Tag Archives: Agriculture

Poverty Decomposition For High And Low Users of Climate Smart Agricultural Techniques in Northwest Nigeria (Published)

Climate change projections estimate that developing countries who are least prepared for the changes in climate will be the most affected. Meanwhile, the already existing poverty in Nigeria is alarming and climate change threatens food security and poverty to a large extent. It was on this note that the study measured poverty levels for high and low users of climate smart agricultural practices of small holder farming households in North-West Nigeria. The study employed primary data using questionnaire instruments and focus group discussion in the North West region of Nigeria. The FGT Index model, Equally Distributed Equivalent (EDE) FGT, watts index, Sen, Shorrocks and Thon index were employed to decompose the monetary dimensions of poverty while Chakravarty et al (1998) technique, extended watts, extended FGT and Alkire and Foster were employed to decompose the non-monetary dimension. The findings show that poverty rate was higher for low-users of climate smart agricultural practices than for high-users for all dimensions under consideration and for all the decomposition techniques. This implies that farmers should make conscious efforts to practice climate smart agriculture regardless of their poverty status due to the fact that poverty resides more with low-users. It could be as a result of the fact that high-users make their production sustainable by practicing CSA and consequently high yields that might in turn reduce their poverty status. There is need for significant empowerment of the farmers, given that some of the climate smart agricultural practices have cost implications and require extra money to fund.

Keywords: Agriculture, Climate, Nigeria, Northwest, Poverty

Accelerating Inclusive Agricultural Growth in Nigeria: An Examination of Strategic Issues, Challenges and Policy Options (Published)

Agriculture has been identified as a critical sector with huge potential for promoting inclusive growth by stimulating economic growth, reducing poverty, and creating employment for a large number of people in developing countries. Against this backdrop, the paper assessed the sector’s potential in accelerating sustainable broad-based growth and examined key strategies for realizing inclusive agricultural growth in Nigeria. Using data, covering 1981-2015, the results indicate agriculture’s significant contribution to economic growth which is a necessary (but not sufficient) condition for achieving inclusive growth. Results of employment elasticity computed for the three major sectors suggested that agriculture led others (1.88) followed by services sector (1.18) and industry (0.33) in contributing to employment. Based on the analysis, the paper recommended policies such as increased public investment, access to farm inputs, youth-friendly and price stabilization programmes in order to accelerate inclusive growth in the agriculture sector.

Keywords: Agriculture, Inclusive Growth, Nigeria

Public Sector Expenditure and the Economic Development in Nigeria (1999-2015) (Published)

The study examined the interaction of public sector expenditure and economic development from 1999 – 2015.  The specific objective was to assess the extent to which GDP affects EDU, HLT, DFS, AGR and PDS.  Secondary data employed were from the CBN bulletin published in 2016. Multiple regression analysis and t-test were the statistical tools applied, with the use of SPSS for both data analysis and to test the hypotheses formulated for the study at 5% level of significance.  The result revealed that GDP does not significantly affect EDU, HLT and AGR and as a result they do not have impact on economic growth.  On the contrary, GDP significantly affects the DFS and PDS which do not have effect on economic development.  The result shows that government spending on defense, security and public debt servicing has not brought about economic development.  Therefore, there is need for change of orientation.  The government should concentrate on investing in provision of proper education and adequate health facilities for the citizenry.  More attention should also be given to agriculture for the purpose of sufficient food supply.  All these measures could provide solution to insurgency and militancy which the government has spent so much to no avail.

Keywords: Agriculture, Economic Development, Education, Health, Public sector expenditure, defense and security, public debt servicing

Eco-Friendly Utilization of Fly Ash in Agriculture: A Review (Published)

Among all the treatments, application of fly ash at 120-180 t ha-1 levels were found beneficial for the plant growth and fresh weight of edible part. However, level higher than 180 t ha-1 was found to reduce growth and other parameters of brinjal. Study shows that the available nutrients present in fly ash are beneficial if fly ash is mixed at certain levels for a particular plant species. Findings of the study, reported, in terms of growth and fresh weight accumulation indicates the beneficial use of fly ash as an eco-friendly nonconventional fertilizer at 120 and 180 t ha-1 levels respectively, and address the problem of land utilization for fly ash disposal. Similarly, 5 to 10% fly ash-soil blending concentrations were found beneficial for the growth and yield of chilli plant. That means fly ash acts as an excellent soil modifier, conditioner and a source of essential nutrients for appreciably improving the texture and fertility with significant increase in crop yield over the control at a particular concentration only and is supportive to plant growth.

