Concentrations of Selected Trace Elements and Their Temporal Variation in Borehole Water, Eldoret Municipality, Kenya (Published)
Water is a basic human requirement as it is extensively used in everyday life and if contaminated, it is detrimental to life and can cause health effects. This study assessed levels of trace elements; Copper, Chromium and Manganese in borehole waters in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya. Samples were collected from selected boreholes in pre-cleaned 0.5L polyethylene bottles and analysed for the trace metals using standard procedures. Statistical analysis of data was carried out using SPSS (version 12.0). Copper concentration ranged from 0.005 – 0.050 ppm, Chromium ranged from 0.04 – 0.23 ppm while Manganese concentration ranged from 0.068 – 0.291 ppm. 69% of the borehole water samples had significantly high chromium concentrations (p < 0.05) compared to WHO/FAO recommended values (0.1ppm). Similarly Copper concentrations in water samples from boreholes at Munyaka were significantly higher than WHO/FAO recommended values (0.036 ppm). The elevated Chromium and Copper concentrations particularly at Kipkorgot and Munyaka could be attributed to the quarry activities near the borehole and runoff water from the nearby farms where fertilizers and chemical sprays are normally used, respectively. In conclusion the concentration of the trace elements Copper, Manganese and Chromium in the study was generally lower than WHO/FAO recommended values. There were no significant temporal variations of the trace elements in studied water samples. Recommendation is made for regular monitoring of the borehole waters in the study area to ensure health and safety of consumers.