Tag Archives: confirmatory factor analysis

Construction and Validation of a Five-Dimensional Celebrity Endorsement Scale: Introducing the Pater Model (Published)

Research has shown that the use of celebrity endorsers brings many positive effects including a positive brand attitude, building brand awareness, creating positive feelings towards the ad and increased purchase intention for the brand. However, the process of choosing the right celebrity for the brand is not easy. It is important for the companies to choose an effective celebrity as their brand ambassador. The purpose of the present study is to construct and validate a scale that the marketing managers can use to select an effective celebrity endorser for their products/brands. Through a survey of 692 respondents in India who are exposed to celebrity endorsements for various products/brands, a five-dimensional scale measuring various attributes of a celebrity endorser is revealed through exploratory factor analysis. The scale is empirically tested for unidimensionality, reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity, using confirmatory factor analysis. The resultant validated instrument comprises of five dimensions of celebrity endorsers including attractiveness, trustworthiness, expertise, popularity and relevance. Thus, the present study presents a new model – PATER model of celebrity endorsements, defining the important attributes that should be considered in making a choice of the celebrity endorser.

Keywords: Celebrity, Exploratory Factor Analysis, PATER model., celebrity endorsement scale, celebrity endorsements, confirmatory factor analysis

An Evaluation of Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scale in a Persian Sample (Published)

This paper examines the construct validity and reliability of the Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWBS) according to the Persian culture and language. Participants (N=577) from a population study of university students were chosen. Confirmatory factor analysis using AMOS software was performed in two steps. In step one, 18 models derived from 3-, 9-, and 14-item forms that emphasized gender differences in addition to first and second order constructs were compared. In step two, the 9-and 14-item forms were compared aiming modification. In step one only the 3-item form achieved reasonable indices. Allowing for gender differences did not result in a model fit in the 9-and 14-item forms.  To achieve a model fit with additional items, in step two, models that used the 9- and 14-item forms with a second order factor structure regardless of gender differences was performed for modification. This modification allowed for greater potential for comparison with other models in order to achieve good indices. The results in step two indicated that after deleting of some items from the two models, the 14-item model showed better construct validity and reliability compared to the model based on the 9-item form in the Persian culture.

Keywords: Measurement, Persian sample, Psychological well-being, confirmatory factor analysis

Impact of Celebrity Endorsements on Consumers’ Ad Perception: A Study Of Indian Consumers (Published)

Numerous researches have proved empirically the effectiveness and the positive influence of celebrity endorsements in advertising. The present study attempts to find out the impact of celebrity endorsements on consumers’ ad perception through a survey of 336 respondents in India. The three-dimensional scale proposed by Roobina Ohanian (1990) has been used for the purpose. Thus, the present study considers three attributes of celebrity endorsements as suggested by Ohanian – attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise. The study also attempts to find out the individual impact of these dimensions on consumers’ ad perception. Exploratory factor analysis was used to reconfirm the factor structure. The model used was empirically tested for unidimensionality, reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity, using confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to find out the impact of celebrity endorsements on consumers’ ad perception. Results revealed that celebrity endorsements have a significant impact on consumers’ ad perception. Further, attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise, all were found to have a significant impact on ad perception.

Keywords: Ad Perception, Celebrity, Endorser, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Modeling, confirmatory factor analysis


The objective of this paper is to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of the human resources training function at one of the telecommunication companies in Jordan “Orange Jordan”. The target population for this study is 140 unit managers and their assistants at Orange Jordan. A total of 105 unit managers participated in the completion of questionnaires. Data analysis was done by factor analysis; explanatory and confirmatory data modeling and Cronbach’s alpha-values and practical significance by means of effect sizes. The findings of the study stipulate that the primary function of training department today is to ensure the implementation of the standards of effectiveness and efficiency to accomplish an organization’s goals and objectives. Using Training as a competitive advantage means analyzing the factors necessary for the organization’s long-term success. Areas such as training design, training processes, training policies, effective trainer, training strategies, training goals and objectives are essential to this concept. In order to formulate appropriate competitive advantage through the effectiveness and efficiency of the training function, it is first recommended to analyze the firm’s strategic needs. The training department should create a complete model of training function and a more coherent attempt must be made to improve the level of internal communication between the unit managers and their employees. This would create an environment within Orange Jordan that can promote mutual respect, trust and concern between management and employees.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Efficiency, Induction, Training, confirmatory factor analysis

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