Ethnography of Communication is a novel approach that relates language with the cultural norms, values and the speaking rules that are specific to a particular speech community. Duranti (1997)1 defines Ethnography as follows:” Ethnography is the written description of the social organization, social activities, symbolic and material resources, and interpretive practices characteristic of a particular group of people”. A number of scholars including Dell Hymes (1962)2 Sherzer (1983)3, Hill and Hill (1986)4 and Saville-Troike (2003)5 worked in the framework of ethnography of communication. Though the studies made by all ethnographers generally focus on the spoken language in a community, it is possible to extend the above frameworks to the analysis of short stories in view of the fact that many short stories are not merely narratives from a third person point of view but involve dialogues between characters. Often the speech patterns, expressions, motivations and the logical deductions they make are in conformity with the particular society they belong to. In particular, the SPEAKING Model evolved by Dell Hymes (1974)6 is found to be highly adaptable to the analysis of short stories.
Assessing Employees’ Perception of Conflict Management (Causes, Effects) an Empirical Study at Employees’ Working on Malathik for Real Estate Development and Installments Company (Published)
The concept of conflict has been treated as a general social phenomenon, with implications for the understanding of conflict within and between organizations. (Mike Amuhaya Iravo 2011). Employee conflict in the workplace is a common occurrence, resulting from the differences in employees’ personalities and values. Dealing with employee conflict in a timely manner is important to maintaining a healthy work environment. There are different causes and effects of conflicts has been investigated by academic researchers from 1978 till now, however still no agreement between researchers for causes and effects of conflicts. The purpose of this study is to assess employees’ perception of conflict management (Causes, Effects) for employees’ working on Malathik for real estate development and Installments Company. The research design was a descriptive survey. This design was adopted because it is most appropriate and helpful in determining and describing the perception of respondents on the variables studied (Gay, 1992; Newman, 2003). The target population comprised employees who had worked at Malathik for real estate development and Installments Company. The researcher designed and distributed (40 ) questionnaire forms and excluded (11) forms due to the lack of information which means overall sample is (29) employee . The data for the study was collected between September and November 2016. The data collected were edited, coded and processed with the Statistical Package for Science Solutions (SPSS), and discussed in narrative style for clarity and better understanding. Pearson correlation coefficient value was significant at the (0.05) level in dimension one (causes of conflict) and dimension two (effects of conflict) which reflect high validity for data to be used for analysis. Also alpha coefficient greater than the minimum acceptable 60% which was 69%, indicating a high reliability. The SPSS results for causes of conflict indicated that employee’s strongly agree about cause of conflict in their company come from ego problems and salaries & wages .The results also indicated that total mean of question number 2 is (2.34) which reflect that employees did not agree about poor organizational structure at Malathik Company while the total mean for question number three is 2.83 which reflect neutral answer. The SPSS results for effects of conflict indicated that employee’s agree about effect of conflict lead to low morale, low quality and lack of direction .The results also indicated that total mean of question number 8 is (2.34) which reflect that employees did not agree about low productivity at Malathik Company while the total mean for question number ten is 2.90 which reflect neutral answer. Finally, Based on research results and literature review, researcher has developed guidelines to avoid conflict not only suitable for Malathik Company but also can be applied in any organizations.
Aboriginal People and Canadian Federation- From the Perspective of Diversity Accommodation: Review (Published)
Following the European colonizer arrived at and invades Canada, the Aboriginal people-who are considered as the natives, have been oppressed for many centuries. Their land was taken by the settlers and their economy become too sluggish and subsistence; they were marginalized in the social, economic, cultural and political arenas. This paper is aimed to assess the root causes of conflict between the aboriginals and settlers and to identify measures taken by the government to address the problems. We used intensive secondary data through reviewing different books and international journals. Lose of land ownership, deterioration of health and economic development, worst assimilation of Aboriginal People to the main stream culture, Political marginalization such under representation of them under government office, Economic exploitation of Aboriginal People are some of the real causes of conflict between Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal People. Besides, they are not also allowed to run their own business activities, exercise their cultural ways of life, improve and develop their culture and traditions. Federalism, multiculturalism, empowering Supreme Court and the constitution act of 1982 were of the institutional arrangement recognized typically to deal with the existing real conflict and to accommodate diversity. Some of possible measures taken by the government are- the recognition of the right to land title; the right to self-government on their internal matters, to develop their culture, language and identities. It also allowed to develop laws like laws on customary marriage for their people though subject to the approval of the minister responsible for their affairs have also been recognized to exercise.
