Another Look at Mapping the Territory: Seven Traditions in the Field of Communication Theory (Published)
Each passing day, we come across different signs, images, and symbols as well as impression flashing before our eyes. Different messages collide to prompt our own sense of reasoning. How we process and digest the diversity of information and understand the symbols of what each message means is something to be looked upon. There have been a lot of theories that has tried to explicate the nature of human communication and how human comprehend symbols as well as how it is applied in a given society or community, this is so because there are different, individualistic perception of a particular form of communication symbols and sign due to the complex nature of assimilating the meaning and application of communication. These have made different traditions of understanding, communication to be formed to better explain different concepts and viewpoint of communication. This paper reviews Robert Craig propounded model that encapsulates the field of communication into seven traditions. These are known as the semiotic, the phenomenological, the cybernetic, the socio-psychological, the socio-cultural, the critical, and the rhetorical traditions”. Thus, each of this tradition, captures a different aspect or specialized area of communication and knowing each one gives new and sometimes conflicting viewpoints on why we relate and comprehend the information we absorb on a daily basis.
The Impact of Using Computers on Enhancing EFL Writing Quality: A Case Study of Muheydeen Wahbe Secondary School for Girls – Sudan (Published)
This study investigated the impact of using computers on enhancing EFL writing and learners’ attitudes towards using computers to compose in EFL classrooms. A set of writing tests (two pen-paper based compositions and tow computer-based ones) were administered to thirty pupils from Muheydeen Wahbe Secondary School for Girls to investigate the impact of using computers on enhancing EFL writing quality. The participants also responded to a questionnaire that investigated the use of computers in EFL writing classrooms. The data of the study were analyzed using SPSS. The findings have shown that the participants made use of the facilities provided by the computer; their computer-based writings were significantly better compared to their pen-paper ones in all the aspects of writing such as organization, language use, mechanics and length, except the content. The results have also revealed that the students were highly motivated when computers were used. Given the positive results of the study, it has been recommended that the use of computers in EFL writing classes should be encouraged and that English language teachers should be trained on using computers and technology in EFL classrooms, particularly, in writing classes.
Improving Learning And Teaching English In Implementing The 2013 English Curriculum At Junior Secondary School (A Case Study At The Public Junior Secondary School 3 Babelan District Bekasi West Java, Indonesia) (Published)
English as one of international communication has been formally taught from the first year of Junior Secondary School (JSS) to university. However, most of JSS students or even Senior Secondary School (SSS) are not able to communicate in English. One of the causes is that the lack of teacher’s proficiency, creativity, innovation, teaching methodology, and little capability to create joyful teaching and learning. This research aims to find out an appropriate approach, method, and technique to improve teaching and learning English in implementing the 2013 English curriculum at JSS. Questionnaire, observation, and interviews were used to get information from purposive respondents of the first year students and teachers. The research reveals that most of the students are not able to speak, read, and write English properly as given in the minimum standard of the needed competence in the 2013 curriculum and the integrated English skill is one of the useful techniques to improve teachers’ English proficiency and their teaching methodology. Teachers are suggested to enhance their teaching strategies to improve students’ skills.
Roles of Communication in Community Development (Published)
The focus of the paper is on the roles of communication in community development. The paper highlighted the roles of communication in community development to include conscientation of members of participating communities, provision of relevant information, provision of opportunities for dialogue and discussion and provision of opportunities for sharing of information and ideas that will facilitate effective service delivery in community development. Based on the issues discussed, the paper recommended the followings: (1) Communication should be explored appropriately to reach various segments of the participating communities in community development (2) Dialogue and discussion in communication with relevant stake holders should be explored extensively in promoting meaningful community development. (3) There should be regular communication with community leadership in the participating communities. (4) There should equally be regular communication with the various segments and community based organizations (CBOs) to elicit collective action and participatory involvement of members of the participating communities in promoting sustainable people-oriented community development projects.
The study determined the relationship between effective communication and employee performance. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and the total population of the study were 142 respondents. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the participants. Data gathered were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The result of the analysis revealed that there was significant relationship between effective communication and employee performance. It was therefore concluded that organizations should endeavour to make effective communication an essential strategy in achieving high employee performance.
Contributions of Various Kenyan Personalities in Communicating Change For Transformative Community (Published)
In spite of relatively stable governance and a hard working population, Kenya is rated among the countries with wide income disparities. Extreme and chronic poverty has not been eliminated even after fifty years of development efforts, that is, since the country gained its independence in 1963. In mitigating the adverse effects of these inequalities, communication is considered an essential tool for transformation through which essential thoughts in the minds of the people aimed at transformation are nurtured and shared. The purpose of this study was to identify the contributions made by various Kenyan personalities whose life experiences are shared in this paper, in communication change for a transformative society. The study displays how the select Kenyans engaged with the people and got them involved in transforming their community. A qualitative research design was adopted to select ten Kenyans to share their life experiences through in-depth interviews that were used by the author to gather data. Data analysis focused on the participants’ narratives on the aspect of their personal contributions and how they got the community working towards sustainable change. The study also recommends development of an African Communication Theory on what motivates communicative acts that lead to societal transformation.
