Tag Archives: Challenges

Correlates of Coping with the Challenges of Incarceration among Nigerian Prison Inmates (Published)

This paper investigated the correlates of coping with the challenges of incarceration among Nigerian prison inmates. The study was carried out in Port Harcourt Prison, Rivers State, Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of 2,997 inmates, of Port Harcourt Prison while the sample was 250 inmates who were composed through stratified random sampling technique from the population. Relevant data for testing the five null hypotheses formulated for the study were gathered through indirect administration of copies of “Correlates of Coping with Challenges of Incarceration Questionnaire (CCCIQ)” on the sample. The questionnaire was developed by the researchers’. Its reliability co-efficient which was ascertained through the test retest method within an interval of two weeks was 0.78. Statistical analysis was carried out with t-test of independent mean scores and the results show that sex, years of incarceration, educational level, nature of incarceration and marital status have significant influence on coping with the challenges of incarceration among prison inmates. These results were discussed and some recommendations also made. One of the recommendations is that programmes and policies that will increase the ability of prison inmates to cope with their challenges should be put in place by the government and concerned non-governmental organizations.

Keywords: Challenges, Coping, Incarceration, Inmates, Nigerian Prison

Growth Strategies of SME in Oman- Issues and Challenges (Published)

This research has been conducted to determine the Growth Strategies of SME in Oman-Issues and challenges. SMEs has its own importance for the economic success and economic performance of any country due to which all countries are focusing on the growth of their SMEs. After getting success in the local market, it is important for SMEs to grow their business towards international market or at large scale businesses but, in the case of SMEs, businesses face a lot of challenges and issues in the form of human resource management constraints, financial management constraints, operations management constraints, and marketing management constraints. The review of literature proved the same thing that SMEs of Oman are facing issues and challenges in developing and implementing their growth strategies. The major aim of this research is to answer the research questions by using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Questionnaires are used for the data collection of quantitative research data. The total 250 respondents are selected to answer the questionnaires. Use of quantitative research methods brings effectiveness, reliability, and validity in the research. SPSS is used for the quantitative data analysis. Descriptive tests and T-test are applied on collected data to check the issues and challenges that SMEs of Oman are facing while developing their growth strategies. Interviews are used for data collection of qualitative research data. The total 12 interviewees are selected to answer the interview questions. Use of qualitative research methods brings elaboration of issues and challenges that SME of Oman face in developing and implementing their growth strategies. This research will motivate different SMEs of Oman to develop their defensive strategies to overcome the risks of growth strategies constraints. Furthermore, research limitation, managerial implications and future indications are also discussed in the study.

Keywords: Challenges, Issues, Small & Medium Enterprise’s (SMEs), Strategies.

Modern Roles of Saudi Teacher in Developing Higher-Order Thinking Skills among Learners for Meeting the Challenges of the Age of Technology and Knowledge Explosion (Published)

The present study aimed to identify the modern roles of Saudi teacher in the development of higher-order thinking skills to meet the challenges of the age of technology and knowledge explosion. To achieve the study objectives, the descriptive-survey method was adopted. Two questionnaires were prepared: The first one measure higher-order thinking skills that should be developed among learners to meet the challenges of the age of technology and knowledge explosion and the second measures the modern roles for the Saudi teacher to develop higher-order thinking skills. The tools were applied to (216) teachers from Abha. The study showed that the most important challenges are the speed of the production of knowledge, the spread of technology as well as the speed and intensity of the exchange of information and knowledge and the growing knowledge of electronic control and globalization, cultural and national identity, and changing the concepts and methods of human life. The participants agreed on all higher-order thinking skills that should be developed among learners. The participants’ agreement on all modern roles of the Saudi teachers for the development of higher-order thinking skills was high. There are no statistically significant differences at the significant level (0.05) between the means of responses attributed to the variables of (gender- specialization- years of experience- qualification- the educational stage)

