Tag Archives: Assessment

Assessment Of Factors Affecting Rice (Oryza Spp.) Value Chain (Rvc) In Ogun and Niger States, Nigeria (Published)

The need to increasing rice productivity, value addition and acceptability through the rice value chain are some of the objectives of Federal Government of Nigeria in recent time. Rice is a major staple food in Nigeria. Rice production is however low which make the country to be a net importer of rice in Africa. This study was carried out to assess factors affecting rice (Oryza spp.) value chain in Ogun and Niger States, Nigeria. Multistage sampling techniques were used in the selection of 320 respondents for this study. Data collected were analyzed with chi square. Results of this research showed that more than forty percent of the respondents were between 30 – 40 years of age, predominantly male (80.3%), married (83.1%), had relatively large household size (6 people) and formal education (80.6%). Average income generated was estimated as ₦551,250/ha. They were member of Cooperative societies (66.6%), FADAMA (23.4%) and RIFAN (10%). More respondents (60%) carried out soil test and used tractor for land clearing in Niger State than in Ogun State (11.9%). Rice seeds were mostly planted on the field nursery (90%) rather than tray nursery (10%) using broadcasting method (84.4%). Hired and family labour (58.2%) was used for rice value chain in the two sampled states. Also, most operations in the rice processing were carried out manually (100%) due to non-availability of basic rice processing facilities. Marketing of rice was usually done at local markets (98.3%) at interval of 5-day marketing (72.2%) and mudu/congo (69.1%) was the item used for measurement in the market. Moreover, the returns of value addition were higher at marketing stage (₦750/kg in Ogun State and ₦550/kg in Niger State) than production stage (₦350/kg in Ogun State and ₦280/kg in Niger State). Birds’ disturbance (96.6%), high cost of processing equipment (92.5%), inadequate finance (83.1%) and lack of rural infrastructure (82.8%) were the major constraints to rice value chain in the sampled states. Chi- square analysis shows that there is significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and value addition at p < 0.05 level of significance. Similarly, significant relationship existed between threshing (χ2 = 8.35, df = 1, p = 0.00) and rice value addition at p < 0.05 level of significance. The study therefore recommends that rice farmers should embark on value addition to enhance their income from rice production.

Keywords: Assessment, Factors, Niger, Ogun, Rice, Value Chain

Bacterialogical and Parasitological Assessment of Fresh Meat Marketed In Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria (Published)

The bacteriological and parasitological assessment of some fresh meat marketed in Owerri, Nigeria was carried out using standard bacteriological and parasitological methods. The meat samples used for the study were flesh, towel, intestine and liver from goat, pork and chicken. There was no fungal and Salmonella – Shigella count in all the samples. The presence of Staphylococcus count was obtained in fresh goat meat and the viable bacterial counts ranged from 5.0× 105cfi/ml to 8.0× 106 cfu/ml while the total coliform counts ranged from 1.0× 105(cfu/ml to 4.0×106cfu/ml. The bacterial isolates obtained were: Staphylococcus aereus, Micrococcus species, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Corynebacterium species, Pseudomonas aureginosa, Bacillus species and Escherichia coli with Micrococcus species showing the highest occurrence. Among the parasites identified, Taenia spp had the highest occurrence. There is need for proper hygienic practices to be observed by the butchers in addition to beefing up the activities of Consumers Protection Council(CPC) to ensure the safety of meat available for public consumption

Keywords: Assessment, Bacteria, Fresh meat, Oocysts, Owerri, Parasites

Analysis of Senior High School Mathematics Teacher Characteristics and Utilization of Assessment Practices (Published)

The study sought to examine mathematics teacher characteristics that influence their use of assessment procedures in teaching and learning. The study adopted the descriptive survey design and the participants were 88 senior high school mathematics teachers sampled from the randomly selected schools from the Sunyani municipality. A four point Likert scale questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. The internal consistencies of the various sections of the instrument ranged from 0.69 to 0.78. The data collected were analysed using the independent t-test and one-way of variance ANOVA. The results from the study showed that assessment practices were not influenced by teacher characteristics such as gender and years of teaching. It was however found that professionalism of the teacher and exposure to INSET on classroom assessment influenced the use of assessment in the classroom. The recommendations drawn are that teachers must be encouraged and supported to participate in in-service training which retrains them on the need to involve assessment practices in teaching and learning. It is also recommended that professional teachers must be recruited to teach all subjects especially mathematics.