Agricultural Extension Services Using a Participatory Approach in Vegetable Growing Areas in Suriname (Published)
Extension Officers from the Agricultural Extension Service in Suriname, charged with communication, face difficulties in transferring information to farmers. Therefore, a mixed method study was carried out to explore possibilities to improve communication strategies and to facilitate the introduction of novelties and good practices. From August 1, 2016-February 15, 2017 388 small-scale vegetable farmers participated in a survey gauging their knowledge and practices. In addition, a participatory farmers’ experiment was conducted with 15 farmers to convey information about the application of Biochar, an innovative soil-improving compound. Results revealed that extension officers lack relevant specific agricultural knowledge. Important information on sustainable agriculture did not reach most farmers, although the participatory approach provided the means for information exchange and allowed conveying the needed information. The experiment showed that practical sessions on a regular basis with bi-directional information interchange with farmers as conducted in this research can be an effective method to introduce novelties and good practices.
Social and Behaviour Change Communication (SBCC) Approaches And Community Policing in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
The study is premised on “Social and Behaviour Change Communication Approaches and Community Policing in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State”. It examines the awareness level of the concept of community policing and how it can be sustainably entrenched and effective, using a community-grounded communication approach. The study adopted the survey method as the research design while the data were gathered using the questionnaire. The population of study includes; CRUTECH residents, Police, Vigilante members and CRUTECH private security who are all stakeholders on security matters in CRUTECH. The purposive sampling method was adopted to select respondents from within the residential area while the Social Exchange Theory and Community Organization Model were used to theoretically underpin the concept of community policing in a social and behavior change communication perspective. The findings showed that, the awareness level of community policing among CRUTECH residents was moderate, hence, the isolation experienced between the parties. The study concluded that, for a result-oriented, cohesive relationship between the Police and the community, the government, Police, and Community Vigilant groups should adopt a conceptual umbrella to integrate their different message efforts that enable them share information for collective goals.
Communication Flow Patterns and Institutional Harmony in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria (Published)
This study assessed the role of communication flow in creating industrial harmony in tertiary educational institutions in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The research method used for data collection was opinion survey. Personal interviews were conducted with the management and union leaders in the institutions. Purposive and systematic sampling procedures were used for selecting samples for the study. The data collected from personal interviews were analyzed qualitatively using explanation building based on the research question. The data from the questionnaire were analyzed in simple percentages and the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The major findings were: the prevalent communication flow patterns in the tertiary educational institutions in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria are formal and informal. The communication flow patterns are characterized by vertical downward, upward and horizontal flow patterns. Vertical downward flow dominates. Between 65% to 70% of respondents in the three tertiary institutions perceived that communication flow patterns are inadequate to guarantee institutional harmony in the tertiary institutions. The hypotheses tested show that effective communication flow patterns influence institutional harmony positively. It was recommended that communication audit should be carried periodically followed by communication training to maintain effective communication flow. Furthermore, the management of these institutions should encourage their employees to participate effectively in decision making
Cartoon Application in Communication and Social Mobilization in Nigeria’s Bring Back Our Girls: The Way Forward (Published)
There is no doubt that art is an effective way to communicate messages. Pictures and cartoons cover for a shortfall of issues which cannot be wholly captured in words. The visual nature of cartoons gives it the ability to evoke emotions and cause people to act and react in a certain manner. The concern of this work is to investigate the potency of the cartoons used in the Bring Back Our Girls campaign, between May 2014 and January 2015. The study adopts the pragmatic theory as a framework. Using content analysis the study collated and analysed cartoons published on local and international websites on BBOG campaign, to gain accurate insight, 126 respondents from Calabar Municipality graded all 35 cartoons on their social mobilization content. Analysis of the data revealed active cartoon publications on the campaign, also a larger percent of the respondents indicated that the cartoons were potent for social mobilization. The paper recommends that in regard to the effectiveness of cartoons in communication, more NGOs, Governments and the active public should employ cartoons as a means of commenting on the challenges bedevilling the society
Communication as a Tool for Administration in Organizations: A Case Study of the Nigerian Bottling Company Plc (NBC), Abuja (Published)
Every activity in an organization requires human beings to interact, exchange information and co-ordinate other peoples’ efforts. Such information becomes the basis for decisions affecting product lines, operation planning, marketing strategy, etc. Thus, almost everything managers do to facilitate the attainment of organizational objectives which requires effective communication and without the means and capacity to communicate, every activity will not reach its maximum. The aim of this research project is to examine the effects of effective communication to organizational performance and to ascertain if organization environment affect communication. With this in mind, this research study focused on communication as an indispensable tool for organizational growth and development. To achieve this objective, they researchers developed and administered a questionnaire on sixty (60) employees of five department in Nigerian Bottling Company, Abuja for primary data collections. The primary data collected were analyzed using frequency counts and simple percentage on tables as well as secondary data collected were together analyzed and interpreted and presented for result interpretations. Among the findings were that significant relationship exists between effective communication, organizational operations and co-ordination of the various activities of people in order to achieve the objectives of an organization. The study concluded that effective organizational communication is necessary for managers and all members of an organization to increase efficiency, quality and innovation and gain competitive advantage. Based on the research findings, the researcher was able to identify some of the barriers to effective communication the researcher hereby hence the researcher further recommended the following measures for consideration by the appropriate authorities for necessary changes for efficient and effective organizational performance such as followings: The management staff should be sent on training in the area of communication for them to be aware of the effect of communication as well as the organizational system of communication should be studied in order to have a well-defined communication system.