 

Keywords: Agriculture, Eco-Friendly Utilization, Fly Ash

Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change into Policy and Development: Case Study on Agriculture and Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh (Published)

Our proposed study set up a long-term national climate adaptation framework for Bangladeshi policy makers. Outcomes of this research absolutely lead to measure the public perception, attitudes and understanding of the level of knowledge and the aspirations and expectations of publics with regard to how they adapted to a changing climate.  This study also identify if there are significant relationship between public perceptions and attitudes of climate change and efficient adaptation framework and plans to introduce some ideas. and concepts on the challenges toward the perceptions and policies as tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.  More specific outcomes are a) understanding of public perceptions, attitudes towards climate change and their adaptation capacity in agriculture, industry and service sectors b) achievement of efficient national  adaptation framework c) enhanced knowledge on future climate change impacts and better capacity building on the long run integrated economic development and finally and d) recommendations and policy tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.

Keywords: Agriculture, Bangladesh, Climate Change, Mainstreaming Adaptation, Policy And Development, Sustainable Food Security

Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change into Policy and Development: Case Study on Agriculture and Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh (Published)

Our proposed study set up a long-term national climate adaptation framework for Bangladeshi policy makers. Outcomes of this research absolutely lead to measure the public perception, attitudes and understanding of the level of knowledge and the aspirations and expectations of publics with regard to how they adapted to a changing climate.  This study also identify if there are significant relationship between public perceptions and attitudes of climate change and efficient adaptation framework and plans to introduce some ideas. and concepts on the challenges toward the perceptions and policies as tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.  More specific outcomes are a) understanding of public perceptions, attitudes towards climate change and their adaptation capacity in agriculture, industry and service sectors b) achievement of efficient national  adaptation framework c) enhanced knowledge on future climate change impacts and better capacity building on the long run integrated economic development and finally and d) recommendations and policy tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.

Keywords: Agriculture, Bangladesh, Climate Change, Development, Food Security, Policy

Assessment of the Environmental Effects of 2012 Floods in Aguleri and Umuleri, Anambra East Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

The study assessed the environmental effects of 2012 flood in Aguleri and Umuleri in Anambra East Local Government Area. In doing this, questionnaire was administered randomly to the residents. The data generated were analyzed using frequency/percentage tabulation.  Independent samples T-Test and Mann-Whitney U-Test statistical techniques were used due to the nature of the data generated. The following hypotheses were tested; namely: (1) there is no significant difference between the causative factors of 2012 floods in the two communities and (2) there is no significant difference between the environmental effects of 2012 floods in the two communities. The results showed that there is no serious variation between the causes and health, personal, social, economic and post effects of 2012 flood in the two communities. In addition, the result also proved that anthropogenic activities induced the 2012 flood in the community. Furthermore it also showed that the 2012 flood caused serious social, economic, personal and post effects on the inhabitants of the area. Consequent upon the findings, the study recommended that there should be flood hazard mapping in order to ascertain areas prone to flooding, so as to reduce the occurrence of flood in the area. It further recommended that the river channels in the area be constantly dredged from time to time so as to increase their capacity for retaining water. Moreover, it recommended that the inhabitants of the area be enlightened on the causes and effects of flood. Finally, it recommended that environmental laws, especially those relating to flood occurrence and management, and land-use be enforced. In addition, areas of future research should be: (1) to ascertain the after-effect (post effect) of flooding on agriculture in the area; and (2) to obtain a flood hazard map for the entire Anambra State, especially the Anambra East Local Government Area, so as to know the areas prone to flooding, and to adopt adequate flood management techniques.

Keywords: Agriculture, Environmental Effects, Floods, Nigeria

Influence of Youth Access to Farm Products Markets on Their Participation in Agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County (Published)

Agriculture in Kenya has great untapped potential for providing employment opportunities for youth that would enable them exploit their creativity, economic innovation and access to agricultural product markets in order to spur faster national economic growth. Reducing cereal importation in Kenya through local investment and expanding of markets for agricultural products can effectively create youth employment. A number of youth took part in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub- County with maize being  the most preferred crop while poultry keeping the most preferred livestock activity by youth  The influence of youth access to markets for agricultural products on their participation in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County was poorly understood and hence the need for this study, which used a cross-sectional design to collect data from 397 randomly, selected youth and 22 youth and agricultural officers. Content validity of the youth and agricultural officers’ questionnaires was ascertained by extension experts while reliability was determined through a pilot test involving 30 respondents. The reliability coefficient were 0.86α and 0.80α respectively, which were above the 0.70 threshold for acceptable reliability. The results showed a statistically significant positive relationship (r=.330, p=.01) between youth access to markets and their participation in agriculture. It also showed that youth access to markets influenced their participation in agriculture with 57.4% of the respondents indicating that poor infrastructures and limited knowledge on market prices reduced their access to markets for agricultural commodities. Youth with easy access to markets for their products had higher participation rates in agricultural activities than those with minimal access to markets. The government and other actors should support formation of organizations that can give youth the necessary bargaining power to interact on equal terms with other market actors in order to reduce transaction costs through economies of scale when buying inputs and selling produce.