Keywords: Assessment, Classroom Practice, Feedback, Teacher Characteristics

The Effect of Discovery Learning Method on the Math Learning of the V Sdn 18 Students of Banda Aceh, Indonesia (Published)

Discovery method is a component of educational practice that covers teaching methods that promote the way of active learning, process oriented, self-directed. One of the methods that have been widely used in advanced schools is discovery method. The discovery technique is a translation of discovery. There is influence of discovery learning method toward the mathematics learning result of class V SDN 18 students of Banda Aceh. This is seen from the results of the students’ learning taught by discovery learning method is better than the results of students’ learning taught by expository.

Keywords: Assessment, Discovery Learning, Mathematics, Primary School

Assessment Of Electricity Demand and Prediction Model For The Furture: Rivers State (Published)

This work is on the Assessment of Electricity demand and prediction model for the future requirement in Rivers State by the year 2025. The data for electricity allocation and load utilization of the state for the period of five years (2011 – 2015) were collated from the central dispatch office of Port Harcourt Electricity Distribution Company office of Port Harcourt. Two different statistical analyses, “Regression exponential and least square methods,” calculations, graphs were reviewed and applied to justify the analysis. While predictions are 211.3MW and 207.1MW by using regression exponential and least square analysis models respectively for the first year 2016, the load requirement of Rivers State for the year 2025 is expected to have increased to 2113MW and 2071MW respectively. It is observed that there is a great positive relationship between the electricity demand and the years, which implies that as the years moves forward the demand for electricity increases. The positive relationship is attributed to the fast growth of development in Rivers State. The study reveals that the regression exponential model should be adopted because it captures the elastic demand of the consumers during peak and off-peak time with an appreciable growth rate of 21.6%.

Keywords: Assessment, Electricity-demand, Regression-exponential and least-square, predictions-model

English Speaking Assessment: Developing a Speaking Test for Students in a Preparatory School. (Published)

This article discusses the format for the speaking exam developed for the School of Foreign Languages at a Turkish university.  The introduction and literature review provide the rationale and arguments for the suggested changes to an existing format. The areas for review and redesigning are: the structure of the exam, assessment rubric, exam questions, and supporting manual for assessors and interlocutors. Each area is considered from the standpoint of best practices in speaking skills assessment and the ways those practices should be utilized in a particular learning community. A detailed description of the procedures, logistics, and sample questions follows.

Keywords: Assessment, interlocutor, speaking task specification, testing speaking skills

Assessment of Teaching and Learning Activities of Basic Design and Technology in Selected Junior High Schools in Ashanti Region (Published)

A cursory study indicated that there were challenges in the acquisition of practical skills in the Basic Design and Technology (BDT) programme offered in the Junior High Schools. No study was found to have been done regarding the actual challenges in skills acquisition in the programme. This case study therefore fills the gap and purposefully focuses on the teaching strategies employed by the BDT teachers and the learning outcomes of pupils, among other related issues. The study examines the teaching strategies of teachers, considering the limited facilities available, and how they affect pupils’ acquisition of practical skills and competence. The qualitative research method was used for the study which sought to find out criteria used for the selection of BDT Options, the state of logistics for running the programme and the processes for teaching and learning. The purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to sample 322 pupils and 13 teachers from four Junior High Schools (JHS) selected from the Ashanti Region. Using interview and observation to solicit data, the analysis revealed that due to inadequacy of human and material resources, teaching and learning of the BDT subjects were not effective. Moreover, little or no practicals were done. Thus, majority of the pupils in the study area graduate from the Junior High School with no practical skills and experience. Implications of the findings are discussed highlighting the importance of using proper teaching and learning approaches, providing qualified teachers, funds, studio/workshop facilities and teaching and learning materials for effective delivery and learning of BDT.

Keywords: Assessment, Basic Design and Technology, Junior High Schools, effective teaching.

Assessment of Building Survey as a Tool for Building Maintenance Program a Study of Awka, Anambra State (Published)

Sequel to the inefficiencies found in building maintenance, which has reduced the satisfaction level and resulted in many ugly incidents like building collapse and fast dilapidation, this work was conceived with the aim of evaluating the building survey as a tool for efficient building maintenance. The study adopted a survey design involving literature review, personal interviews and questionnaire survey. The collated data was analyzed in percentages and it was found that building survey is a very vital tool in building maintenance and it has been neglected in the study area. The study therefore recommend that building survey should be put into consideration before any maintenance work will be carried out, both in private and public buildings and there should be full funding and monitoring of the process to yield better results.