Keywords: Challenges, Technology, knowledge explosion, teacher roles, thinking

The Impact of Fall in Oil Price on SME’s Performance (Published)

After fall in oil prices a lot of sectors are affected in Oman. Oman is one of the country’s which fully was depending on income from petroleum products  also the people were receiving subsidy from the government for many things. Suddenly, after the fall in oil prices government affected very badly and like the other GCC countries, they decided to remove the subsidy from the oil price also to cover the loss, the government increased the rates of a lot of services. SME’s are affected very badly by these decisions. A lot of SME’s started in delaying in the payment and not performing well. In my research, I will cover the challenges which they are facing it, the reasons of the low performance and suggestions which will help them to perform better.

Keywords: Challenges, Impact, Oil price, Small & Meduiem Enterprices (SMEs)

A Critical Analysis of the Challenges Faced by Residents in London Borough of Brent in Obtaining Social Housing (Published)

Social housing’ has become an urgent and important topic of discussion in London Borough of Brent. In England and Wales the social welfare system has been in existence for many years and the public housing system also is mature. However, in recent times the supply of social housing has basically dried up, requiring a significant investment to build, and/or bring into use, on average 50,000 additional homes, in order to stop the decline and meet the 10% annual increase in  housing demand. The gap between the rich and poor is considerably large, and is still increasing; many people with low income cannot afford their own houses since the minimum down-payment requirement is increasingly high. This explorative research provides an overview of ‘Social housing’ in London Borough of Brent in order to find out some applicable policy suggestions for the Borough’s  housing system. Results of analysis show that current housing status in Brent reflects some of the general housing difficulties faced by residents across the country particularly London, in that, for one, it takes a long time for a householder to achieve down payment on their target property in order to assume full house ownership due to inflated house price and difficulty of mortgage market since the banking crises.

Keywords: Borough of Brent, Challenges, Social Housing, residents

Challenges of Organic Farming Faced By Nepalese Farmers (Published)

Organic farming can directly contribute in the better health and environment. It may the better alternative for the problem of climate change and environmental degradation. Promotion of organic farming is necessary so the study is going to explore the challenges of organic farming faced by the Nepalese farmers. . The study was conducted in four districts: Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktpur and Dhading. Altogether, 578 organic farmers were selected purposively. Mixed method was used to collect the data. Statistical analysis was done for quantitative data and logical interpretation was done for qualitative data. The study explored the various challenges of organic farming: high investment and price of goods, low production, less selling because of the lack of knowledge among the consumers, limited market, no provision of compensation if production damaged, and lack of certification. Farmers requested to address all these problem of organic farmers to encourage the involvement for coming generation. Nepal government can study on the possible way of solution with the close interaction of organic farmers. 

Keywords: Certification, Challenges, Farmers, Nepal, Organic farming

The Challenges of Learners with Diverse Linguistic Needs: Experiences of Teachers in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)

Teachers in Kenya undergo language-based training that exposes them to both the academic content and teaching methodology in order that they may be able to respond to the diverse linguistic needs of learners in the language classroom. The unquestioned guiding assumption is that such the training knowledge informs teachers’ classroom practices. This paper assesses the challenges experienced by language learners in classrooms as a result of the diversity of their linguistic abilities. The paper is based on a study that examined how teachers’ maxims influence the teaching of English language in classrooms with learners of diverse linguistic abilities. The study was conducted in Wareng District of Uasin Gishu County. Wareng has one hundred and twenty teachers of Standard Four level English. A descriptive survey was carried out in the selected area. The study used both simple random and stratified sampling procedures to identify the schools and teachers to participate in the study. Data was collected using questionnaire and interview schedule and analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and then presented by the use of pie charts, graphs and percentages. The study established that the language learners and teachers in Uasin Gishu County experience a number of challenges emanating from the diversity of their linguistic abilities and needs. These challenges include the feelings that they are not part of class; lack of experience to handle linguistic needs; large number of learners in language classroom; the strong influence of first language; inadequate time to address each learners’ needs, and language policy not being supportive. It was, therefore, recommended that there is need for funds to be provided for teachers to attend further training and seminars on specific language needs in language education. In addition, more time is needed for teaching language to enable teachers to respond to the needs of every individual student. Teachers also need to adopt diverse methods of learning language in order to cater for the diverse learning needs of students. The government also needs to address the challenge of excessive enrolment of students that is causing congestion of classrooms in primary schools in Kenya.