Keywords: Agriculture, Employment, Farm Products, Gender, Market, Youth

Trend Analysis of Rainfall Pattern in Enugu State, Nigeria. (Published)

Rainfall distribution pattern has been a major concern to Climatologists, Penologists, Agriculturist hydrologist and even to the ordinary man in the street. Rainfall is a critical index of climatological investigation and has major impacts on flora and fauna, as well as ecological setting and water resources management of any area.  Following the current moves by the governments to improve on agriculture; the pattern of rainfall is essential for indigenes of Enugu state since they are predominantly farmers. As the moves to encourage agriculture to ensure food security continues to gain ground and acceptability, information on rainfall probabilities is vital for the design of water supply and supplemental irrigation schemes and the evaluation of alternative cropping and of soil water management plans. This study has examined the pattern of rainfall in the state and observed some irregularities in the pattern. For government’s efforts towards improving agriculture to be fruitful, a more advanced technology of ensuring constant rain source is very vital.

Keywords: Agriculture, Enugu State, Food Security, Rainfall, Trend

Green Chemistry: a Panacea for Environmental Sustainability Agriculture in Global Perspective (Published)

The environment is a very important component necessary for the existence of both man  through agriculture. Agriculture is one of the oldest and global sources of human livelihood. Producing food, transportation, and energy for teeming population  has led to large and widespread increases in the use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuel combustion, resulting in a leakage of N into the environment as various forms of air ,soil and water pollution. Information for the paper was through secondary data,  in which principles of green chemistry, impact of pesticides and inorganic fertilizers were discussed with the confirmation of negative impacts through their applications in agriculture.   Sustainable Agricultural Applications in Green Chemistry was discussed and bio-pesticides  and bio-fertilizers were recommended as an alternative tools . Green Chemistry aims not only for safer products, less hazardous consequences to the environment, saving energy and water, but includes broader issues which can promote in the end Sustainable Development. The beginning of green chemistry is frequently considered as a response to the need to reduce the damage of the environment by man-made materials and the processes used to produce them.

Keywords: Agriculture, Chemistry, Environment, Green, Sustainability

Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change into Policy and Development: Case Study on Agriculture and Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh (Published)

Our proposed study set up a long-term national climate adaptation framework for Bangladeshi policy makers. Outcomes of this research absolutely lead to measure the public perception, attitudes and understanding of the level of knowledge and the aspirations and expectations of publics with regard to how they adapted to a changing climate. This study also identify if there are significant relationship between public perceptions and attitudes of climate change and efficient adaptation framework and plans to introduce some ideas. and concepts on the challenges toward the perceptions and policies as tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework. More specific outcomes are (a) understanding of public perceptions, attitudes towards climate change and their adaptation capacity in agriculture, industry and service sectors (b) achievement of efficient national adaptation framework (c) enhanced knowledge on future climate change impacts and better capacity building on the long run integrated economic development and finally and (d) recommendations and policy tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.

Keywords: Adaptation Framework, Agriculture, Climate Change, Policy Development

Impact of Social Media on Agricultural Extension in Kenya: A Case of Kesses District (Published)

The introduction of social media and web 2.0 applications has opened up a platform that agricultural extension officer’s, farmers, agricultural institutions and non-governmental institutions utilize to disseminate and exchange agricultural information. The objective of the study was to assess the use of social media as a source of agricultural information with reference to farmers in Kesses District. The study adopted a descriptive survey and the major data collection tools were interviews from farmers who use social media platforms. The study purposively sampled farmers in Kesses District and data was analyzed both descriptively. From the analysis, it is evident that there is immense need for agricultural information among farmers in Kesses District. The study reveals that farmers in Kesses District have diverse source of agricultural information for example the internet, social media and extension services. Majority of farmers approach the use of social media in agricultural information seeking with a positive attitude, pointing to the assumption that social media is largely beneficial and convenient as a source of agricultural information. Among the most common challenges faced include poor network access, power outages, and costly charges when accessing the internet. This study recommends that information centers can be established in Kesses District whereby farmers can obtain agricultural information online and that social media should be fully utilized to provide; feedback, complement extension programs, access local and international markets and complement communication campaigns whose goal is to bring about agricultural development.