Communication Audit of Cable News Network (Cnn) Online Reports on Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria (2012-2016) (Published)
Previous studies on conflict reportage in Nigeria had accused Western media of inclinations for feeding the people with inaccurate and contradictory reports. This study was predicated on the need to investigate the patterns and trends of the Cable News Network (CNN’s) online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria over a period of five years, 2012-2016. The study adopted the content analysis method of research and conducted a census of 58 online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria as obtained from Cable News Network website (http://edition.cnn.com/text=boko+haram). While direction of reports, sources of report, prominence, balance and report genre provided content categories for the study, the Cronbach Alpha test was adopted for inter-coder reliability. The study found high prominence on CNN’s online reports of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. There was high level imbalance in CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The study found low level of objectivity in CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. It was also established that CNN made use of only one source of information in her reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The study found out that the straight news genre dominated CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. Finally, the study showed that CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria did conform to the allegation of information distortion leveled against Western Media. The researchers then recommended diversification of information sources, combination of report genres and fortification of conflict reporters as measures that would enhance accuracy, objectivity and fairness in conflict reportage.
Ethnography of Communication is a novel approach that relates language with the cultural norms, values and the speaking rules that are specific to a particular speech community. Duranti (1997)1 defines Ethnography as follows:” Ethnography is the written description of the social organization, social activities, symbolic and material resources, and interpretive practices characteristic of a particular group of people”. A number of scholars including Dell Hymes (1962)2 Sherzer (1983)3, Hill and Hill (1986)4 and Saville-Troike (2003)5 worked in the framework of ethnography of communication. Though the studies made by all ethnographers generally focus on the spoken language in a community, it is possible to extend the above frameworks to the analysis of short stories in view of the fact that many short stories are not merely narratives from a third person point of view but involve dialogues between characters. Often the speech patterns, expressions, motivations and the logical deductions they make are in conformity with the particular society they belong to. In particular, the SPEAKING Model evolved by Dell Hymes (1974)6 is found to be highly adaptable to the analysis of short stories.
The term ‘sign’ as used in this work, in relation to road architecture, refers to the nonlinguistic symbols used as linguistic landscape to communicate intended information in form of instructions, warnings, directions, etc. to road users. The study of signs in semiotics is all encompassing, involving the inference of meaning from signs and symbols using interpersonal, cultural, contextual and personal experience. Semiotics’ preoccupation is the study of all that can be taken as sign. It is noted that in spite of the use of the road signs in the Nigerian cities and suburbs, many road mishap are still being recorded. This study, guided by semiotics principles, and using gestalt theory of visual perception, examines the communicative effectiveness of road signs in Nigeria, using Akure metropolis as case study. Thus, the paper examines the effectiveness of road signs as linguistic landscape (information agent) for road users in Nigeria using the Akure metropolis in Ondo State as the case study. Through a survey research method, the study, interviewed 260 respondents who were mainly made up of: commercial drivers, private drivers and pedestrians in order to obtain their opinions, attitudes, feelings and dispositions towards road signs as linguistic landscape. The study reveals that most road accidents were due to the flagrant disobedience of the road and traffic signs by the motorists and pedestrians. The incessant road mishap calls for serious questions on the effectiveness of the road signs as a vehicle of information dissemination to road users.
With the diffusion of social network sites and applications, social media have become one of the most popular Internet (communication) services. Most of the information exchange that occurs on these social networking sites is not only personal information or entertainment, but also new ways to stimulate citizen engagement in politics because of the fast flowing of videos and news reports. They are incorporating more political issues and public affairs into these social media platforms. The ‘Umbrella Movement’, which triggered global attention, is a typical case that illustrates the importance of social media in the social movement. During the entire 2014 campaign, social media and social media platforms played a key role in providing students a new way to obtain immediate information from different perspectives and allowing some student leaders to announce strategies or directions to other students or participants in the movement. In an era when students’ time and attention are increasingly directed towards social media and social media platforms such as Facebook and YouTube, these platforms allow students to obtain political information without needing the intermediate role of mass media. Reactions, feedback and conversations generated online are stimulating and facilitate social participation.