Keywords: Assessment, Challenges, Diverse Linguistic Needs, Kenya, Learners, Schools Uasin Gishu County

Challenges of Celebrity Endorsement and How They Affect the Diffusion Process (Published)

Celebrity endorsement (CE) has been successful as one of the Marketing Communications tools and has attained such popularity but abound extant literature and various research works have not consider challenges Corporate Organizations are confronted with in their business endeavor by engaging Celebrities to endorse the organization’s brands. It is believed that in every endeavor there are few challenges that are set to militate against whatever good intentions or objectives that venture might have.  This paper therefore, focus is on findings from a research project that reflected upon the challenges of Celebrity endorsement (CE) and how they have affected diffusion. CE was applied to capture Customers and Business Executives experiences on using Celebrity Endorsers which provided a basis for observation and reflection. The research adopted both quantitative and qualitative methodology. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. The study surveyed 30 Business Executives. The outcome of the study has proved that despite the enormous feat chalked by CE successes and its popularity attained factors such as Management, Publicity, Contract, Customer match-up and Competition were identified to be the challenging factors that have been drawbacks inhibiting Celebrity endorsements.

Keywords: Ad, Celebrity, Challenges, Diffusion, Endorsement, Factors

Techniques for Re-Positioning Small and Medium Scale Business Enterprises in Nigeria for Economy Revitalization (Published)

This paper highlighted techniques for re-positioning small and medium scale business enterprises in Nigeria for economy revitalization. Small and medium business enterprises are the engine of growth and development of a nation. SMEs contribute to industrial development; promote growth, technological acquisition and reduction of unemployment. The paper also highlights techniques for re-positioning Small and Medium Scale business enterprises in Nigeria for economy revitalization. Financial problems, inadequate basic infrastructure, socio-cultural problems, planning problems, location/economic problems, poor accounting system:  multiple taxation and unstable policy environment are the major problems militating against the success of SMEs. It was recommended among others that there should be a practical effort in encouraging SMEs to access long-term, low rate funds from the capital market. Incentives should be given in the form of tax holidays and awards to SMEs that excel in using the capital market as an avenue of external funding and the government should continue to make SMEs a central focus of industrial policy in order to achieve economic growth and development. The monetary and fiscal policies should be made to incorporate good framework that would enhance the activities of SMEs towards development and sustenance.

Keywords: Challenges, Economy, Enterprise, Re-positioning, Small and Medium, Strategies.

Challenges Facing Higher Education in Management of Privately Sponsored Student Programmes PSSP in Kenya (Published)

Massification or the exponential growth experienced by universities in Kenya for the last one and ahalf decades has negatively impacted on the quality of education being offered by these universities.In their attempt to cater for the large increase in student numbers has come with many challenges caused by overcrowding, crumbling infrastructure, inadequate human and financial resources and declining quality of the professional courses on offer.  This paper sought to identify the challenges faced in the management of Privately Sponsored Students Programmes (PSSP) especially given the continuing expansion in public universities in Kenya. The study was carried out at Moi University, situated in Eldoret, and six of its satellite campuses. Ex post facto design and a mixed method approach study design was used. The target population consisted of all the PSSP students (11,185) enrolled in the academic year 2009/2010 in all the schools that have these programmes and all staff. One hundred and forty (140) teaching and none-teaching staffs were interviewed while 460 students were had questionnaires administered for data collection.  Data was analyzed qualitatively. Unclear university policy for PSSP administration, poor management shrouded by corruption and, inadequate and unqualified teaching staff were among others some of the challenges identified. Public universities need to be open and transparent in management of funds from PSSP Programmes while investing part of the earnings in relevant infrastructure that supports learning in the university.