Keywords: Agriculture, Farmer, Information, Kenya, Social media, extension

Influence of Youth Access to Farm Products Markets on Their Participation in Agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County (Published)

Agriculture in Kenya has great untapped potential for providing employment opportunities for youth that would enable them exploit their creativity, economic innovation and access to agricultural product markets in order to spur faster national economic growth. Reducing cereal importation in Kenya through local investment and expanding of markets for agricultural products can effectively create youth employment. A number of youth took part in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub- County with maize being the most preferred crop while poultry keeping the most preferred livestock activity by youth The influence of youth access to markets for agricultural products on their participation in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County was poorly understood and hence the need for this study, which used a cross-sectional design to collect data from 397 randomly, selected youth and 22 youth and agricultural officers. Content validity of the youth and agricultural officers’ questionnaires was ascertained by extension experts while reliability was determined through a pilot test involving 30 respondents. The reliability coefficient were 0.86α and 0.80α respectively, which were above the 0.70 threshold for acceptable reliability. The results showed a statistically significant positive relationship (r=.330, p=.01) between youth access to markets and their participation in agriculture. It also showed that youth access to markets influenced their participation in agriculture with 57.4% of the respondents indicating that poor infrastructures and limited knowledge on market prices reduced their access to markets for agricultural commodities. Youth with easy access to markets for their products had higher participation rates in agricultural activities than those with minimal access to markets. The government and other actors should support formation of organizations that can give youth the necessary bargaining power to interact on equal terms with other market actors in order to reduce transaction costs through economies of scale when buying inputs and selling produce.

Keywords: Agriculture, Employment, Gender, Market, Youth

Effect of Agricultural Modernization on Sustainable Livelihood among the Tribal and Non-Tribal Farmers (Published)

Agricultural modernization means from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture transformation process and means. In this process, the agriculture with modern industry, increasing in modern science and technology and modern economy management method, make up the agricultural productivity by backward traditional agriculture increasingly into contemporary world advanced level of agriculture

Keywords: Agricultural Modernization, Agriculture, Farmer, Non-Tribal, Tribal

Trend Analysis of Rainfall Pattern in Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)

Rainfall distribution pattern has been a major concern to Climatologists, Penologists, Agriculturist hydrologist and even to the ordinary man in the street. Rainfall is a critical index of climatological investigation and has major impacts on flora and fauna, as well as ecological setting and water resources management of any area. Following the current moves by the governments to improve on agriculture; the pattern of rainfall is essential for indigenes of Enugu state since they are predominantly farmers. As the moves to encourage agriculture to ensure food security continues to gain ground and acceptability, information on rainfall probabilities is vital for the design of water supply and supplemental irrigation schemes and the evaluation of alternative cropping and of soil water management plans. This study has examined the pattern of rainfall in the state and observed some irregularities in the pattern. For government’s efforts towards improving agriculture to be fruitful, a more advanced technology of ensuring constant rain source is very vital.

Keywords: Agriculture, Enugu State, Food Security, Rainfall, Trend

Impact of Agricultural Extension on Food Security among Small Scale Farmers in Wareng District, Kenya (Published)

Agricultural extension is one of the effective tools in attaining the millennium development goals related to the reduction and eradication of extreme poverty and hunger in developing countries like Kenya. Despite that extension services were practiced for many years in Kenya, it is evident that these services have declined rapidly. This paper aims to find out the impact of extension on food security among small scale farmers in Wareng District. A survey of 120 smallholder farmers was used in the study. Though there was difference between farmers in different wealth categories, the mean difference is larger at the present compared to the past. Generally extension have played role in improving the living status of farmers in the study area. However, agricultural extension services seems to have an impact on improving food security in the country and increase the wealth gap between farming households and also replace local landraces with improved varieties. The study recommends that the Kenyan government should develop a new and expanded policy agenda for agricultural extension and communication for rural development focusing national attention on food security and income generation of the rural poor.

