Tag Archives: Chemical.

Quality Determinations Of Harvested Rainwater In Selected Storage Tanks in Owerri , South-Eastern Nigeria (Published)

Despite the  practice of domestic rainwater  harvesting (DRWH)for domestic purposes ,  little or no effort has been made toward   monitoring the quality of stored rainwater in  storage tanks in Owerri, Imo  tanks to ascertain their impacts on  domestic harvested rainwater quality (DHRWQ).  During the  study, samples of harvested rainwater were collected from  surface GP tank  from FECOLART and underground  concrete tank from private dwelling in Ubomiri  for physiochemical and bacteriological   compositions using standard methods . The results of the analyses were compared with water quality guidelines of World Health Organization (W.H.O) to evaluate its suitability for potable and domestic purposes. From the results, some of  physical parameters like  colour in surface tank without cover recorded 750 Pt/co, odour and taste objectionable, appearance greenish and turbidity 177 NTU all above the  World Health Organization (WHO) stipulated standards  for drinking water , with underground tank with cover lower than WHO standard. .  Results of the chemical compositions recorded that rainwater stored in both tanks  were slightly acidic with the mean of pH6.0, surface tank recorded iron with the value of 2.45mg/l-1, and manganese values in both tanks exceeded  the 0.10mg/l-1 World Health Organization (WHO) stipulated for drinking water. For bacteriological  analyses, except the underground tank the recorded zero total coliform (TC), surface and underground tanks recorded highest values of bacterial the exceeded the WHO standards stipulated for potable water. The results further explained that surface tank without cover was more polluted than underground tank with cover in terms  of physiochemical and microbiological  compositions. From the results, it is observed  that stored rainwater may not be suitable for direct drinking, without treatment, but could be used for other domestic purposes, which therefore called for rainwater treatment, maintenance and operational strategies(O&M). 

Keywords: Bacteriological Harvested Rainwater, Chemical., Physical, Storage tanks

Effect of Treatments on the Tannin Content and Quality Assessment of Cashew Apple Juice and the Kernel (Published)

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apple juice was processed using pasteurized apple (PA), pressure treated apple (PTA), gelatine treated apple (GTA), carbonate treated apple (CTA), salt treated apple (STA), hot water treated apple (HWTA) and unpasteurized apple (UPA) was used as the control sample. Cashew kernels were also processed using oil frying and oven drying techniques and the imported cashew kernel served as the control. The effect of these treatments and techniques on the physical, chemical, tannin and sensory properties were studied. The result of the juice samples showed pH range of 4.06 – 7.28 (HWTA and CTA), colour 3.08EBC – 7.50EBC (CTA and GTA), total solid 12.76 – 24.83% (PA and GTA), titratable acidity 0.03 – 1.97% (CTA and STA), crude protein 0.22 – 8.52% (STA, HWTA and GTA), ash 0.24 – 3.72% (STA and CTA), carbohydrate 6.17 – 8.62% (GTA and STA) and tannin 0.07 – 2.84mg/100ml (HWTA and PA), respectively. Hot water treatment significantly reduced the tannin content of the juice by 96.20%. HWTA juice was observed to maintain significantly high (p<0.05) sensory attributes of colour, taste, flavour, desirability and general acceptability (4.65, 4.21, 3.60, 4.27 and 4.73, respectively) and effectively reduced the astringency of the juice with the score of 2.53. Oil frying and oven drying techniques significantly did not affect all the chemical properties of the produced cashew kernel compare to the imported sample. The reduction of tannin in the cashew kernel was achieved using oil frying technique as regards to the imported sample by 0.1%. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in all the sensory attributes between the oil fried and imported cashew kernels. From the analysis, the reduction of tannin content in cashew apple juice and cashew kernel was achieved by immersing the apple in hot water before juice expression and by frying the kernels in hot oil before the remover of tasta, respectively and still maintain the physical, chemical and sensory properties of the products.