Keywords: Anambra State, Assessment, Awka, Building Survey, Building maintenance, Program

Performance Assessment of Secondary School Counsellors in Counselling: Anambra And Enugu States of Nigeria in Focus (Published)

The study sought to determine the performance assessment of counsellors in counselling as a school guidance service in Nigerian secondary schools. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the descriptive survey study. The population of the study was 47010 respondents out of which multistage sampling technique was used to select a sample of 739 respondents, being 45 supervisors and 675 SS II students. A 4 point researcher made 7 items questionnaire tagged Performance Assessment of School Counsellors in Counselling (PASCIC), with a reliability index of 0.73, Cronbach alpha was used to elicit responses after which 720 copies were duly filled and returned. Mean and t-test at 0.05 level of significance were used to test the research question and the hypothesis respectively. Findings reveal that Nigerian counsellors, in the face or all odds are proficient in counselling  which  would be  traceable to  cultures and traditions of  counselling  by  elderly people  in  Nigeria to the  younger  ones.  

Keywords: Assessment, Counsellors, Performance, School – Guidance and Counselling

Assessments of Public’s Perceptions of their Satisfactions to their Participating Activities on the Lotus Throwing (Rub Bua) Festival toward Cultural Heritage of Bang Phli Communities in the 80th in 2015 “One of the World: Only One of Thailand” (Published)

This research is reported an important of the favorite festivals in Thailand, which is the lotus throwing (Rap Bua) festival in Bang Phli, Samut Prakan. This is basically what happens as countless thousands of local public line the banks of Samrong Canal to throw lotus flowers onto a boat carrying a replica of the famous Buddha image Luang Poh To. The aims of this research are to describe for assessing public’s perceptions of their participants who go to Wat Bang Phli Yai Nai which, for obvious reasons, has the best atmosphere, to compare between public’s perception of their gender of their satisfactions to the entire route from start to finish of the boat carrying the Buddha image wasn’t scheduled to pass the front of Wat Bang Phli Yai Nai toward their participated activities. Associations between public’s participating activities and their satisfied of the lotus throwing (Rap Bua) festival were assessed. Using the qualitative data with interview, observation, and participated memberships’ activities were designed. Internal consistency Cronbach alpha statistics were generated with the quantitative data from the 10-item Questionnaire on Satisfaction Inventory (QSI) was validated of 0.88. Statistically significant between public’s perceptions of their different gender; scale means scores for male’s and female’s perceptions of the participants of this festival were to investigate if QSI questionnaire had the ability to non-differentiate significantly. Associations were found between various measures of public’s participating Rab Bud festival to their satisfactions of their participants, the R2 value indicate that 58% of the variance in their satisfaction assessments also was found. These factors appear to be affecting public of 1,382 persons who were satisfied for predicting the 80th Lotus Throwing (Rab Bua) festival in the academic year B.E. 2558 for following celebrative event arrangement of Bang Phli cultural communities are managed.

Keywords: Assessment, Bang Phli Cultural Communities, Lotus Throwing (Rab Bua) Festival, celebrative event arrangement, the Academic Year B.E. 2558

The Challenges of Learners with Diverse Linguistic Needs: Experiences of Teachers in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)

Teachers in Kenya undergo language-based training that exposes them to both the academic content and teaching methodology in order that they may be able to respond to the diverse linguistic needs of learners in the language classroom. The unquestioned guiding assumption is that such the training knowledge informs teachers’ classroom practices. This paper assesses the challenges experienced by language learners in classrooms as a result of the diversity of their linguistic abilities. The paper is based on a study that examined how teachers’ maxims influence the teaching of English language in classrooms with learners of diverse linguistic abilities. The study was conducted in Wareng District of Uasin Gishu County. Wareng has one hundred and twenty teachers of Standard Four level English. A descriptive survey was carried out in the selected area. The study used both simple random and stratified sampling procedures to identify the schools and teachers to participate in the study. Data was collected using questionnaire and interview schedule and analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and then presented by the use of pie charts, graphs and percentages. The study established that the language learners and teachers in Uasin Gishu County experience a number of challenges emanating from the diversity of their linguistic abilities and needs. These challenges include the feelings that they are not part of class; lack of experience to handle linguistic needs; large number of learners in language classroom; the strong influence of first language; inadequate time to address each learners’ needs, and language policy not being supportive. It was, therefore, recommended that there is need for funds to be provided for teachers to attend further training and seminars on specific language needs in language education. In addition, more time is needed for teaching language to enable teachers to respond to the needs of every individual student. Teachers also need to adopt diverse methods of learning language in order to cater for the diverse learning needs of students. The government also needs to address the challenge of excessive enrolment of students that is causing congestion of classrooms in primary schools in Kenya.

