The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of what mathematics classrooms need to enhance students’ opportunity to learn mathematics. The study looked specifically as role should the school, as a learning community, play to enhance students’ opportunity to learn mathematics at the SHS level. The research was conducted in two districts (Gomoa West and Efutu) in the Central Region of Ghana. The study included an extensive literature survey in order to identify related studies in Ghana and other countries. The analysis was based on quantitative and qualitative data gathered in schools with similar learner demographics characteristics, including both high-achieving and low-achieving schools. The quantitative analysis was based on close-ended questionnaire issued to both students and teachers whereas the qualitative analysis was based on open-ended questionnaire also issued to both students and teachers. A semi-structured interview of Heads of Mathematics Department of the selected schools was also included in the study. The findings of this research indicated that School, in order to improve students’ mathematics learning opportunities, should:- Provide curriculum materials, Organize in-service training for teachers, Improve assessment methods, Extend short mathematics instruction periods, Improve teaching methods, Motivate mathematics teachers and recruit competent mathematics teachers. The conclusion is that, for a country to achieve the expected success in mathematics at her SHS educational level, a critical consideration should be given to the findings of this research with all stakeholders acting to fulfill its respective role.
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