Keywords: Cashew Apple, Cashew Kernel, Chemical., Juice, Physical, Sensory Properties

Quality Determinations of Harvested Rainwater in Selected Storage Tanks in Owerri , South-Eastern Nigeria (Published)

Despite  the  practice of domestic rainwater  harvesting (DRWH)for domestic purposes ,  little or no effort has been made toward   monitoring the quality of stored rainwater in  storage tanks in Owerri, Imo  tanks to ascertain their impacts on  domestic harvested rainwater quality (DHRWQ).  During the  study, samples of harvested rainwater were collected from  surface GP tank  from FECOLART and underground  concrete tank from private dwelling in Ubomiri  for physiochemical and bacteriological   compositions using standard methods . The results of the analyses were compared with water quality guidelines of World Health Organization (W.H.O) to evaluate its suitability for potable and domestic purposes. From the results, some of  physical parameters like  colour in surface tank without cover recorded 750 Pt/co, odour and taste objectionable, appearance greenish and turbidity 177 NTU all above the  World Health Organization (WHO) stipulated standards  for drinking water , with underground tank with cover lower than WHO standard. .  Results of the chemical compositions recorded that rainwater stored in both tanks  were slightly acidic with the mean of pH6.0, surface tank recorded iron with the value of 2.45mg/l-1, and manganese values in both tanks exceeded  the 0.10mg/l-1 World Health Organization (WHO) stipulated for drinking water. For bacteriological  analyses, except the underground tank the recorded zero total coliform (TC), surface and underground tanks recorded highest values of bacterial the exceeded the WHO standards stipulated for potable water. The results further explained that surface tank without cover was more polluted than underground tank with cover in terms  of physiochemical and microbiological  compositions. From the results, it is observed  that stored rainwater may not be suitable for direct drinking, without treatment, but could be used for other domestic purposes, which therefore called for rainwater treatment, maintenance and operational strategies(O&M). 

 

Keywords: Bacteriological Harvested Rainwater, Chemical., Physical, Storage tanks

Effect of Treatments on the Tannin Content and Quality Assessment of Cashew Apple Juice and the Kernel (Published)

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apple juice was processed using pasteurized apple (PA), pressure treated apple (PTA), gelatine treated apple (GTA), carbonate treated apple (CTA), salt treated apple (STA), hot water treated apple (HWTA) and unpasteurized apple (UPA) was used as the control sample. Cashew kernels were also processed using oil frying and oven drying techniques and the imported cashew kernel served as the control. The effect of these treatments and techniques on the physical, chemical, tannin and sensory properties were studied. The result of the juice samples showed pH range of 4.06 – 7.28 (HWTA and CTA), colour 3.08EBC – 7.50EBC (CTA and GTA), total solid 12.76 – 24.83% (PA and GTA), titratable acidity 0.03 – 1.97% (CTA and STA), crude protein 0.22 – 8.52% (STA, HWTA and GTA), ash 0.24 – 3.72% (STA and CTA), carbohydrate 6.17 – 8.62% (GTA and STA) and tannin 0.07 – 2.84mg/100ml (HWTA and PA), respectively. Hot water treatment significantly reduced the tannin content of the juice by 96.20%. HWTA juice was observed to maintain significantly high (p<0.05) sensory attributes of colour, taste, flavour, desirability and general acceptability (4.65, 4.21, 3.60, 4.27 and 4.73, respectively) and effectively reduced the astringency of the juice with the score of 2.53. Oil frying and oven drying techniques significantly did not affect all the chemical properties of the produced cashew kernel compare to the imported sample. The reduction of tannin in the cashew kernel was achieved using oil frying technique as regards to the imported sample by 0.1%. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in all the sensory attributes between the oil fried and imported cashew kernels. From the analysis, the reduction of tannin content in cashew apple juice and cashew kernel was achieved by immersing the apple in hot water before juice expression and by frying the kernels in hot oil before the remover of tasta, respectively and still maintain the physical, chemical and sensory properties of the products.