Keywords: Assessment, Challenges, Diverse Linguistic Needs, Kenya, Learners, Schools Uasin Gishu County

Assessment of Special Education Service Delivery: A Global Perspective (Published)

This paper preoccupied itself with the assessment of special education service delivery to persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities, who are the subjects of special education, encounter difficulties that prevent or make it strenuous to use a part of their body completely or easily or that they cannot learn easily. Special education service delivery requires the expertise of special educators and para-professionals like the psychologists, social welfare workers, medical personnel and a host of others who are charged with the delivery of quality special education services to meet the needs of all persons with disabilities. Special education services include rehabilitation services, assessment/identification strategies, home/hospital based services, provision of materials/equipment and assistive technology for persons with disabilities etc. Globally, there are two paradigms for service delivery namely special school setting and general or regular school settings. The paper sampled trends of service delivery in India, Brazil, Kenya, Malaysia and of course Nigeria. The paper found that most countries have embraced the regular classroom as modality for service delivery for persons with disabilities. The paper identified challenges in the areas of teacher-pupil ratio, funding, failure of parental instruction, individualized education programme, special facilities, equipment and assistive technology, poor rehabilitation services, inclusion, attitudes to persons with disability amongst others that must be tackled to enable efficient service delivery for persons with disability. It was on this note that the paper was concluded.

Keywords: Assessment, Global, Nigeria, Perspective, Service delivery, Special Education

The Challenges of Learners with Diverse Linguistic Needs: Experiences of Teachers in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)

Teachers in Kenya undergo language-based training that exposes them to both the academic content and teaching methodology in order that they may be able to respond to the diverse linguistic needs of learners in the language classroom. The unquestioned guiding assumption is that such the training knowledge informs teachers’ classroom practices. This paper assesses the challenges experienced by language learners in classrooms as a result of the diversity of their linguistic abilities. The paper is based on a study that examined how teachers’ maxims influence the teaching of English language in classrooms with learners of diverse linguistic abilities. The study was conducted in Wareng District of Uasin Gishu County. Wareng has one hundred and twenty teachers of Standard Four level English. A descriptive survey was carried out in the selected area. The study used both simple random and stratified sampling procedures to identify the schools and teachers to participate in the study. Data was collected using questionnaire and interview schedule and analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and then presented by the use of pie charts, graphs and percentages. The study established that the language learners and teachers in Uasin Gishu County experience a number of challenges emanating from the diversity of their linguistic abilities and needs. These challenges include the feelings that they are not part of class; lack of experience to handle linguistic needs; large number of learners in language classroom; the strong influence of first language; inadequate time to address each learners’ needs, and language policy not being supportive. It was, therefore, recommended that there is need for funds to be provided for teachers to attend further training and seminars on specific language needs in language education. In addition, more time is needed for teaching language to enable teachers to respond to the needs of every individual student. Teachers also need to adopt diverse methods of learning language in order to cater for the diverse learning needs of students. The government also needs to address the challenge of excessive enrolment of students that is causing congestion of classrooms in primary schools in Kenya.

Keywords: Assessment, Challenges, Diverse Linguistic Needs, Kenya, Learners, Schools Uasin Gishu County

Assessment of Students Learning In the Classroom in Secondary Schools in Delta North Senatorial District of Delta State. (Published)

The way and manner in which students go through specific steps or stages of learning or understanding resulted to the learning theories that must be met. These theories led to the assessment of student learning in the classroom in secondary schools. These theories are associated with certain type of instructions that yield productive outcomes in students learning in the classroom. The research design employed is the descriptive survey design. Two research questions were raised and two hypotheses were formulated for the study and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The sample of the study consisted of 360 secondary school teachers by means of stratified sampling technique. Questionnaire was used for gathering data for the study. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and t-test-statistic for the stated hypotheses. It was observed that there was significant difference between male and female teachers, urban and rural teachers’ assessment of student learning in the classroom in secondary schools in Delta North Senatorial District. This implies that some teachers applied these theories hap-hazardly when assessing students learning in the classroom. It is therefore recommended that teachers should develop and try out new assessment methods that give them better information about how to help students improve; Teachers should endeavour to attend seminars, symposia, workshops and conferences regularly to update their professional competence in classroom assessment.