A Perspective on the Co-Involvement of the Provider and the Recipient in the “Production” of Educational Services (Published)
The way in which the recipient of goods or services can be determined to engage in the production activity (which includes different stages such as design, production, delivery and advertising) is one of the points of interest for marketing researchers. The present study analyses the favourable conditions for this to happen, taking into account factors such as physical and emotional presence, communication or enthusiastic connection to the objectives proposed jointly by the provider and the recipient. The research consists of applying a questionnaire to the educational services sector. Constructs are analysed in terms of their reliability and validity before using linear regression to estimate how the variables are connected one to other. The results indicate that, among the indicators with which co-involvement has significant correlations, the indicator Didactic methods used in the classes influence the teacher-student communication remains significant, therefore it has an explanatory character. The involvement of the provider and the recipient in achieving the same objectives is, in the end, co-involvement, i.e. the pursuit of performance by achieving the proposed objectives. The analysis of the results shows that, by his behaviour, the provider influences the recipient’s decision to get involved or not in co-production.
Improving Teaching of English Language through ICT for National Curriculum Consciousness: Limitations of Teachers in Nigeria (Published)
In Nigeria today, almost all human endeavours have imbibed the culture of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to boost the process of activities, but education sector is yet to optimally utilize the multidimensional opportunities inherent in computer use in pedagogy as it is done mostly in the western world. This review has identified the use of computer by developing software to teach English language contents. Teachers’ motivation has also been located as one of the indices that can improve teachers’ utilization of ICT facilities to achieve the pedagogical goals. Lack of existing localised programme and software plus dearth of computer in Schools, coupled with insufficient knowledge of computer use among practitioners have been identified as limiting factors to the use of ICT by Teachers. It is recommended that the training and retraining of teachers on ICT is very pertinent in achieving optimal goal of ICT utilization among teachers in Nigerian Schools.
African Union and Conflict Management in Africa: The Role of Communication in the Effectiveness of Future Interventions (Published)
As a continent with all kinds of existing and emerging conflicts, Africa needs to invest hugely in conflict prevention, resolution and management in order to move towards the desired goal of integration, political stability and economic growth. Without peace and stability, it is impossible for development to occur. Since the end of colonial rule, the retrogression of many African countries has been traced to conflicts and the failure of extant resolution mechanisms to address the root causes of discontent, injustice and socio-political exclusion. The fact that conflicts now assume transnational and international dimensions has elevated the need for greater collaboration and cooperation among countries in conflict management, especially through the platforms provided by international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and the African Union (AU). The African Union has been particularly instrumental not only in the identification, resolution and management of intrastate and cross-national conflicts in Africa, but also in the provision of a framework for multilayer co-operation, partnership and integration between governments and multinational actors across the continent. This paper is an attempt to evaluate the performance of the AU in the management of conflicts across the continent. To this end, the interventions of the AU in the conflicts in Burundi and Sudan were used as case studies. Specifically, this paper is of the opinion that indigenous conflict management techniques built upon traditional communication systems should be incorporated in a new approach to conflict management, if the African Union is desirous of impacting meaningfully on regional peace and security.
Language of oral is always important role in the politics and journalism foreign is used to describe people, jobs and activities to countries that are not the country of the person or government concerned process of learning. Oral proficiency in something that you show ability or skill at it are also a basic role in the language of foreign. The strategy of communication is important to oral ability. This study focus the students to communicate with each other using the target or result that you are trying to achieve in the classroom. This research focus the advantage of Direct Method to give instruction how to communicate in the language of target.
Somatic Countertransference Experiences Of Nurse Therapeutic Touch Practitioners: A Content Analysis. Part 1: Body (Published)
This qualitative study describes somatic countertransference (SCT) experiences of nurse Therapeutic Touch practitioners. Defined by Orbach and Carroll (2006), SCT is “the therapist’s awareness of their own body, of sensations, images, impulses, and feelings that offer a link to the client’s healing process” (p. 64). Use of purposeful sampling recruited eight experts. Audiotaped sixty-minute face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide with six open-ended questions. Sandelowski’s (2010) preferred method of latent content analysis produced codes and subcategories grounded exclusively in the saturated data (Krippendorff, 2004). Ten subcategories and three categories were inductively generated. Consensus on coding and data analysis led to the emergent theme, “A Language for Healing Trauma.” Consistent with social science communication research (Krippendorff, 1989), SCT was found to be a factor in the healing of trauma, experienced during the verbal and nonverbal communication of one group of nurse TT practitioners in interaction with traumatized clients.