The focal point of this study is managing channel conflict for enhanced organizational performance. It is a survey research and the main instrument of data collection was the questionnaire. Out of three hundred and forty five questionnaires administered, 86% or three hundred were retrieved and used in the analysis. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was strictly used in the analysis. The Pearson product moment correlation analysis was used to test the various hypotheses earlier formulated. The study found that conflict affects the performance of the channel members negatively. There is inverse relationship between conflict and profitability. As a result of these findings, it was recommended, amongst others, that conflict in all its ramifications be minimized so as not to distract channel members from performing optimally
Leadership Conflicts among Students on Nigerian University Campuses: The Experience of the University of Calabar, Calabar- Nigeria. (Published)
This study examined the factors that give rise to conflicts among students in their pursuit of leadership on the campus of the University of Calabar (UNICAL). Descriptive survey design was used and through stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques, a sample size of 250 was derived. Two research questions were raised and a questionnaire tagged, Student Leadership Conflict Scale (SLCS) formed the data collection instrument. Accruing data was analysed using frequencies and percentages. Results indicated (i) high level of conflict among students arising from their pursuit of leadership (ii) financial rewards and other benefits attached to leadership positions as the main motivators of the conflicts experienced. To this end, it was recommended that allowances and other benefits of student leaders be reduced drastically to make it less lucrative and attractive to the greedy grabbing ones among the students.
Counselling Implications of Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State (Published)
The study investigated the counselling implications of conflict and conflict resolution in secondary schools in Ebonyi State. Specifically the study assessed the extent to which school principals adopt dialogue, arbitration, third party and sanction in conflict resolution in their schools. The population for this study consisted of all the principals of public Secondary Schools numbering one hundred and fourty-seven (147), and the entire population was used. Four research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. The instrument for data collection was a four point modified likert-type questionnaire – conflict resolution assessment scale (CRAS), while the data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and t-test for the hypothesis. The findings showed that while sanction was used to a great extent, dialogue, arbitration and third party were used to a low extent. Again, gender of principals does not significantly influence the type of conflict resolution method used. The counselling implications of the findings were outlined including: the fact that people have problems which should not be taken for granted or sub-summed in their conflict. Recommendations were also made for example that Government officials who relate with the school authority should also be involved in dialogue, arbitration and third party methods of conflict resolution instead of just using sanction as the only option.
This study is based on Ethical conflicts: The Implication for the Realization of Firms objectives. Ethical conflicts occur when individuals are confronted with a clash between general belief systems about justice and morality as it affects their own personal circumstances. Ethical conflict is a process idea that cannot be eradicated in any organization. It is a process which constantly influences managers, subordinates, social life and growth of any organizations. Ethics goes beyond just making profit and economic development; it includes personal interest and systematic value integration. Ethics is concerned with individuals; manager therefore plans according to what he believes to be morally right. That means the company’s ethics may eventually be the norm and projection of the managers’ ethics, as a result, manager is faced with the challenge of aligning what he believed to be morally right to that of the believe of organization which he work. The objectives of this paper is to determine how ethical conflict influence the performance of firms negatively and ascertain the extent to which standard ethical behavior facilitate achievement of firms objectives. This research engaged investigative and qualitative research methods as we did not test any model in a statistical sense. Data was gathered from numerous sources, including formal interviews, internal documents, and the internet. However, there is a strong reliance on interviews because rich insights and contextual information was sought from the key informants. The paper demonstrated that the effect of ethical conflict on the realization of firms’ objectives is unquantifiable as firms internal and external dealings are constrained. Members of the public would no longer have confidence and trusts in the firms as personal or corporate dealing with the firms are minimized if not completely eradicated. This is a potential threat to firm’s performance. The finding also reveals that standard ethical behavior has the capacity to facilitate achievement of firm’s objectives positively as the confidence of clients is guaranteed and internal and external dealing of the firms not constrained. Firms that fail to educate its members can only anticipate a bothersome future. In today’s controversial civilization, we must and should be aware of the substance of our Code of ethics and the organizations should educate it members about standard behavior expected of employees during training and orientation session for effective management of ethical conflicts. If the employee’s find it difficult to key into ethical standard of the firm and/or traverse the ethical boundaries, he/she should be shown a way out of the systems as the success or failure of any firm depends on her ability to initiate and as well sustain policies that will minimize if not completely eradicated conflicts arising from ethical issues in the organization. These will go a long way in sustaining the performance and growth of the organizations.