Keywords: Assessment, Classroom and Theories of learning, Learning

A Comparative Study of the Teaching and Evaluation Processes in Sandwich Degree Programmes in Two Nigerian Universities (Published)

The training of teachers through the sandwich mode has been perceived by many as a medium for training teachers who cannot compete favourably in the labour market with those trained in the conventional universities. The reasons are attributed to some factors especially, the period stipulated for training in this program. It is against this background that this study compared the teaching and evaluation processes in sandwich B.Ed degree programs at University of Abuja ( Uniabuja) and University of Nigeria Nsukka ( UNN). A descriptive survey design was employed for the study. The population was made up of 560 and 676 final year students of Uniabuja and UNN respectively. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were employed to select a sample of 100 students from each university thereby making a total of200 students. A four-point likert- scale questionnaire was used for data collection. Research questions were analysed with means scores while t-test was used to test the hypotheses. Results of this study show that there was significant difference in the extent to which course contents are covered in both universities and the evaluation and feedback mechanisms were effective. The study inter alia suggests an increase in the staff strength of lecturers in Uniabuja to help in the reduction of workload for more program effectiveness

Keywords: Assessment, Content coverage, Feedback, Sandwich, Teaching

ASSESSMENT OF LEAF-TYPE AND NUMBER OF LEAVES USED IN WRAPPING ON THE QUALITY OF “UGBA” (FERMENTED PENTACLETHRA MACROPHYLLA BENTH SEED) (Published)

Assessment of leaf-type and number of leaves used in wrapping on the quality of Ugba (fermented Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth seeds) was studied. Ugba is a delicacy commonly consumed by people of South Eastern states of Nigeria. Raw African oil bean seeds were boiled, dehulled, sliced, reboiled, washed and steeped in cold water for 10h and washed again, drained and wrapped with different leaves [plantain leaves (Musa paradisiaca), cocoyam leaves (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) and Okpopia leaves (Alchornea laxifora Benth leaves)] and fermented for 72h. The samples were wrapped with different number of leaves ranging from 1-5. The sensory evaluation and proximate analysis of the fermented samples were carried out. Statistical analyses of both were determined using Fisher’s Least Significant Difference at P≤0.05 confidence between the samples. The composition of Ugba wrapped in Okpopia leaves (Alchornea laxiflora), cocoyam leaves and plantain leaves had different levels of moisture content (44.3%, 52.83%, 47.04%) respectively. Protein ranged from (6.77% – 8.59%), fibre content ranged from (17% – 39%), carbohydrate content range from (35.23% – 44.57%), fat content ranged from (6.5% – 12%) and ash content ranged from (13% – 33%). There were significant differences (P≤0.05) among all the samples in protein, fibre, carbohydrate, fat and ash contents respectively. The highest protein and carbohydrate, least fat, moisture and ash contents were from samples A (Okpopia leaves wrapped with five layers), suggesting best wrapping material. Organoleptic characteristics of the samples showed that the wrapping materials influenced the sensory attributes and the best wrapping material was shown to be Okpopia leaves with five layers, according to the panelists.

Keywords: Assessment, Quality, Ugba, Wrapping, leaves

TRANSLATION ASSESSMENT OF QURĂNIC LEXICAL SYNONYMY INTO ENGLISH (Published)

The present study is aimed at investigating the translation accuracy of Qurănic synonymy into English. The renditions of the synonyms will be assessed in the light of a translation quality assessment model to pinpoint how far accuracy has been attained. Lexical synonymy, as defined by semanticists, refers to a major type of sense relation between lexical items which have the same meanings. Definitely, synonyms are of various types as classified by specialists where they reached the result that total synonymy is very rare in language. This may have its bearing on the translation of this linguistic area. If mistranslations of Qur’anic lexical synonymy are found out, alternative translations would be suggested. The Qur’anic texts have been randomly selected for evaluation. The paper is based on the hypothesis that mistranslations of Qur’anic lexical synonymy are more recurrent than accurate renditions. Inaccuracies in the translation of this type of sense relation could be attributed to a variety of reasons such as the semantic dissimilarities between the two languages, discoursal and rhetorical differences etc.Six published translations of the Qur’an have been subjected to assessment as far as the topic under study is concerned. Consequently, the translation assessment has revealed the high frequency of inaccurate renditions of lexical synonyms found in Qur’anic texts. In addition, the synonymous lexical items found in the original (the Quran) seem to be chosen purposefully so as to convey some teachings of the Islamic religion