Keywords: Challenges, Management, PSSP, Public Universities

The Challenges of Learners with Diverse Linguistic Needs: Experiences of Teachers in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)

Teachers in Kenya undergo language-based training that exposes them to both the academic content and teaching methodology in order that they may be able to respond to the diverse linguistic needs of learners in the language classroom. The unquestioned guiding assumption is that such the training knowledge informs teachers’ classroom practices. This paper assesses the challenges experienced by language learners in classrooms as a result of the diversity of their linguistic abilities. The paper is based on a study that examined how teachers’ maxims influence the teaching of English language in classrooms with learners of diverse linguistic abilities. The study was conducted in Wareng District of Uasin Gishu County. Wareng has one hundred and twenty teachers of Standard Four level English. A descriptive survey was carried out in the selected area. The study used both simple random and stratified sampling procedures to identify the schools and teachers to participate in the study. Data was collected using questionnaire and interview schedule and analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and then presented by the use of pie charts, graphs and percentages. The study established that the language learners and teachers in Uasin Gishu County experience a number of challenges emanating from the diversity of their linguistic abilities and needs. These challenges include the feelings that they are not part of class; lack of experience to handle linguistic needs; large number of learners in language classroom; the strong influence of first language; inadequate time to address each learners’ needs, and language policy not being supportive. It was, therefore, recommended that there is need for funds to be provided for teachers to attend further training and seminars on specific language needs in language education. In addition, more time is needed for teaching language to enable teachers to respond to the needs of every individual student. Teachers also need to adopt diverse methods of learning language in order to cater for the diverse learning needs of students. The government also needs to address the challenge of excessive enrolment of students that is causing congestion of classrooms in primary schools in Kenya.

Keywords: Assessment, Challenges, Diverse Linguistic Needs, Kenya, Learners, Schools Uasin Gishu County

Issues and Challenges of Southeastern Nigerian Women in Educational Management in the 21st Century (Published)

Women in Africa generally and in Nigeria particularly, appear to be on the move in the new millennium. There is credible indication that Nigerian women have increased opportunities at work. This has resulted to the actual increase in the number of women in the academe particularly in management positions. Despite these evidences there are indications that women are not as effective as they should be. This is probably due to issues and challenges that define the process of advancement and effectiveness for women. The purpose of this study is to identify the challenges faced by these women in managerial positions of public universities and strategies for ensuring increased management effectiveness in the 21st century academe. Two research questions were formulated for the study. A 15 item questionnaire titled Women in Education Management Questionnaire (WEMQ) supplemented with oral interview sessions provided the data for the study. The study involved 180 randomly selected women of high caliber in academic and non-academics of two universities in southeast Nigeria. The data collected were analysed using percentage (mean) and standard deviation. The instrument was face validated by 2 experts from the sampled universities. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was established by using Cronbach Alpha and the reliability of 0.85 was established.   The findings of the study showed that major challenges of women in educational management include long working hours, dealing with different natures of sub-ordinates and lack of authorization. Based on these findings, recommendations were also proffered to decision makers in order to alleviate those challenges such as the limitation of female long working hours by decentralization and better distribution of work load. Training programs in management and communication skills would help women in education, manage and communicate with other staff better. Authorization should be given to female managers to exercise their abilities in decisions making for their units and departments.