Rural-Urban Issues and Human Capacity Building in an Era of Globalization: The Third World Perspective (Published)
This study examined the nexus between rural-urban issues and Human Capacity Building. In today’s globalizing world, the issue of human capacity building is very imperative more than ever before. Any country desirous of being relevant in the contemporary world cannot afford to toy with the issue of human capacity building. The high level of competition in the world makes it very inevitable for countries particularly those of the third world to take the issue of Human capacity building seriously because they would lag behind in the scheme of things and would not have anything to offer both at the local and international arena. This situation has brought about a situation whereby countries have been in search of various ways of boosting the human capacity in their various countries. In this endeavour much emphasis is placed on rural –urban issues. It is against this backdrop that this study is embarked upon to interrogate the role of rural-urban issues in human capacity building. Rural-urban migration simply means the movement of people particularly those within the labour force from the rural areas to the urban areas in search of greener pastures. Most times these set of people move to the urban areas to discover there is little or nothing for them to do and in most cases rendered redundant. As they depart the rural areas, they get the rural areas depleted of human resource that could have exploited and tapped the natural resources that abound there. This scenario to a very large extent would negatively affect the country’s development. It is against this backdrop that this study is designed to look for ways of ensuring the building of the human capacity through policies that could bring about the reduction or halting of rural-urban migration. This study is qualitative in nature hence data for the study were sourced through secondary means. Conflict theory was used as a theoretical framework.
Conflict Management Approaches: A Tool for Productive Employee Performance in Business Organizations (A Study of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko Plant) (Published)
This paper is a critical analysis of conflict management approaches as a tool for productive performance in business organizations, a survey of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant. The study adopted simple empirical survey methods with a view of eliciting relevant data for analytical purpose so as to answer several questions and attain the objectives of the study. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were utilized in a bid to attain the necessary result. Five point likert rating scale questionnaire were used in obtaining the opinions and views from respondents (i.e Strongly agree, SA (5), Agree, A (4), Undecided, U (3), Disagree, D (2), Strongly Disagree, SD (1)). The sample size for the study is 269 derived from the population of 825 employee of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant. This was determined using Yaro-Yamane’s formulae. Bartlett’s test of Sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy, construct validity determination and Cronbach alpha for reliability determination was applied too. Multiple regression test was adopted for testing two formulated hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed that conflict management have positive impacts in enhancing productivity of employees of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant. Another finding reveals that strategies and techniques for management of conflict have significantly impacted on the performance of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant. The study recommended that the circumstance of conflict occurrence should be X-rayed, evaluated before deciding to adopt a suitable method, strategy and technique for conflict resolution and management. Secondly, the management of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant should ensure that causes and varying forces that may cause conflict in organization are checkmated to ensure organizational success. These causes may include; limited resources, overlapping authority, inadequate treatment, differences in perception, role conflict, leadership styles and diversity differences amongst others.
In every democracy the world over, political parties are seen as the instruments of democratic process. Hence, their relevance in establishing a stable democratic order cannot be overemphasized. But since the inception of the present democratic rule in Nigeria, political parties have failed to perform their fundamental responsibilities for a number of reasons which include fragile party relations, uncoordinated party system, inter and intra-party squabbles, among others. Notably, party crises have remained common features of politics in the country. But, like previous experiences where inter-party crises were the order of the day, the current democratic exercise has witnessed a predominance of intra-party conflicts, to the extent that the big parties including AD, ANPP, APGA and PDF have had and are still having their own fair share, the magnitude of which is based on the size and strength of the party. These crises had intensified unhealthy competition among the political parties and by implication, affected their functions. Exploring secondary data, this study examines the implications of inter and intra-party conflicts for democratic consolidation. While the thesis recognizes that effective political parties are essential for a nascent democracy, stable inter and intra party relations are sine qua non in consolidating democratic rule in Nigeria.