Keywords: Cashew Apple, Cashew Kernel, Chemical., Juice, Physical, Sensory Properties

Chemical Active Ingredients in Superiv® (Liquid Herbal Supplement) and Its Antimicrobial In-Vitro Assay (Published)

An experiment was carried out to evaluate the chemical active ingredients present in Superliv®, a liquid herbal mixture produced by Ayurvet India and marketed in Nigeria by Animal Care Konsult, using the essential oil method involving the extraction process, the gas chromatography and the mass selective detector (MSD) technique. Results from this study shows that the major active ingredient in the herbal supplement is Pyrimidine (83.33%) which has been considered as an effective antioxidant. The other part of the experiment assessed the In-vitro antimicrobial effect of Superliv®. Theherbal supplement (Superliv®) was incorporated into MacConkey agar medium which was prepared by suspending 47g in 1 litre of distilled water. Dissolved completely and then sterilized by autoclaving at 121oC for 15minutes. After cooling to about 55oC, it was poured into Petri-dish and sensitive Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated into the medium and incubated. The herbal supplement had no significant antimicrobial in-vitro effect on the gram positive and gram negative bacteria at the manufacturers recommended dosage. However at an increased concentration of 60 -100% it had inhibitory growth effect on the gram positive and while at 90-100% on negative bacteria.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Bacterial, Chemical., Herbal

Survey of the Quality Physical, Chemical and Bacteriological of the Underground Waters of the Continental Terminal of the Township of Abomey-Calavi (Benin) (Published)

Campaigns of withdrawal of the underground waters have been done during the year 2013 to the level of the boring situated in the township of Abomey-Calavi, to control their quality. These withdrawals were the object of analysis according to the techniques of assessment of water quality described by Rodier (1978) and to the recommendations of the world organization of health (WHO). The physical and chemical analysis showed that 98.7% of the studied boring present some concentrations superior to the norms recommended by the WHO (1994) and by Benin (2011). The studied boring present without exception a bacteriological pollution. The very elevated microbial germ presence in water could constitute a sanitary risk importing for the inhabitants who consume the water of these boring.

Keywords: Bacteriological, Boring, Chemical., Physical, Quality, Underground Water

CHEMICAL PREDICTION OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN PARTS OF OWERRI IMO STATE IN SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA (Published)

The Chemical prediction of groundwater quality in parts of Owerri in Imo State was carried out. The chemical parameters of groundwater samples from Nekede, Ihiagwa, Eziobodo, Obinze and Avu were subjected to chemical analysis using standard laboratory techniques . In the study, an equation was formulated that will predict the chemical concentrations of contaminants of the groundwater aquifer at any given distance in Owerri in Imo State. A total of three replicates of fifteen different borehole water samples were collected based on distances from closest potential sources of contamination. All parameters were detected up to 60m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. The results for concentration of Mn, Zn, Mg, and Hardness decreased as distance increases while further increase in distance may decrease or increase the values of Cu. Results also showed that most of the boreholes were polluted and not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. This study accentuates the need to set standards for the siting of wells from septic tanks, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

Keywords: Chemical., Distance, Groundwater, Owerri West

Chemical Prediction of Groundwater Quality in parts of Owerri Imo state in South Eastern Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)

The Chemical prediction of groundwater quality in parts of  Owerri  in  Imo State was carried  out. The chemical parameters of groundwater samples from  Nekede, Ihiagwa, Eziobodo, Obinze  and Avu  were  subjected to chemical analysis using standard laboratory techniques  . In the study, an equation was formulated that will predict  the chemical concentrations of contaminants of the groundwater aquifer at any given distance in  Owerri   in Imo State.  A total of three replicates of fifteen different borehole water samples were collected based on distances from closest potential sources of contamination.All parameters were detected up to 60m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the periods, pointing to infiltrations  from   storm water. The results for concentration of  Mn, Zn, Mg, and Hardness decreased as distance increases while further  increase in distance may decrease or increase the values of Cu. Results also showed that most of the boreholes were polluted and not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment.

This study accentuates the need to set standards for the siting  of  wells from septic tanks, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended

Keywords: Chemical., Distance, Groundwater, Owerri West

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