Keywords: Challenges, Issues, Management and 21st Century., Women in Education

Teacher Preparation for Inclusive Education of Persons with Special Needs In Nigeria: The Challenges and Solutions (Published)

Inclusion of students with special needs education especially those who need specialized skills and technical support give more rise challenges to the training of teachers to produce quality one to handle such children in question. Special needs children, as stipulated in article 223 of the UN’s child right convention endorsed in 1989, have the right to enjoy in full, decent life in conditions which ensure dignity, promotes self-reliance and facilitate the Child active participation in inclusive educational system. This paper focuses on teacher preparation in inclusive education, the concept of inclusive, the benefits, include in-service training programmes, special teacher and inclusive education, teacher preparation and the challenges where discussed. The paper, concluded with some recommendations such as: government at all levels should make inclusive education compulsory for schools and colleges to avoid discrimination against persons with special needs, government should set up committee that will put up machineries for effective implementation of inclusive education among others.

Keywords: Challenges, Inclusive Education, Nigeria, Person With Special Needs, Sustainable, Teacher Preparation

Challenges and Obstacles That Small And Medium Enterprises Face In Terms Of Financing in Palestine (Published)

The purpose of the study attempts to analyze the obstacles and challenges that face small and medium enterprises in Palestine. This study seeks to look at the importance of small and medium enterprises, and to identify the most important constraints faced by small entrepreneurs in obtaining the required funding in Palestine, and what are the most important impediments toward financing of small projects. The investigation helped in identifying the major challenges of financing small and medium business and what to do in order to overcome these obstacles. It was also found that small enterprises are one of the most important key elements in achieving economic development in all countries of the world where it accounts for the highest percentage among all kinds of economic projects of all sizes. A qualitative closed-ended survey was carried out for collecting data from managers and owners of 35 businesses in Palestine. The responses of 28 statements were collected in five different categories. The findings showed that the Obstacles facing the growth of small enterprises in Palestine by respondents was “Weakness of representative organizations that defend the interests of small businesses, as well as Lack of legal frameworks and incentives for small businesses

Keywords: Challenges, Financing, Palestine, Small and Medium Enterprises

Issues and Challenges Confronting Married Women in Tertiary Institutions (Published)

The aim of this study was to identify the domestic and academic challenges that confront married women in tertiary institutions. A qualitative approach was adopted for this study. The purposive sampling technique was used to select 30 respondents from a group of married women in the University. It was observed that difficulty in caring for their family members at home due to school activities was their major domestic challenge and loaded academic work that had to be accomplished within a short time frame was their major academic challenge. The causes of these challenges were identified as financial constraints and the performance of their marital responsibilities at home as married women. The respondents expressed that these challenges led to low concentration during lectures and low academic performance. They suggested that minimizing the pressure from their households and reducing the number of programs that had to be covered at the University can help them cope with the situation.

Keywords: Challenges, Marriage, Tertiary Institution, Women

The Nature of Peri-Urban Development in Lafia, Nasarawa State (Published)

This paper examines the characteristics of peri-urban areas in Lafia, a relatively new town by Nigeria’s account, but an important state capital, whose mineral resources, hospitality, administrative and educational status continue to drive its urban expansion. Peri urban areas in Lafia are by no means homogeneous, but area characterized by market-led medium density sporadic housing developments, lacking in basic infrastructure and facilities, employment opportunities and are poorly linked to the main town by transportation facilities. It is recommended that there is the need for more proactive involvement and intervention by various stakeholders in the management of peri urban areas to enhance their potentials and to address their peculiar problems.

Keywords: Challenges, Lafia, Peri Urban Areas, Urbanization, facilities

Challenges Encountered By Students with Visual Impairments and Teachers In An Integrated School Environment: A Case Of Integrated Secondary Schools In Kericho District, Ainamoi Division, Kenya (Published)

The government’s effort in dealing with access and equity in the provision of education and training to children with special needs has encountered numerous challenges some of which include; lack of clear guidelines on the policy implementation of integrated education, inadequate tools and skills in identification and assessment and lack of data of children with special needs among others. This paper sought to establish the challenges encountered by students and teachers in the integrated education program for students with visual impairments. The study was carried out in Kericho District adopting a case study design. Data collection was done by use of questionnaires, focus group discussion and document analysis. A total of 200 respondents participated in the study and data was analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The study cited a number of challenges that are experienced by the visually impaired students such as; the administration view them as a burden to school and many times they do not meet their needs like providing the necessary learning materials even though they pay fees and academic performance significantly indicated the nature of evaluation among the students in these secondary schools was clear that they are conscious about the needs of others. The government, through the Ministry of Education should provide teaching / learning resources for the visually impaired and blind students. Training for all teachers on special education should be performed. Informative campaigns at the community level with emphasis on the fact that disability is not inability are also advocated for.

