosystem

Keywords: Conservation, Environmental Education., Formal education, Informal Education, Management

CONSERVATION OF TRADITIONAL EARTH BUILDING IN NIGERIA: CASE STUDY OF ORIGBO IN IFE NORTH, OSUN STATE (Published)

Increasing awareness of the past, present and continuous use of the earth as a building material draws attention towards main concept of conservation of the traditional architectural heritage at the rural communities of Origbo in Ife North Local Government of Osun State. The aim was to find out the main problem regarding earth building deterioration with emphasis on the distinguishing character of natural deterioration process of earthen architecture. The study revealed further that moisture attack is the major medium through which earth building deteriorate, also lack of maintenance, bad construction techniques, leaking roof, inappropriate roof eaves over-hang and lack of drainage for rain water are the medium of deterioration. This paper presented conservation model approach to earth buildings that are compatible with characteristics of earthen building materials. The paper then concludes with fundamental strategies that could help to conserve traditional earth building and to improve the durability of earth dwellings.

Keywords: Conservation, Deterioration, Durability and Maintenance., Earth Buildings

THREATS OF WOODY PLANT SPECIES DIVERSITY AND THEIR CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES IN ETHIOPIA (Published)

Forest provides livelihoods for millions of people worldwide, through provision of different products. However, their diversity and area coverage are highly declined through time. Deforestation, invasive species and land degradation are the main threats accelerated plant diversity loss. Like most countries in the Sahelian region Ethiopia is affected by these factors heavily and finally resulted desertification, poverty and natural resource losses. About 75 percent of the countries land mass is estimated to have been affected by the threat of desertification. To overcome these problems efforts has been made to launch afforestation and conservation programs. So, the purpose of this review is to present threats of plant diversity and forest conservation in Ethiopia.

Keywords: Conservation, Deforestation, Threats of Forests

POPULATION PRESSURE AND FOREST RESOURCES DEPLETION IN GELE -GELE FOREST RESERVE OF EDO STATE, NIGERIA (Published)

The history of Man’s dependence on natural forest resources for survival is as old as the origin of man. Thus since ages, man has exploited forest resources for food, shelter and as a means of survival. Unwanton exploitation of forest resources has led to decimation of biodiversity and loss of their values in the survival of mankind. Against this background forest reserves are created as a strategy for conserving biodiversity from net loss. These reserves are ideally protected against unauthorized access. However, with the growing human population and the challenge of providing food for the teeming population reserved areas are being encroached. There seems to have been depletion of the forest resource stock in the Gele-Gele forest reserve in Edo state, Nigeria. Thus, this paper set as its objectives, to assess the impact of population pressure on the forest stock of Gele-Gele reserve. With a Focus on five communities that the forest reserve cuts across, both primary and secondary data were derived and analysed using simple descriptive statistics. The results of the analyses show that there is a steady growth on the population of the communities around the reserve at. Result of the analysis shows that the Gele-Gele forest reserve is rich in biodiversity and biological resources and people derive a lot of livelihood opportunities from the reserve. The authors also found out that there is rapid decline and depletion of the forest stock in the reserve as a result of over dependence on the forest resources in the reserve owing to growing human population. The result also shows that aside from population pressure, lack of indigenous people’s participation in the conservation strategy has contributed to poaching and a major factor to depletion of the forest stock. The people feel alienated from the conservation efforts as such develop apathy towards the reserve. Thus it is recommended that the local people be properly integrated from the planning stage of any conservation activity as the forest reserve. There is need for government to call for stakeholders’ forum in the affected reserve area where all will be free to air out their opinions on ways to enhance the protection of the forest reserve. Government should possibly reduce the size of the reserve to a reasonably manageable size considering the growth in the local population. Also, there is need for incentives to motivate the locales and empower them into investing in other ventures rather than depending on the proceeds from forest resource exploitation in the reserve.

Keywords: Conservation, Forest resources, Gele-gele reserve, Population pressure, Resource depletion

Population Pressure and Forest Resources Depletion in Gele -Gele Forest Reserve of Edo State, Nigeria. (Published)

The history of Man’s dependence on natural forest resources for survival is as old as the origin of man. Thus since ages, man has exploited forest resources for food, shelter and as a means of survival. Unwanton exploitation of forest resources has led to decimation of biodiversity and loss of their values in the survival of mankind. Against this background forest reserves are created as a strategy for conserving biodiversity from net loss. These reserves are ideally protected against unauthorized access. However, with the growing human population and the challenge of providing food for the teeming population reserved areas are being encroached. There seems to have been depletion of the forest resource stock in the Gele-Gele forest reserve in Edo state, Nigeria. Thus, this paper set as its objectives, to assess the impact of population pressure on the forest stock of Gele-Gele reserve. With a Focus on five communities that the forest reserve cuts across, both primary and secondary data were derived and analysed using simple descriptive statistics. The results of the analyses show that there is a steady growth on the population of the communities around the reserve at. Result of the analysis shows that the Gele-Gele forest reserve is rich in biodiversity and biological resources and people derive a lot of livelihood opportunities from the reserve. The authors also found out that there is rapid decline and depletion of the forest stock in the reserve as a result of over dependence on the forest resources in the reserve owing to growing human population. The result also shows that aside from population pressure, lack of indigenous people’s participation in the conservation strategy has contributed to poaching and a major factor to depletion of the forest stock. The people feel alienated from the conservation efforts as such develop apathy towards the reserve. Thus it is recommended that the local people be properly integrated from the planning stage of any conservation activity as the forest reserve. There is need for government to call for stakeholders’ forum in the affected reserve area where all will be free to air out their opinions on ways to enhance the protection of the forest reserve. Government should possibly reduce the size of the reserve to a reasonably manageable size considering the growth in the local population. Also, there is need for incentives to motivate the locales and empower them into investing in other ventures rather than depending on the proceeds from forest resource exploitation in the reserve.

Keywords: Conservation, Forest resources, Gele-gele reserve, Population pressure, Resource depletion

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