The Extent to Which the Lives of Women in Conflict Prone Areas Have Been Affected: A Case of West and North Pokot Sub Counties, Kenya (Published)
War affects women and men differently. Whenever there is a conflict, women and children are the most that are hard hit. This paper focuses on the extent to which women in West and North Pokot have been affected by conflicts. The study was carried out in Kanyarkwat location, Katikatmor sub-location and Kopulio location, Nakuyen sub location of West and North Pokot respectively. A survey research design was used, where questionnaires and interviews were the major data collection tools. Observation was used, to provide information and observe actual behavior of the respondents. The findings reveal that women are largely affected by conflicts reporting displacement, sicknesses due to lack of hygiene, losses of family members and property, poverty, lack of schools and lack of medical facilities as being prevalent. Women end up living in a state of hopelessness and helplessness because of conflict related issues. Peace building capacities should be advocated for, with women being fully involved. The government and other stake holders should look for ways of alleviating the illiteracy rate in such areas and create awareness on the importance of peace building campaigns
The study addresses the Jerusalem Municipality and the political conflict over Palestine during the British Mandate, 1918-1948. The Municipality has been established in 1863 during the Ottoman rule in order to provide services to the local residents. The first elections for the municipal council were held in 1908, which continued duties until the advent of the British occupation, 1917. The study mentions the shift from service provision objectives to political objectives, and how it became the scene of rivalry and conflict between the various Palestinian powers. This conflict led to split of the whole Palestinian nationalist movement, and diverted the Municipality from its original purposes, so it became a political platform for the opposition. Moreover, the British exploited this conflict to their favor and canceled the municipal elections, which have not been held until 1927. The British authorities inflamed the political dispute between parties of the Palestinian nationalist movement, thus making the Municipality the cause of the political conflict.
The Extent to Which the Lives of Women in Conflict Prone Areas Have Been Affected: A Case of West and North Pokot Sub Counties, Kenya (Published)
There is no doubt that war affects women and men differently. Whenever there has been conflict, women and children have been known to be the most that are hard hit. This paper is a focus to determine the extent to which the lives of women in West and North Pokot have been affected by conflicts. The study was carried out in Kanyarkwat location, Katikatmor sub-location and Kopulio location, Nakuyen sub location of West and North Pokot respectively. Participation involved a random sample of two hundred women from each of the two study locations. A survey research design was used employing questionnaires and interviews as major data collection tools. Observation was also used to provide information and aid in observing actual behavior of the respondents. The findings reveal that women are largely affected by conflicts reporting displacement, sicknesses due to lack of hygiene, losses of family members and property, poverty, lack of schools and lack of medical facilities as being prevalent. The women end up living in a state of hopelessness and helplessness because of conflict related issues. Peace building capacities should be advocated for with women being fully involved. The government and other stake holders should also look for ways of alleviating the illiteracy rate in such areas at the same time creating awareness on the importance of being involved in peace building campaigns
RURAL SECURITY AND SUSTAINED PEACEFUL MANAGEMENT OF INTRA AND INTER COMMUNITY CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA: CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE (Published)
The study is geared to investigate sources of intra, inter conflicts and management of security along with the role of religion in sustained crime free and peaceful society in Nigeria. The study showed that improper management of intra and inter conflict has pillaged human environment, fractured co-existence and became economic ruination of many people. The study adopted historical research method. The findings include problems of irredentism among communities, local governments, states, nation and internationals. And that issues bordering on faith, belief and practices generate unity and group sentiment as such becomes volatile. Unemployment is both potential and active source of intra and inter-community conflict in Nigeria. The study also underscored that leakage of information on crime and criminality marred security and peaceful management of communities in conflict in Nigeria. The study stressed that sustained crime free and peaceful society borders on concerted efforts of leaders in governance, churches, law enforcement agencies and the general public along with fair-play, equitable distribution of infrastructure and employment opportunities as well as appointive positions along with citing of projects to various segments in Nigerian society.
CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION IN NASARAWA STATE: THE ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR) OPTION (Published)
The concept of conflict is not novel in scholarship, as we live in a society that constantly faces disputing circumstances. However, different approaches to a problem determine the strength of the drive of its resolution. In the midst of varying ethnicities in Nasarawa state, there has always been intra and inter-ethnic clashes among the people. Since conflict most times begins with local agitation, the urgency of non-conventional method is preferred in certain situations. In the final analysis, we aver that channeling of conflict through transformation will guarantee a positive reordering of the state
INTERROGATING THE INVOLVEMENT OF NATIVE GODS IN CONTEMPORARY AFRICAN CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (Published)
Africa is witnessing increasing incidences of direct violence and demonstrated inability of governments to restore enduring peace largely through Western models of conflict resolution that necessitated the interrogation of traditional models with emphasis on the involvement of native gods. The study was descriptive and qualitative that relied on secondary data sources. It found that the Traditional models provided for a Win-Win arrangement relied on collective wisdom of the society while the involvement of native gods compelled compliance with resolution terms for fear of non-compliance. It found that governments largely failed to remain neutral in managing conflicts. Specific cases of successful interventions of native god were the final resolution of Aguleri-Umuleri, Umunebo- Umuokuzu and Okrika conflicts in Nigeria. The study concluded that the relevance of native gods is largely limited to intra-ethnic conflicts while it has been perverted by political elites. The study recommended that governments must pay attention to early warning signal to minimize direct violence and develop strong political will to confront the issues of conflict. Finally, the traditional models concerning the intervention of native gods could be combined with Western models where practicable as it cannot stand alone.
THE PALESTINIAN DILEMMA “PART FOUR”: COEXISTING……HATRED…..SEPARATING…..EXPULSION…..APARTHEID; INCREDIBLE STORY IN THE PALESTINIAN-ISRAELI CONFLICT 1914-49 (Published)
This study deals with the Psycho-Political relationship between the Abrahamic cousins, namely Jews and Arabs, from the end of the Ottoman period until 1949. The absent of socio-political wisdom or rational decisions led to the “incredible story” of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict 1914-49. However this paper aims to investigate the separatism attitude in the Palestinian-Israeli mentality: “culture” or “reaction”?, the principles of peaceful coexistence and religion role in peace-building between humans, the co-existence, co-operation and trust between Palestinians and Jews from Ottoman empire till establishing of Israel, the road for hatred and war between Israelis and Palestinians, and the British, Israeli and Palestinian target till the 1948 war; “peaceful coexistence” or “apartheid”? Finally, this paper concludes that the conflict between the Palestinian and Israelis has classified and marked by unsteady cases. The start point between them was coexisted (partially peacefully with some fears), after that turned into hatred (because of various extremist and bloody actions), after that both of them preferred the separatism attitude. Then it followed by the war between them and expulsion policy from the land by the hand of one of them toward the other side, to become finally apartheid (by separation wall) between both forever.
POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO PEACE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN NORTHERN NIGERIA (Published)
The study analyses the Poverty Alleviation Programmes as an alternative to Peace and Conflict Resolution in Northern Nigeria; it links the frequency of Conflicts (insecurity) in the region the incidence of absolute and abject poverty. The study predominantly utilized secondary data. In the final analyses, it is shown that conflicts in the region are traceable to poverty. The study concludes that, peace, stability and security is the foundation for achieving the socio-economic development; therefore, preventing conflict, resolving conflict and for peace to be built, poverty has to be alleviated or eradicate the poverty tension that breeds ground for conflict, which requires a genuine commitment for poverty alleviation programmes and involvement of constituents people at every level–design, implementation and monitoring of poverty reduction programs
After over 54 years of the discovery of oil and gas in over 500 communities in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, the people are still “poor, neglected, under-developed and backward” resulting from suffocation occasioned by the Nigerian State, and the hazards and conflicts associated with oil and gas exploration / exploitation. This was followed closely by the prolonged, unfruitful peaceful negotiations that the people, spearheaded by the youths, have in recent times resorted to violent disruption of oil installations, kidnapping, hostage-taking and militia activities in the region. This paper is focused on the appraisal of the efforts of the Federal Government’s interventionist Agencies over the years with specific emphasis on the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) between 2001 and 2010. This appraisal is imperative since the mandate of NDDC is to “resolve conflict and build peace” thereby restoring the confidence of the people in the region. It is the conviction of the author therefore that, the paper is significant in several respects and the findings and recommendations will to a significant extent forestall the looming war which in turn will guarantee peace and sustainable Community Development in the region.