Keywords: Challenges, Integrated school environment., Students with visual Impairments., Teachers

Challenges to Sustainable Human Capital Development in Nigerian Society: Christian Moral Education Responses (Published)

The study adopted public opinion survey design to investigate challenges to human capital development in Nigerian Society: Christian Moral education response. A sample of three hundred (300) were drawn from the entire population of (508) CRS teachers in South-east geopolitical Zone of Nigeria using accidental sampling technique. A 26 items self developed, questionnaire were used to illicit information from respondents. Two research questions guided the study. The data were analyzed using mean. It was found that: poor understanding of fundamental doctrine of human progression, lack of proper moral formation, man’s non conformity to the law of nature/creation, illiteracy due to poor education, poor management of nature resources, health challenges, high population growth due to poor birth control and sexual abuses and so on constitute challenges to human capital development. The study also revealed that adequate teaching of Christian moral education will inculcate good moral behaviour in the young people, as well as creating in them good understanding of fundamental doctrine of human progression which are the basis of human development. Based on the above finding recommendations were made on improving human capital development in Nigeria

Keywords: : Human Capital, Challenges, Development and Christian Moral Education, Sustainable

The United Nations/African Union Intervention in the Darfur Conflict (2007-2010): Achievements, Challenges and Lessons for the Future (Published)

The paper examined the activities of the African Union (AU) and the United Nations aimed at resolving conflict and maintaining peace and security especially in Darfur, the secondary method of data collection and analysis was adopted. The study made use of conflict theory as the framework of analysis. The findings of the research revealed: that the conflict in Darfur was caused by the colonial heritage, ethnic rivalry, religious intolerance and ecological challenges; that AU and UN have contributed significantly in the peace process in Darfur in the areas of protection of lives and properties, provision of humanitarian assistance, provision of enabling environment for negotiation, among others. Nonetheless, these were not without challenges ranging from logistics, ecological, corruption. The following recommendations were arrived at: proper training for the AU / UN officials on peace keeping; cooperation of all the parties, especially the Sudanese government and AU /UN member states towards conflict resolution; and demonstration of political will by the international community.

Keywords: Achievements, African Union, Challenges, Darfur Conflict, Intervention, Lessons for the Future, United Nations

Teachers’ Perception on the Challenges of 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum Implementation in Edo State. (Published)

This study is carried out to find out the challenges faced in the implementation of the revised 9-year BEC in Edo state. The population for the study comprises all the school teachers from Lower, Middle and Upper Basic teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A total population of two thousand eight hundred and eighty-four (2884) was focused for the study in Akoko Edo Local Government area. The sample of this study was six hundred (600) respondents selected across the state from public Lower, Middle and Upper Basic schools. Purposive sampling technique was used to group the state in terms of Senatorial District in the state.Random sampling techniques was used to select two (2) Local Government each from each senatorial district. Proportional sampling techniques was used to select five (5) schools in each Local Government making thirty schools (30). Strategfied sampling technique was used to select twenty (20) respondents from each schools selected in all the Local Government respectively. A total number of 600 respondents was selected from the 30 schools in the six (6) Local Government for the study. The research hypothesis there is no significance difference on the perceived challenges by teachers’ on the implementation of the revised 9-year BEC on the basis of year of experience was accepted and adequate recommendations were made.

Keywords: 9-year BEC, Challenges, Implementation, Perception, Teachers

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