Keywords: Agriculture, Food Security, crops, extension, livestock’s

Impact of Agricultural Extension on Food Security among Small Scale Farmers in Wareng District, Kenya (Published)

Agricultural extension is one of the effective tools in attaining the millennium development goals related to the reduction and eradication of extreme poverty and hunger in developing countries like Kenya. Despite that extension services were practiced for many years in Kenya, it is evident that these services have declined rapidly. This paper aims to find out the impact of extension on food security among small scale farmers in Wareng District. A survey of 120 smallholder farmers was used in the study. Though there was difference between farmers in different wealth categories, the mean difference is larger at the present compared to the past. Generally extension have played role in improving the living status of farmers in the study area. However, agricultural extension services seems to have an impact on improving food security in the country and increase the wealth gap between farming households and also replace local landraces with improved varieties. The study recommends that the Kenyan government should develop a new and expanded policy agenda for agricultural extension and communication for rural development focusing national attention on food security and income generation of the rural poor

Keywords: Agriculture, Food Security, crops, extension, livestock’s

Influence of Access to Land and Finances on Kenyan Youth Participation in Agriculture: A Review (Published)

The Kenya Government prioritized the development of the agricultural sector to achieving the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of sustainable food production. Kenya’s strategic plan, Vision 2030 positions agriculture as a key driver for delivering a 10% annual economic growth and is expected to have an average growth rate of 7% by 2015. Agriculture contributes over 80% of all employment opportunities in the country, but Kenyan youths are not taking advantage of these opportunities since 64% of them are unemployed. To advance the 7% average growth rate, it is pertinent that the Kenyan youth be fully involved in agricultural development. However, agriculture is perceived unattractive to the youth and its potential has not been fully realized. The purpose of this review is to find out the influence of land and finances on youth participation in agriculture and to identify the interventions that can make agriculture attractive to the youth in Kenya. This information will be useful to the government, the farming community, agriculturalists, policy makers and non-governmental organisations in laying strategies that will make agriculture attractive to the youth. This will subsequently enhance youth participation in agriculture resulting in increased food production, employment creation and income generation for the youth. Engaging the youth in agricultural activities will contribute in reducing crime and other social problems attributed to the youth.

Keywords: Agriculture, Economy, Food Security, Kenya, Youth

EFFICIENCY OF AGRICULTURAL LENDING SCHEMES IN NIGERIA (Published)

The broad objective of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of agricultural lending schemes in Nigeria with a view to determining their impact on output and income of beneficiaries. The study was carried out in Benue, Kwara, Kaduna, Abia, Anambra, Rivers, and Ogun states respectively. The method of proportionate random sampling was used in selecting 185 borrowers who are registered with their state Agricultural Development Programmes (ADP’s). The sampling frame comprised all the registered ADP farmers in the surveyed states who took agricultural loan. Data collected were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, means, and multiple linear regression analysis. The results of the study showed that both small and medium scale farmers are efficient in the use of farm inputs, but small scale farmers are technically more efficient than medium scale farmers. Borrowers with secondary or tertiary education were efficient in inputs use, but borrowers with tertiary education were technically more efficient than borrowers with secondary education. The efficient lending schemes in Nigeria are ACGSF and CACS, but ACGSF was technically more efficient than CACS. It was recommended that the government should continue to fund farmers in Nigeria through ACGSF and CACS.

Keywords: Agriculture, Efficiency, Lending Schemes, Nigeria

INFLUENCE OF ACCESS TO LAND AND FINANCES ON KENYAN YOUTH PARTICIPATION IN AGRICULTURE: A REVIEW (Published)

The Kenya Government prioritized the development of the agricultural sector to achieving the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of sustainable food production. Kenya’s strategic plan, Vision 2030 positions agriculture as a key driver for delivering a 10% annual economic growth and is expected to have an average growth rate of 7% by 2015. Agriculture contributes over 80% of all employment opportunities in the country, but Kenyan youths are not taking advantage of these opportunities since 64% of them are unemployed. To advance the 7% average growth rate, it is pertinent that the Kenyan youth be fully involved in agricultural development. However, agriculture is perceived unattractive to the youth and its potential has not been fully realized. The purpose of this review is to find out the influence of land and finances on youth participation in agriculture and to identify the interventions that can make agriculture attractive to the youth in Kenya. This information will be useful to the government, the farming community, agriculturalists, policy makers and non-governmental organisations in laying strategies that will make agriculture attractive to the youth. This will subsequently enhance youth participation in agriculture resulting in increased food production, employment creation and income generation for the youth. Engaging the youth in agricultural activities will contribute in reducing crime and other social problems attributed to the youth.

Keywords: Agriculture, Economy, Food Security, Kenya, Youth

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