Keywords: Accuracy, Assessment, differences, mistranslation, synonymy

ASSESSMENT OF COPING STRATEGIES BY ORPHANED LEARNERS AND THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA (Published)

Despite the vulnerable status of the orphaned learners, every child in Kenya has a right to quality education that should lead to good performance and achievement of Universal Primary Education (UPE). This study assessed coping strategies by exceptional orphaned learners and their academic achievement in Winam Division in Kisumu County. The theory underpinning the study was self- efficacy theory by Albert Bandura (1994). Descriptive survey design was used in the study. The study population consisted of 43 head teachers, 516 teachers and 3042 orphaned learners in 43 mixed public primary schools. Data was collected by questionnaire, interview schedule and document analysis. Quantitative data was analyzed using frequency counts, means, percentages and standard deviation. Data from the interviews were organized into themes and sub-themes as they emerged through the objective. The study established that; most orphaned learners stay with older siblings, lacked some basic needs and lacked guidance from adults. Hard work, personal ambition, role models from their schools and guidance from teachers were the most outstanding factors that enabled orphaned learners to perform well in their academics. The study recommends that grandparents who care for the orphans be supported financially by the government. The Ministry of Health in collaboration with other stake holders should launch health and nutrition program in schools where the program has not yet been started. Life skills education should be examined like any other subject in the curriculum. There should be a vote head under FPE to cater for orphaned learners’ school requirements. School administration should link orphaned learners who perform well with sponsors to ensure that they continue with their secondary education

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Assessment, Coping Strategies, Kenya, Orphaned Learners, Primary schools.

AN ASSESSMENT OF TIMBER AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIAL IN NIGERIA (Published)

Timber, as a building material, was assessed for its sustainability using data from secondary sources. It established that a sustainable building material must be environmental friendly, affordable, flexible in usage and durable. Timber possesses these characteristics. The paper thus compared fuel energy required to produce timber as well as carbon dioxide released and stored during production with other common building materials such as steel, concrete and aluminium. It observed that 750 MJ/m3, 26600MJ/m3, 4800MJ/m3 and 1100000 MJ/m3 of fossil fuel energy is required to produce Rough Sawn Timber, Steel, Concrete and Aluminium respectively. The work revealed that timber stores as much as 250 Kg/m3 of carbon dioxide (CO2) and releases only 15Kg/m3 into the atmosphere. In contrast, Steel, Concrete and Aluminium store no carbon dioxide while they release 5320 Kg/m3, 120Kg/m3 and 22000 Kg/m3 respectively into the atmosphere. Additionally plants, the primary source of timber, absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the atmosphere during photosynthesis with a comparatively low thermal conductivity advantage. The paper consequently concluded that since timber is readily available in the country, it is a highly sustainable building material in the nation. It posited that the problems associated with the usage of wood, such as attack by insects, fungi, fire, depletion of natural resources etc can be ameliorated with the aid of preservative treatments, fire retardant and afforestation

Keywords: Assessment, Building Material, Embodied Energy, Nigeria, Sustainable, Timber

An Assessment of Timber as a Sustainable Building Material in Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)

Timber, as a building material, was assessed for its sustainability using data from secondary sources. It established that a sustainable building material must be environmental friendly, affordable, flexible in usage and durable. Timber possesses these characteristics. The paper thus compared fuel energy required to produce timber as well as carbon dioxide released and stored during production with other common building materials such as steel, concrete and aluminium.  It observed that 750 MJ/m3, 26600MJ/m3, 4800MJ/m3 and 1100000 MJ/m3 of fossil fuel energy is required to produce Rough Sawn Timber, Steel, Concrete and Aluminium respectively.  The work revealed that timber stores as much as 250 Kg/m3 of carbon dioxide (CO2) and releases only 15Kg/m3 into the atmosphere.  In contrast, Steel, Concrete and Aluminium store no carbon dioxide while they release 5320 Kg/m3, 120Kg/m3 and 22000 Kg/m3 respectivelyinto the atmosphere. Additionally plants, the primary source of timber, absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the atmosphere during photosynthesis with a comparatively low thermal conductivity advantage. The paper consequently concluded that since timber is readily available in the country, it is a highly sustainable building material in the nation.  It posited that the problems associated with the usage of wood, such as attack by insects, fungi, fire, depletion of natural resources etc can be ameliorated with the aid of preservative treatments, fire retardant and afforestation.

Keywords: Assessment, Building Material, Embodied Energy, Nigeria, Sustainable, Timber

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